By Prof.LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ( Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός ) T. E. Institute of Larissa. Greece

**PREFACE**

Writing in Google “Wrong and correct Einstein” we see a large number of articles based not on the well-established natural laws and experiments of great physicists, but on various hypotheses and philosophical speculations which lead to confusion . It is indeed unfortunate that such articles influenced by Maxwell’s fields Einstein’s relativity and the various theories of the so-called Standard Model mislead the readers. Unfortunately physicists today believe that Einstein’s relativity is a universal law able to explain the experiments of modern physics under Einstein’s assumptions that the well-established laws of nature have limited applications. In fact, after a careful analysis of laws and experiments I revealed that all modern experiments assumed to be explained by Einstein are explained accurately by reviving the well-established laws of nature, while Einstein’s special relativity violates not only the two conservation laws of energy and mass but also the principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s laws.(Experiments reject relativity).

Although nature works in only one way, Einstein in his general relativity influenced by fields and philosophical speculations tried to modify the well-established law of gravity acting at a distance by introducing various hypotheses, like the Ptolemaic system with the complicated epicyclic motions. So for the progress of fundamental physics you can find my papers according to which great physicists like Galileo, Newton, Coulomb, Ampere, Thomson, Michelson, Bohr and Schrodinger, invalidate Einstein’s concepts.(Newton and Galileo reject Einstein).

Historically, after graduation, Einstein got a job at a patent office in Bern. The work was not dull; After the abandonment of Newton’s particles of light (1803) in favor of the Maxwellian ether involving false fields based on wrong postulations, and despite the famous experiment of Michelson and Morley (1887) who rejected the ether in favor of Newton’s particles of light, Einstein was continually having to analyze and criticize the well-established laws as an “old science” on the basis of complicated ideas of Lorentz under his false ether theory. Unlike most teaching positions available to young physicists, the patent office job gave Einstein enough free time to do his own reading, and thinking about the assumed correct concept of fields moving through an ether . The complete absence of a contact with professional physicists during this period was perhaps a blessing in disguise, for it permitted Einstein to develop his unorthodox approach to the problems of physics.

In 1905, Einstein at 26 published five papers. In the first paper (June 9) under the influence of Maxwell’s fields he explains incorrectly the photoelectric effect. For example he used only the conservation law of energy by writing hν = ΔΕ (Nobel prize 1921) because he believed incorrectly that photon has no mass. In fact, in 1938 in his book "The evolution of physics" he wrote that the photon does have mass because of the photon energy E = hν . Under this condition Einstein should use the law of absorption of photon. (Photon-matter interaction). In the second paper "New determination of molecular dimensions" he was based on the Newtonian Mechanics" and aslo in his third paper (July 18) he gives an accurate explanation of the Brownian motion based on the well-established Newtonian mechanics. In the fourth paper (September 26) assumed to be more revolutionary, on what was later called the special relativity, Einstein used the math of Lorentz who in 1904 tried to explain the Kaufmann experiment (1902 ) by using the fallacious ether of Maxwell (1865). Finally, in a separate brief note ( November 21 ), published shortly afterward, Einstein suggested that as a consequence of his theory of relativity, the mass m of an object should be related to its energy content E through his formula E = mc^{2} which led to the wrong concept of "mass-energy equivalence."(Invalid rest energy). Such a concept did much to retard the progress of nuclear physics, because Einstein believed that his equation, which violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass, solves the problem of the nuclear binding energy by assuming incorrectly that the mass defect of nucleons turns into the energy of the generated photon.(Law of energy and mass).

Under this nuclear physics crisis, I revealed that Einstein violated not only the two conservation laws of energy and mass of fundamental Newtonian dynamics but also the principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s laws. So in 1993 the physicists M. Barone and F. Selleri organized the international conference "Frontiers of fundamental physics" (Olympia), where I presented my paper “Impact of Maxwell’s equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles” which invalidates both Maxwell's fields and Einstein's relativity.

