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REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS BY REVIVING THE LAWS. BOHR'S MODEL (1913) AND THE DISCOVERY OF THE ELECTRON SPIN (1925) INVALIDATE EINSTEIN'S IDEAS.

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THE EXPERIMENTS OF ATOMIC PHYSICS INVALIDATE EINSTEIN'S IDEAS LIKE THE MASS DEFECT OF THE ORBITING ELECTRONS, SINCE EINSTEIN PREDICTED INCORRECTLY THE INCREASE OF THE MASS OF THE MOVING ELECTRON IN ORBITS RELATIVE TO NUCLEI. ALSO THE DISCOVERY OF THE ELECTRON SPIN SHOWED THAT THE PERIPHERAL VELOCITY IS GREATER THAN THE SPEED OF LIGH.

IT INTERPRETS THE TWO-ELECTRON COUPLING IN ATOMS AND MOLECULES. NOTE THAT FOR u>c THE MAFNETIC ATTRACTION IS GREATER THAN THE ELECTRIC REPULSION. 

By  prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός )  T. E. Institute of Larissa Greece

This article was announced to many universities around the world (Febr 2013).

Writing in Google scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paper “Impact of 

Maxwell’s …dipolic particles”  presented at the 

international conference "Frontiers of fundamental 

Disc

Olympia 1993. The editor offered to me this trophy

physics" (Olympia ,1993).

The paper invalidates Maxwell’s fields and Special Relativity, because the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) showed that the basic postulation of Maxwell's  fields moving through a fallacious ether (displacement current) involves misconceptions. Thus Einstein's massless quanta of fields could not explain correctly the photoelectric effect. This fact led to the invalid relativity which violates the two conservation laws of mass and energy. In fact, light consists of our dipolic photons having mass because  the  photon absorption contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy but also to the increase of the electron mass in accordance with the Kaufmann experiment (1902).  

One can also find my paper “ Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” presented at the 12th symposium of the Hellen

ic nuclear physics society (N.C.S.R. "Demokritos",2002) and published in Ind. J. Th. Phys. (2003). A large number of differential equations of the paper  lead to the coherent nuclear structure , while the abandonment of laws led to wrong nuclear theories of the standard model.

In fact, our nuclear binding is based on our discovery of 9 extra charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron, which interact electromagnetically for giving the nuclear structure. Thus the idea of Einstein's mass-energy conservation is incorrect because here the electromagnetic energy turns into the energy of generated photons, while the mass defect turns into the mass of photons, in accordance with the two conservation laws of mass and energy as in the case of the Bohr model.

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NCSR DEMOKRITOS (2002)

    (See in User Kaliambos the above published papers along with our additional published paper “Spin-spin interactions of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures”).

Criticism of Einstein's ideas based not on laws but on hypotheses misleads the readers and does much to retard the progress of physics. Writing in Google "Wrong Einstein" one sees a large number of articles, which are based on wrong modern theories and ideas, or on new philosophical hypotheses, which lead to the biggest confusion about Einstein's theories. For example Kaku's famous question: "What if Einstein is wrong" misleads the readers, beacuse he believes that Einstein's relativity is the foundation of physics. In the same way, Hawiking in his article "A brief history of relativity" ( TIME, December 27,1999)  dogmatically remarks: "Einstein's equations should be last as long as the universe". On the other hand Julian Barbour in his article (DISCOVER, 1 may 2012) presents his new theory of time. It is of interest to note that Umberto Bartocci based not on laws but on math, argued that special relativity presents mathematical contradictions and inconsistencies. Whereas Michael D. Lemonick in his article (TIME Sept. 23, 2011) based on philosophical ideas, argued that when particles move faster than light are essentially moving backwards in time. On the other hand Francis Sedgemore in his article (UTC 13, May 2009) writes about the personal ideas of Dr P. Hayes, who claimed that Einstein's theory is not science but "Ideology". In contrast, after the IKARUS experiment (March 2012) which refuted the OPERA results by measuring neutrino velocities less than light, physicists believe that Einstein's ideas will be correct forever. Note that in my paper CONFUSING CERN RESULTS AND IDEAS  (May, 2012) we noticed that it confirms not Einstein's ideas but the natural laws. Under this confusion the "Criticism of the theory of relativity-WIKIPEDIA" starts dogmatically as : "Though some of these criticisms had the support of reputable scientists, Einstein's theory of relativity is now recognized as self consistent in accoradance with many experiments..."

