By Lefteris Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) Τ.Ε. Institute of Larissa Greece.( May 2014)

According to my DISCOVERY OF PHOTON MASS

m = hf/c^{2}

which revealed the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION

hf/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2 }

the photon absorption in both experiments of the photoelectric effect (1905) and of the Compton scattering (1923) contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ in accordance with the Kaufmann experiment (1902). (See my CORRECT COMPTON EFFECT in my new FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS CONCEPTS ). Historically Newton in 1704 predicted the bending of his rectangular particles of light when they pass near the sun confirmed by Soldner in 1801. Although the famous experiments of Michelson and Morley (1887) rejected the Maxwellian ether (1865) in favor of Newton’s particles of light, Einstein influenced by Maxwell’s fallacious fields believed that light consists of his massless quanta of fields. So he explained incorrectly the photoelectric effect which led to his invalid relativity according to which the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ is due not to the real absorption of the photon mass m = hf/c^{2 } but to the fallacious relative motion of the electron with respect to a randomly moving observer. (See my VALID AND FALSE EINSTEIN ).

Such a false relativity (based on the wrong assumption, that one cannot identify any reference frame as the “true” rest frame), has its origin from the time of Descartes. For Descartes all motion is relative no matter what is “at rest”. This makes it possible to assert that in the system sun-earth the earth is “at rest” without abandoning the Copernican system! In fact, after the triumph of the well-established laws of Newton in the system sun-earth the sun is really at rest and the earth moves always with respect to the sun, which is the true reference frame in the system sun-earth. According to Newton’s third law the gravitational force of attraction F_{g} acting at a distance R of the sun with mass M on the earth with smaller mass m is equal in magnitude to the attraction of the earth on the sun. Then, applying Newton’s second law one sees that the acceleration u^{2}/R of the sun approaches to zero, while the earth accelerates with υ^{2}/ R with respect to the barycenter, which is at the center of sun, because M >> m. (See also Newton’s bucket argument). That is

F_{g} = Mu^{2}/R = mυ^{2}/R . Since M >> m one gets u << υ .

In the same way in the system earth- observer , that is, for all moving objects on the earth the true rest frame is the surface of the earth, no matter what is the motion of the earth around the sun. (See RELATIVITY BY L. KALIAMBOS ). Whereas according to Einstein’s false ideas of equivalent systems in relative motions his invalid relativity led to complications . For example it is well-known that an observer floating on a raft in a river moves with respect to the surface of the earth. However according to Einstein's invalid relativity also the surface of the earth moves with respect to the observer floating on the raft.

In fact, the motion of the water in the river is the result of the gravity which is a force of short time giving the uniform velocity along the horizontal axis. So in the system (earth- river) since the mass of the earth is much more greater than the mass of the water of the river the earth is the true rest frame, no matter what is the velocity of the earth around the sun. So Einstein in his invalid relativity using the math of the so-called Lorentz transformation (based on the fallacious ether), complicated more the problem because he replaced the fallacious ether by a randomly moving observer. In case in which the observer moves with an electron in the laboratory of the Kaufmann experiment one will see the strange hypothesis that theobserver will measure the increase of the mass of all objects in the laboratory. That is, in such a complication the moving observer has the wrong rest mass M_{o}, while the stationary objects in the laboratory will be characterized by the fallacious relativistic mass M.

In 1907 since Einstein was not satisfied by his relative motions with respect to a randomly moving observer tried to modify the well-established law of the universal gravitation by repeating the two properties of matter such as the inertial mass and gravitational mass respectively discovered by Newton. Thus Einstein reintroduced the ether under his so-called Equivalence Principle which rejects his wrong concepts of rest and relativistic mass.

In the Newtonian mechanics one uses the very successful idea in applying on our earth not the wrong concept of rest mass but the correct concept of constant inertial mass M_{o} **. **According to the well-established second law of Newton for continuously acting forces such as gravity we can write

F_{g}/α = Μ_{ο}

In the absence of a photon absorption here M_{o} is always constant no matter what is the acceleration α of a body.