Moreover since I revealed that the binding energies of atomic and nuclear structure invalidate Einstein’s “mass-energy equivalence” or “mass-energy conservation”, in 2002 I presented at the NCSR "Demokritos" my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” (2003). See the above papers in User Kaliambos ” with a large number of equations which reveal the nuclear structure and binding, while all theories and models developed after the influence of Einstein’s relativity like the wrong Standard Model cannot lead to any nuclear structure. (Discovery of nuclear force and sructure).

On the other hand, although nature works in only one way, Einstein in 1915 tried to modify the well-established universal law of gravity by introducing various hypotheses like gravitational fields, (experiments reject fields), gravitational waves, and an “ether structure” or a strange curvature of space-time”. In fact, since nature works in only one way, in nature exist the fundamental laws of the Newtonian mechanics including the action at a distance confirmed by the experiments of the quantum entanglement. Note that in the quantum physics of non conservative forces the absorption of light by an electron contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy but also to the increase of the electron mass, under a length contraction and a time dilation which cannot be related with Einstein's wrong assumptions. (Discovery of length contraction). Whereas in the Newtonian Mechanics of conservative forces (in the absence of absorption or emission of photons) the inertial mass of a moving body is always constant under an absolute space and time.

**IN HIS PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT EXPLANATION EINSTEIN WAS CORRECT ONLY FOR USING THE CONSERVATION LAW OF ENERGY ( NOBEL PRIZE 1921)**

Although Einstein in his paper entitled simply, “On a heuristic point of view concerning the generation and transformation of light” presents a new theory, (because Maxwell’s waves cannot be related with the photoelectric effect), he begins by paying tribute to the assumed wide usefulness of Maxwell’s theory of light; it “has proved itself excellently suited for the description of purely optical phenomena and will probably never be replaced by another theory.” In other words, Einstein believed that Maxwell’s wrong self-propagating fields are correct, while the energy of light is not distributed evenly over the whole wave front, but rather is concentrated or localized in discrete small regions.

So influenced by wrong Maxwell’s fields moving through a fallacious ether Einstein did not use carefully the history of the theories of light under the experiments of famous physicists. For example for the detailed explanation of the photoelectric effect Einstein should take into account Newton’s Opticks (1704), because Newton predicted the bending of his particles of light near the sun confirmed by the German Soldner in 1801. Then in 1845 Faraday showed that the Newtonian particles of light have not only gravitational properties but also electromagnetic ones, which led to Maxwell’s fields with no mass moving through a hypothetical ether, (which cannot exist). Note that Michelson and Morley in 1887 proved accurately that the ether cannot exist in favor of Newton’s particles of light having mass m. That is, the absorption of the mass m of Newton’s particles of light by particles could occur under the conservation law of mass.

Historically, after the discovery of the conservation laws of mass by Lavoisier (1789) developed by the Greek philosophers Anaximander, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Leucippus, Democritus and Epicurus, there was still room for doubt. In 1872 the German chemist Lothar Meyer suggested that the rearrangement of atoms during chemical reactions might be accompanied by the absorption or emission of the mass of the particles of light or light waves. In 1881 J.J. Thomson recognized that there is an electromagnetic mass associated with the electromagnetic energy. In 1902 Kaufmann proved experimentally that the electron mass increases when it absorbs an energy. Thus Kaufmann under the two conservation laws of energy and mass and using the electromagnetic mass tried to explain his experiment. In fact, after the work of Planck (1900) that E= hν and the experiment of Nichols and Hull that E = pc and since in the Newtonian mechanics p = mc we can write

hν = (mc)c = mc^{2}

Thus according to the two conservation laws of energy and mass the increase of the electron energy ΔE and mass ΔM is explained by our discovery of the Photon-Matter Transformation

hν/m = ΔE/ΔM = c^{2 }

Ηere you see that both the energy hν and the mass m = hν/c^{2} of photons are absorbed by the electron which increases both the energy ΔΕ and the mass ΔΜ during the absorption under a length contraction and a time dilation in accordance with Newton’s third law. Unfortunately Einstein based not on the well-established laws but on the fallacious Maxwell’s fields transmitting energy with no mass used only the energy conservation

hν = ΔΕ

This incomplete explanation of the photoelectric effect led to Einstein’s invalid special relativity. Nevertheless for the explanation of the Brownian motion Einstein was correct, because he used the correct kinetic theory based on the well-established Newtonian mechanics. In the same way his formulation of the correct hν = ΔΕ (Nobel prize 1921) led to the correct Bohr model (1913) in which Bohr used the conservation law of energy by writing ΔΕ = hν = 13.6 eV. (Nobel prize 1922).