SINCE MODERN THEORIES ARE BASED ON THE INVALID FIELDS AND RELATIVITY REPLACING THE NATURAL LAWS, WE PRESENT HERE OUR PAPER " WRONG EINSTEIN" WHICH DESCRIBES THE CRISIS OF FIELDS AND RELATIVITY SOLVED BY REVIVING THE NATURAL   LAWS. HISTORICALLY, THE REJECTION OF NEWTON’S PARTICLES OF LIGHT (1803) LED TO FALSE IDEAS OF ETHER, VACUUM, FIELDS, AND EINSTEIN’S RELATIVITY, VIOLATING NOT ONLY THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY (IN THE INDUCTION LAW) BUT ALSO THE CONSERVATION LAWS OF MASS AND ENERGY. SO EINSTEIN'S FALSE "MASS-ENERGY EQUIVALENCE" LED TO SEVERAL WRONG THEORIES LIKE THE THEORY OF DIRAC THE HIGGS FIELD etc. , BECAUSE  ENERGY CANNOT TURN INTO MASS. (SEE MY PAPEROUR EARLY UNIVERSE ).

AFTER THE FRENCH-TESSMAN EXPERIMENT (1963) SHOWING THE FALLACY OF MAXWELL’S FIELDS IN OUR PAPER "IMPACT OF MAXWELL'S...DIPOLIC PARTICLES" (1993) WE INVALIDATED EINSTEIN'S IDEAS (SEE ON PAGE 421 OF MY PAPER).

I REVEALED THAT THE PHOTON MASS  UNIFIES THE FORCES INVALIDATING NOT ONLY THE SPECIAL BUT ALSO THE GENERAL RELATIVITY. (SEE IN GOOGLE MY ARTICLE "UNIFIED FORCES SOLVE THE CRISIS OF PHYSICS ").  NOTE THAT THE INCREASING MASS OF PARTICLES IN ACCELERATORS LEADING TO  u<c  IS DEDUCED NOT FROM EINSTEIN’S HYPOTHESES BUT FROM THE WELL-ESTABLISHED LAWS, WHICH CANNOT BE REPLACED BY THEORIES. 

UNIFIED FORCES INVALIDATE EINSTEIN’S RELATIVITY

Einstein in his special relativity starts with the wrong assumption that a moving magnet with respect to a conductor produces the false electric field of Maxwell which violates the principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s laws. Under this obvious crisis of fields and relativity in 1993 we presented at the International conference “FRONTIERS OF FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS” our paper “Impact of Maxwell’s … dipolic particles ” in which we developed the model of dipolic particles or dipolic photons according to which a spinning photon has a mass with opposite charges, which produce electromagnetic forces at the speed of light c in terms of electric and magnetic intensities Ey and Bz. In this direction following Newton’s great work we applied the natural laws when a photon of variable mass with opposite charges interacts with an electron of charge (–e) as

Ey(-e)dy/ Bz(-e)dy = dw/ Fmdt = dw/dp

Since Ey/Bz = c and dp = dmc we get

 dw/dm = c2 or hν/m = c2

Here we clear that Newton’s d(mu) = dmc,  because c is constant.  This simple formula modifies Einstein’s theory of photon (1905), because the absorbed photon by an electron contributes not only to the increase of energy but also to the increase of mass according to our discovery of our photon-matter interaction :

hν/m = ΔW/ΔM = c2

Here we clear that the photon mass absorption under the quantum dynamics modifies the newtonian space and time because the photon works when E and B occur at the same time. But according to the electromagnetism the magnetic force appears after the  electri force which produces  the velocity dy/dt of the electron. That is, simultaneity must occur when dy/dt = 0 . Therefore this problem of simultaneity between two different forces is solved under a lenght contraction (dy) and a time dilation (dt). Surprisingly the dipolic photon not only explains the electromagnetic properties of photons involving local time varying Ey and Bz  produced by its charges but also it provides  gravitational properties due to its mass m. Recall that the energy hν without mass cannot exist. For example applying Newton’s second law when the simple gravitational force Fg  acts along the direction of the constant c we see that the energy dw is given by

 Fg ds= dw = (dp/dt)ds = (dmc/dt)ds = dmc2 or hν/m = c2

which explains the gravitational red shift. Note that Einstein in the development of his general relativity did not use his relativistic equations but the simple Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics.

