This article was announced to many universities around the world (September 2013).

By Prof.LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ( Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός ) T. E. Institute of Larissa. Greece

Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paper IMPACT OF MAXWELL’S EQUATION OF DISPLACEMENT CURRENT ON ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS AND COMPARISON OF THE MAXWELLIAN WAVES WITH OUR MODEL OF DIPOLIC PARTICLES presented at the International conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” (1993). The paper invalidates Einstein’s relativity and Maxwell’s moving fields by applying the forces acting at a distance of the well-established laws of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere .

One can also see my interesting paper NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society (2002). Using the same electromagnetic laws which led to the enormous success of the Bohr model (1913) and the time- independent Schrodinger equations in three dimensions (1926) I prepared the above paper published in Ind. J. Th. Phys. (2003). The paper reveals the nuclear structure by reviving the electromagnetic forces of the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere. Therefore it invalidates both Einstein’s relativity and the theories of the Standard model developed after the abandonment of natural laws. (See in User Kaliambos the above papers along with my paper “ Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures” published in Ind.J.Th. Phys. in 2008).

Despite the enormous success of the Bohr model and the quantum mechanics of Schrodinger based on the well-established laws in explaining the principal features of the hydrogen spectrum and of other one-electron atomic systems, neither was able to provide a satisfactory explanation of the so-called strong force responsible for the nuclear binding. It is well-known that before my papers of 2002 and 2008 the nuclear force was shrouded in mystery, because the nuclear force could not be couched in a simple formalism, nor could it be expressed in a closed analytic form like the forces of electromagnetism. Hence in the description of nuclear structure and binding one could rely on various wrong theories and models, and no any new natural law was discovered to reproduce all experimental data. Under this crisis of nuclear physics Yukawa in 1935 following the failure of the false exchange force of Heisenberg (1932) and in order to explain the short range of nuclear force developed his wrong theory of mesons. However after the discovery of the quarks (1964) the meson theory replaced by the theory of strange color forces exerting between hypothetical gluons of the quantum chromodynamics. Note that the theory was introduced in 1973 by the discoverer of quarks Gell-Mann, because the mass of the proposed three quarks in nucleons have mass 96 times less than the masses of nucleons. Under this experimental condition Gell-Mann influenced by Einstein’s wrong massless particles (photons behaving as quanta of Maxwell’s fallacious fields) believed that the rest of the nucleon mass is composed of hypothetical massless gluons. Though the nuclear force is of short range (which led to the wrong theory of Yukawa) Gell-Mann suggested massless particles which will never be observed, because in nature massless particles cannot exist.

On the other hand Fermi in 1934 in order to explain the decay of free neutron into a proton, electron, and antineutrino, developed the wrong theory of weak interaction according to which in nature exist strange forces of zero range. So in a confusion of fallacious strong and weak interactions in1968 Glashow, Salam, and Weinberg tried to unify the fallacious weak interaction with the real forces of electromagnetism of the well-established laws by suggesting a new wrong theory called electroweak theory. Especially in 1967 Weinberg and Salam tried to incorporate the fallacious Higgs mechanism into Glashow’s electroweak theory. (See my CONFUSING CERN RESULTS AND IDEAS ). In fact, energy cannot turn into mass. (See OUR EARLY UNIVERSE ). Nevertheless Higgs influenced by Einstein’s incorrect relativity (see EINSTEIN by L. Kaliambos and Newton invalidates Einstein ) believed that his mechanism is able to give rises to the masses of all elementary particles of the wrong Standard Model. Among invalid particles like massless and virtual photons (see my PHOTON OF LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS ) this includes the hypothetical particles like gluons and gravitons. It also includes the masses of W and Z bosons along with quarks and leptons.

Later physicists under the same nuclear crisis tried to unify the fallacious strong and weak interactions with the real electromagnetic forces by introducing new hypotheses called Grand Unified Theories (GUTs), because it was believed that the invalid massless and virtual photons as mediators of electromagnetism and the hypothetical massless gluons as mediators of the fallacious strong interaction appear as components of a single multicomponent field.

Since GUT did not include gravity and following the work of Dirac it was incorrectly believed that the fallacious strong and weak interactions along with the electromagnetism and gravity required that gravity could be reformulated with the context of a false relativistic quantum theory. As a result all attempts to construct a quantum theory of gravity failed dismally. Then in the so called superstring theory it was assumed that all forces along with the fallacious strong and weak interactions appear as components of a strange ten-dimensional field. Finally a Theory of Everything (ToE) was proposed in order to reconcile the invalid general relativity and the unsuccessful quantum field theory but without success. So in the “(ToE)-WIKIPEDIA” one reads: “Thus the central issue is how to combine general relativity and quantum mechanics. This is one of the unsolved problems in physics.”