**IN THE EXPLANATION OF THE BROWNIAN MOTION EINSTEIN WAS CORRECT**

The Brownian motion is a continuous random motion of very small particles suspended in a liquid. The phenomenon was first observed in 1827 by Brown, a Scottish botanist. Einstein based on the correct kinetic theory of the Newtonian mechanics showed that the Brownian motion results from bombardment of the suspended particles by the moving molecules of liquid. It is surprising that this correct idea was based on non-professional physicists. Einstein in his book “The evolution of physics” (1938) and especially in chapter THE RATE OF EXCHANGE wrote: "Less than a hundred years ago the new clue which led to the concept of heat as a form of energy was gessed by Mayer and confirmed by Joule. It is a strange coincidence that nearly all the fundamental work conserned with the nature of heat was done by non-professional physicists who regarded physics merely as their great hobby". Also for the kinetic theory of the Newtonian mechanics Einstein wrote: “In the kinetic theory of matter we see how this view, arising from mechanical problems, embraces the phenomena of heat and how it leads to a successful picture of the structure of matter.”

**IN HIS SPECIAL RELATIVITY EINSTEIN WAS WRONG**

In 1902 Kaufmann showed experimentally that the inertial mass M_{o} of an electron increases to M with its velocity u under the absorption of energy as

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} = c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})

It is well-known that formidable quantities of energy reach the earth as a continuous unending stream of rays from the sun. The energy of the sun’s rays is indeed the source of various other forms of energy that make life possible on earth.

Therefore the increase of the electron mass in the Kaufmann experiment is due not to the invalid special relativity but to our discovery of my Photon-Matter Transformation. So differentiation of this gives

2MdMc^{2} = 2MdMu^{2} + 2uduM^{2 } or dMc^{2} = d(Mu)u

Indeed when an electron absorbs a photon with energy dW the energy of the photon increases both the mass M and the velocity u of the electron.. Thus application of the well-established second law of Newton gives

Fds = dW = (dp/dt)ds = [d(Mu)/dt]ds = d(Mu)u

Here we revealed that the Kaufmann experiment is explained accurately by using the Thomson electromagnetic mass m or the mass of the photon m = hν/c^{2} . Moreover I revealed that the absorption of photons occurs under a length contraction and a time dilation in accordance with the well-established third law of Newton.

It is unfortunate that despite the famous experiment of the Michelson and Morley (1887) who rejected accurately the ether, Lorentz in 1904 influenced by the Maxwellian ether tried to interpret the Kaufmann experiment by violating the two conservation laws of energy and mass under a strange hypothesis that the interferometer of Michelson is contracted. In 1905 Einstein using the same math of Lorentz complicated more the problem, because he replaced temporarily the ether by a randomly moving observer. For example if an observer moves with the electron he will measure the increase of mass of all stationary objects in the laboratory. So he violated temporarily Newton’s discovery of the constant inertial mass M_{o} by introducing the fallacious concepts of rest mass and relativistic mass. Note that in his general relativity Einstein introduced an "Ether structure” and the “equivalence principle” of Newton’s constant inertial mass M_{o }which invalidates his concepts of rest and relativistic mass. According to the well-established Newton’s first law or law of inertia the force is not only the gravity but also an electric and magnetic force.

Moreover in his introduction of special relativity he violated not only the two conservation laws of mass and energy but also the principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s laws. Especially he used the fallacious electric field of Maxwell in the induction law, though Faraday in 1832 for the induction law wrote: “ All these results show that the power of inducing electric currents is circumferentially excited by a magnetic resultant or axis of power, just as circumferential magnetism is dependent upon and is exhibited by an electric current.” Later (1847) Neumann proved experimentally that the induction law is consistent with the magnetic force acting at a distance of the well-estblished Ampere law (1820).