This  simple formulation of the variable mass and energy of photon is similar to Einstein’s equation. However Einstein’s equation was incomplete, since his relativistic mass is based on the false hypothesis of motions relative to a randomly moving observer. In fact, the increase of mass of particles in accelerators is due to the absorption of non mechanical energies. Note that all non mechanical energies on our earth (responsible of our life) are the result of the absorption of photons during the well-known photosynthesis. In other words both special and general relativity cannot replace the natural laws.

 According to Newton’s second law when a particle of mass M absorbs the photon mass m and increases its mass, also the increase of energy dW is given by

dW  = (dp/dt) ds = [d(Mu)/dt]ds = (dMu + duM)u

because M and u are variable quantities due to the absorption of both energy and mass of photon.  It means that the mass of the particle increases under the absorption of the photon mass by applying Newton’s law, while Einstein believed (incorrectly) that Newton’s law is a limited case of his special and general relativity. Thus physicist believe that  natural laws are only approximations of Einstein’s special and general relativity.  In “Physcal law-WIKIPEDIA” one reads: “Newtonian mechanics is the low speed of special relativity… and.. the Newtonian gravitation law is a low-mass approximation of general relativity”.

The first experiment which showed the increase of mass was that of Kaufmann (1902). Surprisingly he found that an electron has a variable mass M at a velocity u with respect to its constant mass Mo given by   

  M2/Mo2 = c2 /(c2 – u2) or M/Mo = c/(c2- u2)0.5 = γ

Indeed the differentiation of this relation gives

dMc2 =  (dMu +duM)u = dW

which leads to our discovery of the  Photon-Matter Transformation. Here we see that the constant mass Mo before the photon absorption became a variable mass M due to the photon absorption.

Kaufmann soon tried to interpret his results by using the so-called electromagnetic mass recognized by Thomson (1881) and other physicists. Especially Kaufmann assumed that there is no “real mechanical mass” but only the “apparent electromagnetic mass” which increases with a velocity. Of course such a useful interpretation could be able for revealing the photon mass which leads to the Photon-Matter Transformation under the quantum dynamics.   It is indeed unfortunate that Einstein did not follow the useful ideas of the electromagnetic mass but the wrong idea of the Lorentz ether. So he developed a wrong relativistic mass in motion relative to a moving observer, which violates the conservation laws of mass and energy. 

 In fact, all objects on the earth or on a train moving with a constant velocity (reference frame of the Galilean relativity principle) under the gravity (but in the absence of any absorption of photons) have always not a relativistic mass but a constant mass Mo. That is, in the Newtonian mechanics the conservation law of energy under the correct Galilean relativity is given by

MogH = Mo u2/2

Of course it is always correct, when the system is conservative, because all natural laws are the same in all inertial frames.  Whereas Einstein’s a stationary observer on the earth will measure incorrectly an increase of mass on the moving body according to the fallacious Lorentz transformation.

 Also for a photon when the velocity c is perpendicular to the force the photon accelerates with a constant mass mo  and the energy dw is given by

Fgds = dw = (dp/dt)ds = (modu/dt)ds = moudu.

That is,  in this case the photon mass mo  behaves like the constant mass  Mo of a particle.  Of course, this fact invalidates the second postulation of Einstein that the velocity of light is always constant and his concept of rest mass Mo . It also invalidates the Einstein massless photon of his general relativity. This is the bending of light which predicted by Newton. At the conclusion of his Opticks in 1704 Newton proposed the following query: “Do not bodies act upon Light at a distance, and by their action bend its Rays, and is not this action strongest at the least distance?” Note that such a prediction of the photon mass was confirmed by Soldner (1804) and Eddington (1919). Unfortunately under the influence of the fallacious Maxwell’s fields Einstein believed that the photon is a massless particle. So he could not accept a gravitational mass able to interact with the mass of stars.

 Under Einstein’s ideas in “Photon-WIKIPEDIA” (Experimental checks of photon mass) one reads this question:  “If the photon is not a strictly massless particle, it would not move at the exact speed of light in vacuum”.

In fact, as we showed the speed c of a photon is due to its electric and magnetic forces, since the photons behave like dipoles moving at the speed c of light.  Consequently by applying the conservation law of mass the absorption of the photon variable mass increases the mass of a particle and leads to u<c. That is according to such traditional ideas a massless photon  could not contribute to the increase of mass of particles.