Under this confusion of theories and taking into account that the Bohr model (1913) and the Schrodinger equations (1926) reject Einstein's ideas (see my Bohr and Schrodinger reject Einstein ), I found that the experiments of atomic and nuclear physics reject Einstein’s fields and the Standard model. Also the discovery of the electron spin (1925) rejected Einstein’s ideas because the peripheral velocity of the electron spin is faster than the speed of light. It is fortunate that the experiments of the mass defect in atomic and nuclear bindings along with the experiments of the magnetic moments of nucleons led me to discover the nuclear binding due not to the mass defect but to the electromagnetic forces between 9 extra charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron existing among 288 quarks in nucleons.

Meanwhile the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement confirming accurately the action at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity along with the experiment of French and Tessman who showed the fallacy of Maxwell's fields opened the way for reviving the well-established laws which interpret accurately all experiments of atomic and nuclear physics. Nevertheless today many physicists cannot follow the enormous success of the applications of natural laws on nuclear phenomena and under the influence of Einstein’s invalid relativity believe that the Standard model is a self-consistent model which has demonstrated the atomic and nuclear phenomena. Under this confusion in the “Standard Model-WIKIPEDIA” one reads the following contradicting paragraphs:

“The **Standard Model** of particle physics is a theory concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, which mediate the dynamics of the known subatomic particles. It was developed throughout the latter half of the 20th century, as a collaborative effort of scientists around the world. The current formulation was finalized in the mid-1970s upon experimental confirmation of the existence of quarks. Since then, discoveries of the bottom quark (1977), the top quark(1995), and the tau neutrino (2000) have given further credence to the Standard Model. More recently (2011–2012), the possible detection of the Higgs boson would complete the set of predicted particles upon its verification. Because of its success in explaining a wide variety of experimental results, the Standard Model is sometimes regarded as the theory of almost everything. Mathematically, the standard model is a quantized Yang-Mills theory. The Standard Model falls short of being a complete theory of fundamental interactions because it makes certain simplifying assumptions. It does not incorporate the full theory of gravitation as described by general relativity, or predict the accelerating expansion of the universe (as possibly described by dark energy). The theory does not contain any viable dark matter particle that possesses all of the required properties deduced from observational cosmology. It also does not correctly account for neutrino oscillations (and their non-zero masses). Although the Standard Model is believed to be theoretically self-consistent and has demonstrated huge and continued successes in providing experimental predictions, it does leave some unexplained phenomena.”

In fact, a detailed analysis of the magnetic moments of protons and neutrons led me to discover in 2002 the 9 extra charged quarks in protons and 12 ones in neutrons which exist among 288 quarks in nucleons. Surprisingly they give accurately the nuclear structure and binding under the application of natural laws of Coulomb and Ampere without using any fallacious field or force carrier. Therefore the so-called strong interaction is a false concept which did much to retard the progress of nuclear physics.

On the other hand the neutron (n) may decay into a proton (p) , electron (e) and antineutrino (ν) having mass with opposite charges

n = p + e + ν

However it is due not to the strange hypothesis of weak interaction but to the application of the well-established electromagnetic laws of Coulomb and Ampere. In a manner of speaking this process is nearly like the deexcitation of an excited atomic state in which a photon, also not initially present, is emitted as the atom drops into a lower energy state. It is well-known that the inverse process called ionization is due to the electromagnetic interaction between the photon which behaves like a moving dipole and the electron charge (-e) in accordance with our discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION. Thus a photon as a dipole interacts in terms of E_{y} and B_{z} as

E_{y}(-e)dy = dW and B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m}dt = dp = dmc. Since E_{y/}B_{z }= c we get dW = dmc^{2} .

Now taking into account that both energy hν and the photon mass m are absorbed by an e**l**ectron we get the kinetic energy ΔΕ and the mass ΔΜ of the electron as

hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

In the same way the reverse process of the beta decay is the absorption of the energetic antineutrino (ν) of 1.8 MeV by a proton. In this reaction an antineutrino with opposite charges interacts electromagnetically with a charged up quark and a neutron and a positron (e^{+}) are produced as

ν + p = n +e^{+ }

In a more detailed analysis of the NEW STRUCTURE OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS this reaction can be written as

ν + [93(dud) +4u +5d] = [92(dud) + 4u + 8d] + e^{+}

In this reaction I discovered that the antineutrino has positive charge at the center and negative charge along the periphery. So it interacts electromagnetically with the positive charge ( +2e/3 of the up quark (u = +2e/3) like the neutron which interacts with the proton because the neutron has positive charge at the center and negative charge along the periphery. So we observe an electromagnetic interaction in which, energy, mass, and charge are conserved according to the following reaction

ν + u = d + e^{+}

Or in MeV it is written as 1.8 + 2.4 = 3.69 + 0.51 .

Since the antineutrino has opposite charges we write (+2e/3) = (-e/3) + (+3e/3).

Here we see that this reaction is based on the application of electromagnetic laws of Coulomb and Ampere while all theories of the so-called weak interaction violate the two conservation laws of mass and energy and do much to retard the progress of physics. Thus in vain physisists expect to see a possible detect of the Higgs boson because in nature the so-called fields cannot exist and also energy cannot turn into mass. In other words physicists who believe that the Standard Model is a theory of almost everything mislead the readers and do much to retard the progress of physics.