**EINSTEIN’S FORMULATION OF ΔE/ΔΜ = c ^{2} IS CORRECT BUT THE CONCEPT OF “MASS-ENERGY EQUIVALENCE” IS WRONG**

In Newtonian dynamics, and in the absence of a photon absorption the kinetic energy (KE) of a body is the work done by the net force F that acts on the body in accelerating it to the speed u under a constant inertial mass M_{o} That is,

KE = Fds = dW = [M_{o}(du//dt)]ds = M_{o}udu or FΔs = ΔW = M_{o}u^{2}/2

Unfortunately Einstein believed that in the absence of a photon absorption such a fundamental motion could be described by his fallacious concepts of rest mass M_{o} and a relativistic mass M moving with respect to a randomly moving observer. That is he replaced incorrectly Newton’s discovery of the constant inertial mass by the two wrong concepts of rest and relativistic mass. Note that Einstein introduced the same discovery of the constant inertial mass in his “equivalence principle” of his general relativity, which invalidates his concepts of rest and relativistic mass. For example in the simple gravity where the potential energy FΔs is transformed into a kinetic one under a constant inertial mass Einstein introducing the false concept of relativistic mass replaced the fundamental constant inertial mass of Newton’s first law by his rest mass (mass of a stationary object with respect to a randomly moving observer). Thus he proposed that

KE = ΔW = ΔΜc^{2 } = Mc^{2} – M_{o}c^{2}

In other words he believed incorrectly that the first term is an energy called “relativistic energy” depending on the velocity u with respect to a randomly moving observer. So an observer moving with an electron in an accelerator will measure a “relativistic energy” of the stationary objects in the laboratory. Whereas the second term expresses an energy called “rest energy.” Such ideas led to the biggest errors in the history of physics, because they violate the conservation law of energy according to which the potential energy due to the fundamental force of an interaction at a distance turns into the kinetic energy. That is, according to the definition of work the energy is due not to the mass but to the force of interaction. Under this fallacious idea Einstein assumed also that the mass defect in atomic and in nuclear structures turns into the energy of the generated photons. As Einstein himself wrote: “Pre-relativity physics contains two conservation laws of fundamental importance, namely, the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation of mass; these two appear there as completely independent of each other. Through relativity theory they melt together into one principle" Under this fallacious idea physicists today believe that in the so-called annihilation process the total mass of an electron and a positron is converted into the energy of two generated photons. In fact, the energy of the charge-charge interaction of the system electron-positron turns into the energy of the two photons, while the mass of the two particles turns into the mass of the two photons in accordance with the two conservation laws of energy and mass.

Since this idea did much to retard the progress of physics, in 2002 we presented at the 12^{th} symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society our paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism.” In fact, in the Bohr model we see that there is not any rest or relativistic energy. During the quantum jump of the electron the energy of the Coulomb interaction turns into the energy of the generated photon. Thus, according to the two conservation laws of energy and mass the mass defect turns into the mass of photon. In the same way I revealed that in the nuclear binding the charge-charge interaction turns into the energy of photon while the mass defect of nucleons turns into the mass of the generated photon. Especially we discovered that the binding energy is due to the electromagnetic interaction of 9 extra charged quarks in proton and 12 extra charged quarks in neutron existing among 288 quarks in nucleons.