On the other hand  the red shift is derived by using the gravitational forces of Newton on the real mass m of photon. For example when a photon moves along the level difference H like a falling body the energy is given by

ΔW = Δmc2  or mgH = Δmc2

Since Δm = hδν/c2 and m = hν/c2 we get

 Δm/m = gH/c2 = δν/ν

Here one can see that this changing is similar to the opposite well-known gravitational red shift experiment performed by the Pound-Rebka  (1959).  Of course it is derived simply by the application of Newton’s second law and invalidates the idea that it is a result of Einstein’s invalid special relativity.

Finally in WIKIPEDIA we see also that Einstein proposed the gravitational waves confirmed by experiment, while in the “Gravitational wave-WIKIPEDIA” we see that various gravitational detectors exist but they remain unsuccessful in detecting such phenomena.

 

THE BOHR MODEL INVALIDATES EINSTEIN’S IDEAS WHICH DID MUCH TO RETARD THE PROGRESS OF PHYSICS

In the generation of hydrogen atom during the transformation of the potential energy into the kinetic one of 27.2 eV the mass Mo of the electron remains constant but under the Bohr quantum jump it drops to a velocity around the proton with a kinetic energy of 13.6 eV. Note that during the quantum jump we observe a difference in energies as

ΔΕ = 27.2 - 13.6 = 13.6 eV

which turns into the energy hν =13.6 eV. Also we observe a mass defect ΔΜ which turns into the mass m of photon according to Matter–Photon Transformation

 ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c2  

That is, in atomic physics  when energy is removed from a system, mass is always removed along with energy. Here the energy ΔΕ is due to the fundamental charge-charge interaction which turns into the energy hν while the mass defect ΔΜ turns into the mass m of photon. In other words the electron decreases its mass, though it moves with a velocity around  proton in a laboratory with a stationary observer in it. So, all orbiting electrons in atoms invalidate dramatically the special relativity, because Einstein predicted incorrectly that the mass of the moving electron with respect to the proton increases according to the wrong Lorentz contraction.

 Unfortunately Einstein using his incomplete equation ΔE = ΔΜc2  believed that the kinetic energy ΔE with respect to an observer adds an inertia in an amount ΔE/c2. In other words he assumed that energy has mass. So he introduced false ideas of rest energy Moc2 and relativistic energy Mc2 given incorrectly by

ΔE  = ΔΜc2 = (M – Mo)c2 =  Mc2 - Moc2

This equation of course includes the biggest errors in the history of physics which did much to retard the progress of physics, because Einstein underestimating the energies due to forces of natural laws suggested that even a mass of a motionless particle has energy called rest energy. Consequently the concepts of rest energy or relativistic energy are false ideas because the energy is due not to masses but to Coulomb’s charge-charge interaction. Therefore in the case of the hydrogen atom for the mass defect one writes incorrectly

ΔΜc2 =( Mo – M)c2 = hν or Moc2 – Mc2 = hν =13.6 eV

That is, Einstein believed that the energy of photon is due to the change in the rest energy of the system called Mass-Energy Equivalence, which is a false idea.

In fact, the energy of photons is due not to the mass defect but to the energy of the Coulomb law because it gets a real mass after the mass defect.

In the same way for the so-called annihilation of electron and positron Einstein’s incomplete equation is written as

2Mo c2 = 2hν  

which means  that the mass of the two particles is converted into the energy hν. Such a false   idea of course violates the two conservation laws of mass and energy developed by Anaximander and Heraclitus.  Unfortunately in “Annihilation –WIKIPEDIA” (Electron-positron annihilation) we see these wrong ideas written as:  “..the mass of the two particles are converted entirely into energy”.

In fact according to our discovery of the Matter- Photon Transformation we may write correctly

ΔΕ/2Mo = 2hν/2m = c2    in reaction (e + e+ = γ +γ

 According to this complete relation as in the case of Hydrogen the energy ΔΕ = 1.022 MeV of the fundamental charge-charge interaction of the two particles is transformed into the energy 2hν = 1.022 MeV οf 2γ. Similarly the mass 2Mo of the particles is transformed into the mass 2m of the two photons in accordance with the two conservation laws of mass and energy. In other words all concepts of rest mass, rest energy, relativistic mass, and relativistic energy are fallacious ideas.