On this basis after my papers of 1993 and 2002 I discovered that when the velocity c of a photon is perpendicular to gravity F_{g} the constant inertial mass m_{o} = hf/c^{2} of the photon is always constant because the acceleration α occurs along the perpendicular direction of the velocity c. In this case the acceleration α of the photon cannot affect the constant velocity c. This is the bending of light near the sun predicted by Newton and confirmed by Soldner in 1801. However Einstein for the explanation of this bending of light used not the constant inertial mass of the photon but introduced the wrong concept of zero rest mass because he believed incorrectly that photons are massless quanta of fields. Under this physics crisis he introduced not only the fallacious “Ether Structure” but also the strange “Curvature of Vacuum”. Einstein also for the explanation of the gravitational red shift used not his relativistic Doppler effect but the simple Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics. Although both the simple Doppler effect and the bending of light are based on the Newtonian mechanics involving forces acting at a distance, Einstein under his false massless quanta of fields developed his invalid general relativity by introducing various fallacious hypotheses like the wrong gravitational waves, the fallacious ether structure and the strange curvature of vacuum.

Under this confusion taking into account my discovery of photon mass I revealed that the frequency shift of the simple Doppler effect is based on the principle of relativity no matter what is moving because the constant velocity c has a reference frame the source of light, like the velocities of alpha and beta particles which have a reference frame the radioactive material. In the same way the experiments of magnetism showed that the induction law (1832) is consistent with the magnetic force of the Ampere law (1820). Unfortunately Maxwell for developing his electromagnetic theory in 1865 introduced the wrong hypothesis that the electric current of the induction is due not to the real magnetic force of the Ampere law acting at a distance but to a fallacious electric field, because he believed incorrectly that the motion of a magnet with respect to a coil produces in the space around magnets strange electric fields which violate the principle of relativity. Ironically Einstein for developing his invalid special relativity starts with this fallacious idea which violates the principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s laws. ( See my EINSTEIN’S WRONG ASSUMPTIONS IN SPECIAL RELATIVITY )

In the case of the Doppler effect the relative motion gives the same frequency shift no matter what is moving. In other words when the observer moves toward the source of light or the source of light moves toward the observer one observes the same frequency shift. Moreover I discovered that in both cases the observer cannot measure a change of velocity but a rate of change of the photon mass under a length contraction and a time dilation. In the same way when the velocity c is parallel to the gravity F_{g} the photon cannot accelerate along the direction of the velocity c. In this case the application of the well-established second law of Newton gives

F_{g} = dp/dt = c(dm/dt) or F_{g}ds = dW = hdf = [c(dm/dt)]ds = dmc^{2}

That is, in this case the variable mass m = hf/c^{2} of the photon cannot behave like the constant inertial mass M_{o} of particles. Instead one observes a rate of change of mass dm/dt under a length contraction and a time dilation, because the acceleration of the photon along the direction of the velocity c always approaches to zero. In the same way when the photon charges interact with the charge (-e) the absorption of the photon contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy but also to the increase of the electron mass under the same length contraction and time dilation in accordance with Newton’s third law. Here we see that the photon with mass m = hf/c^{2} can move as fast as the speed of light c while the constant inertial mass M_{o} of an electron increase to the variable mass

M = M_{o}c/(c^{2}-u^{2})^{0.5}

This tells us that electrons under the absorption of the photon mass cannot move as fast as the speed of light c. Whereas the discovery of the electron spin showed that the peripheral velocity of the electron spin is faster than the speed of light. Surprisingly in my paper " Spin-spin intractions of electron and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures" (2008) I discovered that two electrons of opposite spin give magnetic attractions stronger the the electric repulsions at very short interelactron separations responsible for the coupling of two electrons in atomic systems of many electrons and in molecular bonds. Unfortunately Einstein believed that the speed of light c is the faster velocity in nature . Also he believed incorrectly that the increase of the electron mass is due to the relative motion of the electron with respect to a randomly moving observer.

