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By prof. Lefteris Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) T.E. Institute of Larissa Greece (March 2014)

After the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement (1935) which confirmed the fundamental action at a distance of Newton’s third law, Einstein (1936) rejected his idea of gravitational waves(1916) but he continued to believe in the hypothesis of space time ripples which may exist after my discovery of length contraction and time dilation. It occurs when the velocity c of a photon with mass m = hν/c2 is parallel to the gravitational force acting at a distance . According to Newton’s second law the mass of the photon increases under a length contraction and a time dilation . 

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NCSR "Demokritos" (2002). Discovery of nuclear structure

In my papers of 1993 and 2002 I presented the DISCOVERY OF DIPOLE PHOTONS  and the DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE respectively. So one sees that the careful application of the well-established laws of nature involving forces acting at a distance reveal the   INVALIDITY OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY ,  the INVALID GENERAL RELATIVITY  the WRONG STANDARD MODEL etc. Nevertheless physicist today under the influence of the invalid relativity continue to believe that OUR EARLY UNIVERSE   is based not on the well-established laws but on fallacious theories. Although the experiment of French and Tessman in 1963 showed the fallacy of fields, physicists today look for methods for detecting not the  primordial quantum fluctuations of the BIG BANG MATTER due to the primordial gravity of laws but to detect incorrectly the fallacious gravitational waves caused by a strange hypothetical inflation field called inflaton able to produce hypothetical gravitational waves.

In fact the very strong electric repulsions of the triad-triad interactions caused the Big Bang in the very early universe with a very rapid acceleration or  inflation. Whereas Guth influenced by  Einstein’s wrong gravitational fields and the Higgs invalid field proposed his fallacious field of inflation. Unfortunately Einstein influenced strongly by  electromagnetic fields of Maxwell believed that his gravitational fields move at the same speed  c  of light.

It is indeed fortunate that in 1993 in my discovery of dipole photons I showed that a photon  as a dipole having its dipole axis r perpendicular to its velocity moves at the speed of light  c because the charges +q and –q  after the application of the Coulomb and the Ampere law at this velocity give equal  electric attraction Fe and magnetic repulsion Fm as

Fe = Kq2/r2  and  Fm = kq2u2/r2

Since Weber in 1856 showed experimentally that K/k = c2 one gets

 Fe/Fm = c2/u2   

That is, for u =c we get Fe = Fm   

 That is, according to natural laws in nature cannot exist fields or force carriers. Nevertheless today cosmologists believe that they are able to detect the fallacious fields and waves.

 For example in the “First Direct Evidence of Cosmic Inflation” (March 17, 2014) one reads:

 “Researchers from the BICEP2 collaboration today announced the first direct evidence for this cosmic inflation. Their data also represent the first images of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time. These waves have been described as the first tremors of the Big Bang.  Finally, the data confirm a deep connection between quantum mechanics and general relativity.”

In fact, acording to our discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION one observes a deep connction of gravitational force F of Newton's laws with photons of quantum dynamics when the velocity c is parallel to gravity. In this case application of Newton's second law leads to

F = c(dm/dt)

That is, gravity in the quantum dynamics produces a rate of change of photon mass (dm/dt) under a basic length contraction and a time dilation, because the acceleration of photon always approaches to zero under a length contraction and a time dilation in contrast to the Newtonian machanics in which space and time are constant.

Although I discovered that nuclear forces are governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism which led to our discovery of unified forces of gravity and of electromagnetism today physicists continue to believe that there exist fields with four forces: gravity, electromagnetism, and strong and weak nuclear forces. While the particle physics mechanism responsible for the Big Bang was not known Guth in his theory of inflation (1980) under the INVALIDITY OF HIGGS BOSON  proposed a strange hypothetical field called inflaton.

In order to overcome such fallacious fields we take into account the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) who showed the fallacy of fields. Then, for the primordial quantum fluctuations we take also into account the experiments of the quantum Entanglement confirming accurately the fundamental action at a distance. Unfortunately Einstein called it as a "Spooky action at a distance" because it invalidates his theory of gravitational waves. Under this condition I describe here the primordial gravity of laws acting on neutral quark triads which caused the enormous electrical repulsions of the triad-triad interactions by using not the strange color forces or the fallacious gluons of the false Quantum Chromodynamics (1973) but the role of the neutral quark triads (dud) on which the gravitational attractions of long range caused the BIG BANG MATTER

 In the absence of such a knowledge in the “How astronomers saw gravitational waves from the Big Bang” one reads that John Kovac especially noticed: 

“ Everyone in cosmology knows — but it is not widely appreciated — that the prediction about B modes from inflation relies not just on the phenomenon of gravitational waves but on the quantization of gravity itself. Inflation assumes that everything started out as quantum fluctuations that then got amplified by inflation. So at a very deep level, this finding relies on the connection between quantum mechanics and gravity being right.”

  In fact, the primordial gravitational attraction of long range acting at a distance on the neutral quark triads caused the strong electric repulsions of short range between the quark triads. For example using the well-established law of Coulomb on the triad-triad interaction of two triads of the following scheme

D2 (-e/3)…U2(+2e/3)…D2(-e/3)

D1 (-e/3)…U1(+2e/3)…D1(-e/3)

one sees that  when the r = D1D2  between the two quark triads D1U1D1 and D2U2D2 is much more greater  than the quark size  a = D1U1  that is, when  r >> a  the two quark triads behave like neutral particles. Thus the primordial gravitational attraction of long range acting at a distance reduced the distance r. However when r = a the two quark triads exert a very strong electric repulsion of short range in the triad-triad interaction of the Coulomb law which  caused  the primordial fluctuations. Here for r = a the  electric repulsions as  D1D2, U1U2 and D1D2  are stronger than the  electric attractions acting along the diagonals like D1U2   of quarks having charges of (–e/3) and (+2e/3) respectively.