**EINSTEIN TRIED TO MODIFY THE WELL-ESTABLISHED LAW OF GRAVITY BY INTRODUCING VARIOUS WRONG HYPOTHESES IN HIS GENERAL RELATIVITY**

Although nature works in only one way, as early as 1907 Einstein was showing dissatisfaction with his wrong special relativity in which he used velocities with respect to a randomly moving observer, while we proved that the explanation of the Kaufmann experiment is based not on Einstein;s incorrect relativity but on the quantum dynamics of the absorption of photons under the applications of the well-established laws of nature. So under the influence of philosophical speculations he tried to find a better way for the solution of hypothetical problems by saying: Why was only uniform motion relative with respect to a hypothetical moving observer ? Why was only acceleration absolute? At the same time he wanted to modify Newton’s well-established universal law of gravity. So at first he assumed that there is a problem of gravitation which must be linked with the problem of acceleration. On this basis he starts with Newton’s fundamental gravity F_{g} on an object with constant inertial mass m_{o} and gravitational mass m on the earth having mass M and radius R. That is

F_{g} = m_{o}g = GmM/R^{2}

Since Galileo showed experimentally that the acceleration g is the same for all objects, then Newton concluded that m_{o }= m. Under this universal law when a photon of mass m_{o} = hν/c^{2} moves in perpendicular direction to gravity the gravitational force according to Galileo’s projectiles will cause an acceleration along the direction of gravity. So we will observe a curved trajectory as a result of the combined two separate motions like the constant velocity c and the acceleration along the gravity in accordance with Newton’s first law or law of inertia. This situation was predicted by Newton confirmed by Soldner in 1801. However, Einstein believed that his theory of general relativity interprets it under a fallacious “ether structure” or a strange “curvature of space-time with four dimensions.” Note that later Schrodinger (1926) rejected Einstein’s ideas by formulating his time- independent equations in three dimensions with enormous success.

It is surprising that Newton and Galileo discovered that mass has the two properties of inertia and gravity. So Einstein using this discovery introduced his “equivalence principle”, which states that it is impossible to distinguish between acceleration and gravity. However this statement is incomplete because Newton found that all kinds of forces like electric and magnetic ones cause the same acceleration under a constant inertial mass of his first law. Furthermore this invalidates dramatically the two concepts of rest and relativistic mass. Einstein also believed incorrectly that the most transparent prediction of his “equivalence principle” is the gravitational red shift, while we revealed that this effect invalidates the so-called “equivalence principle.” For example when the velocity c of the photon is parallel to gravity F_{g} we cannot use Newton’s first law or law of inertia. In this case we revealed that the photon cannot behave like a particle with a constant inertial mass, because the gravitational force cannot cause any acceleration along the constant velocity c . So after the application of Newton’s second law we get

F_{g}ds = dW = hdν = (dp/dt)ds = (cdm/dt)ds = dmc^{2}

Here the acceleration approaches always to zero under a basic length contraction and a time dilation, because the photon with a dipolar nature operates with equal electric attraction and magnetic repulsion with instantaneous simultaneity, in accordance with Newton’s third law, which is the same in all inertial frames. Note that any velocity greater than c will produce stronger magnetic forces than the electric ones, which should violate Newton’s well-established third law. Thus Einstein’s relativistic simultaneity of two events is a fallacious concept. Note that Einstein for the gravitational red shift used the Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics

δν/ν = u/c

because the relativistic one leads to complications. Also Einstein tried to unify his false fields without success, while we unified the forces acting a t a distance because the electromagnetic properties of photons lead to the same results.

Einstein also believed that he solved the problem of Mercury’s Precession by using his wrong hypotheses of special relativity that energy is associated with mass. In fact, the observation that the orbit of Mercury slowly rotates around the sun at the perihelion is due to the Newtonian sun-tide. Unfortunately Einstein influenced by the wrong fields of Maxwell moving through a fallacious ether believed that there are also gravitational fields or gravitational waves able to carry the gravitational forces at the speed of light, though the electric field was defined as a force per unit charge unable to curry the same force. Thus Einstein’s gravitational waves or gravitons of the wrong Standard Model will never be observed. Note that detailed experiments of the Quantum Entanglement confirmed accurately Newton’s fundamental action at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity. Since it invalidates Einstein’s ideas Einstein himself called it “Spooky action at a distance.” Therefore in vain Einstein after a work of many years tried to unify his fallacious fields but without success. So in 1954 he expressed his frustration to his fiend Bess by writing: “ I consider it quite possible that physics cannot be based on the field concept , i.e., on continuous structures.”