Of course such a fallacious increase of mass with speed is deeply disturbing. Surely a moving particle (without absorptions of photon mass) has no more “tangible” matter than before. It is indeed unfortunate that under the influence of Einstein’s massless quanta of fields physicists today believe that the velocity c of the photon is due to the fallacious concept that the photon has a zero rest mass. In the “Photon –WIKIPEDIA” one reads the following incorrect paragraph: “Experimental checks on photon mass. The photon is currently understood to be strictly massless, but this is an experimental question. If the photon is not a strictly massless particle, it would not move at the exact speed of light in vacuum, c.”

Moreover Einstein believed incorrectly that the mass is not simply a measure of the quantity of matter after all. In other words Einstein violated the conservation law of mass. Then in trying to understand such a fallacious change of mass with speed Einstein was led to the invalid concept that kinetic energy ΔE added to a ponderable object also adds inertia in an amount ΔE/c^{2} by assuming that energy has mass since the kinetic energy of a moving particle with respect to a randomly moving observer should be redefined incorrectly as

ΔE = ΔΜc^{2 } = Mc^{2} – M_{o}c^{2}

In this fallacious idea M_{o} is the wrong rest mass as a stationary object with respect to a randomly moving observer, while the so called-relativistic mass M is also a fallacious concept leading to serious complications. For example according to Einstein’s wrong relativity an observer moving with an electron in the laboratory will measure the increase of mass of all stationary objects in the laboratory.

One of the important properties of mass is that it cannot be created or destroyed in accordance with my discovery of the Photon-Matter Interaction. Unfortunately Einstein under his formula complicated more the problem by introducing his additional wrong assumption that energy turns into mass. Under this crisis of physics which did much to retard the progress of nuclear physics Einstein himself pointed out: “Pre-relativity physics contains two conservation laws of fundamental importance, namely, the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation of mass; these two appear there as completely independent of each other. Through relativity theory they melt together into one principle.”

It is of interest to note that the Bohr model (1913) and the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions (1926) based on natural laws showed that the energy hf of the generated photon is due not to the mass defect of the proton –electron system but to the energy of the charge-charge interaction between the electron and the proton. Thus the mass defect ΔΜ turns into the photon mass m = hf/c^{2} in accordance with my discovery of the Photon-Matter Interaction.(See my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN ).

Nevertheless today physicists continue to believe that the nuclear binding energy is due to the nuclear mass defect. Under this crisis of nuclear physics in 2002 I presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” by showing that the energy of the generated photon is due not to the nuclear mass defect but to the electromagnetic energy between neutrons and protons, because I discovered that the proton and the neutron consist of 9 extra charged quarks and 12 ones respectively existing among 288 quarks in nucleons.(See my DISCOVERY OF QUARKS IN PROTON AND NEUTRON ).

Of course Einstein’s fallacious concepts of relativistic energy (Mc^{2}) and rest energy M_{o}c^{2}) violate dramatically the well-established laws of nature according to which energy is due not to the mass but to the fundamental force of interaction. Under his confusion Einstein also violated the discovery of Newton’s inertial constant mass Mo .

Ιt is well-known that in the Newtonian mechanics, since the constant inertial mass is equivalent to the gravitational mass (without photon absorptions), the potential energy F_{g}ΔS turns into a kinetic energy ΔΕ as

F_{g}dS = dW = M_{o}(du/dt)dS = M_{o} udu or F_{g}ΔS = ΔΕ = M_{o}u^{2}/2

To conclude one observes that for all objects falling on our earth due to gravity F_{g} the constant inertial mass M_{o} is always constant no matter what is the acceleration α = du/dt. . Ironically Einstein in his wrong general relativity introduced the so-called Equivalence Principle by accepting Newton’s equality of gravitational and constant inertial masses, which invalidates both his wrong concepts of rest and relativistic mass.