 Moreover these two examples tell us that the mass cannot be converted into energy, because the energy hν of photons is due (not to the rest mass or to the false rest energy of particles) but to the energy of charge-charge interaction. That is, Einstein’s Mass-Energy Equivalence is invalid. Note that the Dirac theory (1928) is based on the wrong relativistic energy E = Mc2 which was also derived by using simple mathematics as

E  =  ( Mo2c4 + P2c2 )0.5

It is indeed unfortunate that in “Mass-energy equivalence-WIKIPEDIA” one can read confusing ideas about the rest mass or invariant mass, because it is believed that the energy of gamma ray is compared with the mass defect. Of course to avoid such confusions the above wrong article must be replaced by the “Photon-Matter Transformation” since   in our paper (2002) we showed that in all cases of atomic and nuclear physics the energy of generated photons is just the same energy of the fundamental charge-charge interaction.

Under his incomplete equation Einstein also introduced another wrong concept of Mass-Energy conservation. Einstein himself pointed out: “Pre-relativistic physics contains two conservation laws of fundamental importance, namely the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation of mass; these two appear there as completely independent of each other. Through relativity they melt together into one principle”.

Such a false idea did much to retard the progress of nuclear binding because it is believed that the nuclear binding of deuterium is due to the change in the false rest mass energies between the isolated nucleons and the stable deuterium. Under these difficulties in 2002 we showed that the binding energy is due to the electromagnetic interaction of the charged 9 quarks in proton and 12 charged quarks in neutron. Moreover in “Dark energy-WIKIPEDIA” one can see the false idea of a dark energy due to Einstein’s wrong mass-energy conservation. It is believed that it accounts for 73% of the total mass-energy of universe. However writing in Google “False ideas in dark energy” one can understand the false ideas in my article “OUR UNIVERSE ”.

Unfortunately, writing in Google “Limitations of Newton’s second law in special relativity” one can see that in the first four articles of WIKIPEDIA there are (incorrectly) such limitations, because Einstein believed that in all cases of motions relative to a randomly moving observer the mass of a particle increases according to the wrong Lorentz ideas.

Another false idea of relativity which retarded the progress of physics is the idea that the peripheral velocity of spinning electrons, quarks, and neutrinos cannot overcome the speed of light.

 

THE DISCOVERY OF THE ELECTRON SPIN INVALIDATES EINSTEIN'S IDEAS

 In our paper “Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures”(2008) we showed that the coupling of two electrons in orbitals is due to the peripheral velocities of spinning electrons which are greater than c , since the photons cannot affect the peripheral velocity. Especially this situation explains the coupling of opposite spinning electrons for making the covalent bonds in molecules, and the binding of spinning quarks, since the magnetic attraction of opposite spin is stronger than the electric repulsion. (See in Google my scientific article “QUARKS, NEUTRINOS, NUCLEONS, AND NUCLEI”).

In User Kaliambos one can see our paper “Spin-spin.. structures” in which we showed that two electrons of mass m and of opposite spin interact  giving a repulsive electric force Fe and an attractive magnetic  force Fm whose the resultant force Fem is given by

Fem = Fe  - Fm =  Ke2/r2  - (Ke2/r4)(9h2/16π2m2c2)

Of course for Fe = Fm one gets the equilibrium separation

ro = 3h/4πmc = 0.5788/1012 m

That is, for r<ro the two electrons behave like one particle and exert an attractive Fem with a motional emf of the induction law. After a detailed analysis of many two-electron atoms we concluded that it produces a vibration energy Ev given by

Ev = 16.95Z - 4.1

Thus, using the Bohr model the ground state energy E of the simple Helium atom is given by

E = 2(-13.6)Z2 +(16.95Z  - 4.1) = -79  eV

which is equal to the experimental result. Under this condition since the two electrons behave like one particle the Schrodinger equation is applied correctly for giving the same wave function as that of the one-electron atoms. Here the Pauli exclusion principle is just a qualitative approach because it cannot be applied in the structure of deuteron. Note that the discovery of the electron spin by Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit (1925) which involves peripheral velocity greater than the speed of light met opposition from many physicists including Pauli. The pressure was so great that Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit wanted to withdraw the paper they had submitted. However it was too late to do so, because their adviser P. Ehrenfest had already sent the paper for publication. He said: “You are both young enough to allow yourselves some foolishness! Be a little crazy”.  Later under the influence of Einstein’s relativity Pauli in 1946 said: “I strongly doubted the correctness of this idea (spin) because of its classical mechanical character”.   Of course such an idea did much to retard the progress of physics and led to the development of wrong theories, which cannot solve the problem of the Helium ground state energy. Whereas our applications of laws which give u>c explain the atomic and nuclear phenomena in accordance with the experiments.