Moreover in the Big Bang with the primordial fluctuations during the first 0.1 second of OUR UNIVERSE one can see how the quark triads under the following simple reactions led to the creation of neutrons, protons, electrons, antineutrinos, positrons, and photons:

96(dud) = [92(dud) + 4u +8d]

This is the unstable neutron n = [92(dud) +4u +8d] which decays into the proton

p = [(93(dud) + 4u + 5d], with the emission of the electron (e) and the antineutrino (ν) as

n = p +e +ν   or  [92(dud) +4u +8d] = [ 92(dud) +(dud) +4u +5d] +e +ν  

Then energetic antineutrinos invalidate the theories of the so-called weak interaction because they have opposite charges which interact electromagnetically  with the charged u quark of the one (dud) triad to give the neutron (n)  and a positron ( e+)  as

ν + p = n +e+     or     ν + [92(dud) +(dud) +4u +5d] =  [92(dud) +4u + 8d ] + e+  or ν +u = d +e+

Finally the energy of the charge-charge interaction of electron and positron becomes the energy hν of two photons (2γ) while the mass defect of the electron and positron becomes the mass m =hν/c2 of the two photons in accordance with the conservation laws of energy and mass. Note that Einstein under his fallacious massless quanta of fields believed that the mass defect transforms into the energy of photons. Of course such a fallacious idea of the invalid relativity violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass developed by the Greek philosophers (See my GREEK PHILOSOPHERS REJECT EINSTEIN ).

Under this condition which invalidates relativity and explains the big bang repulsions of short range  one observes that the electric repulsions of short range were able to overcome the gravitational attractions of long range. Since the invalid relativity led to complications I present here a brief history of physics crisis from the time of Descartes which led to the abandonment of natural laws in favor of wrong theories.

 

DESCARTES’ THEORIES  OF LIGHT AND OF  GRAVITY BASED ON  FALLACIOUS WAVES  LED TO FALSE MAXWELL’S FIELDS  TO EINSTEIN’S  FALLACIOUS GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND TO WRONG THEORIES OF FORCE CARRIERS

Historically prior to the discovery of the well-established laws of Newton (1687), the Platonists explained the motions of planets by relating planets to certain “necessary” attributes of divine beings. Ptolemy and Copernicus explained it by relating the planetary paths to the mathematical combination of certain more or less geometrical figures. In 1637 and 1644  Descartes published his  works  the Optics and the  Principles of philosophy by using the fallacious Aristotelian ether.  Both were wrong and  left an indelible impact on subsequent thinking  about the nature of light and gravity respectively. Even after the triumph of Newtonian physics, many scientists still shared Descartes’ preference for avoiding the fundamental “action at a distance” and for postulating instead that space is filled with pieces of matter that can interact only when they touch. What appeared in Newton’s well-established law of universal gravitation to be long-range forces acting across empty space, such as gravity, would on Descartes’ hypothesis be  explained by the propagation of waves through an invisible ethereal matter that was imagined to fill the intervening space. For Descartes, all motion  was relative: one piece of matter could be said to be moving only with respect to other pieces of matter in its vicinity. This hypothesis led to the wrong idea  that the earth is “at rest” without abandoning the Copernican system! Moreover such fallacious ideas  led to the abandonment of natural laws in favor of the wrong Maxwellian fields the invalid theories of special and general relativity and the fallacious theories of strong and weak interactions based on wrong force carriers, like gravitons, virtual photons, the mesons of Yukawa  (1935) the W and Z bosons of Weinberg (1968) and the gluons with color forces of Gell-Mann (1973).

 

NEWTON’S   “ I FEIGN NO HYPOTHESES”

The well-established law of gravitational forces acting at a distance explains Kepler’s empirical laws and a wealth of other phenomena. But there remained one feature which gravely bothered Newton. How could one account for gravity itself ? What is that causes the attraction of one body for another ? Rather than accept the fundamental action at a distance most scientists preferred Descartes’ waves moving through a fallacious ether. ( It is indeed fortunate that  in 1887 the famous experiment of the two American physicists Michelson and Morley , the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement (1935) and the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) rejected the fallacious ether and the wrong fields in favor of the fundamental action at a distance ). At the end of the Book III of the Principia Newton put his remarks:

“ But hitherto I have not been able to discover the cause of those properties of gravity from phenomena [ observation and experimentation], and I feign no hypotheses…. To us it is enough that gravity does really exist, and act according to the laws which we have explained, and abundantly serves to account for all the motions of the celestial bodies and of our sea.”     

 

 CONCLUSIONS

Newton’s law of gravity involving forces acting at a distance led  to the discoveries of the electric and magnetic forces of the two laws of Coulomb and Ampere. Moreover the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement confirming accurately the fundamental action at a distance led to my DISCOVERY OF UNIFIED FORCES and the  DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE . Whereas the CONTRADICTING RELATIVITY THEORIES led to complications including various hypotheses like the false gravitational fields or gravitational waves along with the wrong gravitons and a fallacious ether structure with a strange curvature of vacuum. In other words our early universe started out not by theories of fields or bosons but by the application of natural laws since the electric repulsions of the triad-triad interactions of short range  were able to overcome the gravitational forces of long range. It means that astronomers never will be able to detect the fallacious primordial gravitational waves, because our early universe started out under the applications of natural laws confirmed by experiments.