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By Prof. Lefteris Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) T.E. Institute of Larissa Greece ( April 2014)

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N.C.S.R. "Demokritos" (2002)

According to natural laws of an eternal cosmos including our universe and the experiments at CERN the Big Bang of laws was the explosion of a very dense black hole with isolated quark triads having all the visible and dark matter of the universe. In the energy and mass we include also the energy and mass of photons, since fields and massless particles like the invalid Higgs field and thefallacious inflationary field along with the hypothetical gluons and gravitons or gravitational waves cannot exist. Nevertheless, at Harvard astronomers believe incorrectly that they detected  primordial wrong gravitational waves (March, 2014). In Fact, they detected space time ripples after the epoch of decoupling (378,000 years after the Big Bang) which reject Einstein's ideas. (See my Confusing B-modes and Fundamental physics concepts ).  

WRONG  BIG BANG WITH FALLACIOUS STRONG AND WEAK FORCES DUE TO FALSE THEORIES

Unfortunately today cosmologists under the influence of various false theories based on the wrong mass-energy conservation of the INVALID RELATIVITY believe that OUR UNIVERSE started off with energy transformed into the first particles through the invalid Higgs field . On the other hand after the abandonment of the well-established electromagnetic laws in favor of the invalid theories of the so-called strong and weak interaction the  chronology of our very early universe  is based not on the fundamental forces of natural laws but on the fallacious forces of wrong theories. 

In my papers of 1993 and 2002  I discovered the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION and I showed the DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE respectively, which reject both theories of the fallacious weak and strong interactions. Nevertheless for the  first hypothetical epoch called Planck epoch (from zero to 10-43 second after the big bang) introduced incorrectly by modern cosmologists in the "Chronology of the unverse-WIKIPEDIA" one  reads: 

“The Planck epoch is an era in traditional (non-inflationary) big bang cosmology wherein the temperature was so high that the four fundamental forces—electromagnetism, gravitation, weak nuclear interaction, and strong nuclear interaction—were one fundamental force”.

In fact, under the quantum dynamics of non oriented spins the magnetic attraction was absent. This situation led to the isolation of neutral quark triads. However under the attractive gravity of long range which contributed to the reduction of the distance r between the quark triads  very strong triad-triad electric repulsions were able to overcome the attractive gravity for the explosion of the very dence black hole of isolated quark triads just at the first moment of our early universe.

Nevertheless despite my DISCOVERY OF UNIFIED FORCES  cosmologist continue to believe in the second false idea including an epoch of the fallacious Grand Unification Theory ( 10–43 - 10–36 seconds). So in WIKIPEDIA  one reads:

“As the universe expanded and cooled, it crossed transition temperatures at which forces separate from each other. These are phase transitions much like condensation and freezing. The grand unification epoch began when gravitation separated from the other forces of nature, which are collectively known as gauge forces. The non-gravitational physics in this epoch would be described by a so-called grand unified theory (GUT). The grand unification epoch ended when the GUT forces further separate into the strong and electroweak forces. This transition should produce magnetic monopoles in large quantities, which are not observed. The lack of magnetic monopoles was one problem solved by the introduction of inflation. According to modern inflationary cosmology, the traditional grand unification epoch, like the Planck epoch, did not exist, though similar conditions likely would have existed in the universe prior to inflation”.

Under such false ideas astronomers at Harvard announced that they dedected the fallacious gravitational waves of the false iflationary field.

Also for the fallacious Electroweak epoch ( 10–36 - 10–12 seconds) in WIKIPEDIA one reads:

“According to traditional big bang cosmology, the Electroweak epoch began 10−36 seconds after the Big Bang, when the temperature of the universe was low enough (1028 K) to separate the strong force from the electroweak force (the name for the unified forces of electromagnetism and the weak interaction). In inflationary cosmology, the electroweak epoch ends when the inflationary epoch begins, at roughly 10−32 seconds”.

In fact, all these three fallacious epochs (from zero to 10-12 seconds) belong to an epoch of non oriented spins of quark triads. So in the absence of very strong magnetic attractions due to spins and according to natural forces of the well-established laws acting at a distance in accordance with the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement the electric repulsions of short range between the quark triads were able to overcome the powerful attractive gravity of long range. This situation was responsible for the rapid acceleration of our early universe.

It is of interest to note that LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS INVALIDATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY . Nevertheless for the fallacious Inflationary and Higgs fields in WIKIPEDIA one reads:

“Cosmic inflation was an era of accelerating expansion produced by a hypothesized field called the inflaton, which would have properties similar to the Higgs field and dark energy”.

Then, although energy cannot turn into mass, in the same WIKIPEDIA one reads a strange mechanism due to a hypothetical Supersymmetry breaking :.

“If supersymmetry is a property of our universe, then it must be broken at an energy that is no lower than 1 TeV, the electroweak symmetry scale. The masses of particles and their superpartners would then no longer be equal, which could explain why no superpartners of known particles have ever been observed. Electroweak symmetry breaking and the quark epoch”.As the universe's temperature falls below a certain very high energy level, it is believed that the Higgs field spontaneously acquires a vacuum expectation value, which breaks electroweak gauge symmetry. This has two related effects: The weak force and electromagnetic force, and their respective bosons (the W and Z bosons and photon) manifest differently in the present universe, with different ranges; Via the Higgs mechanism, all elementary particles interacting with the Higgs field become massive, having been massless at higher energy levels. At the end of this epoch, the fundamental interactions of gravitation, electromagnetism, the strong interaction and the weak interaction have now taken their present forms, and fundamental particles have mass, but the temperature of the universe is still too high to allow quarks to bind together to form hadrons.

To avoid such fallacious ideas in 2003 I published my paper NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LWS OF ELECTROMAGNEUSM which led to my DISCOVERY OF QUARKS IN PROTON AND NEUTRON . Nevertheless today scientist at CERN believe that they created not the quark plasma under the quantum dynamics o partially orientation of spins of charged spinning quarks but the so-called quatk-gluon plasma based not on natural laws of electromagnetism but on the false theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (1973) including strange color forces and fallacious massless particles called gluons. ( see my CONFUSING CERN RESULTS AND IDEAS ). Under this physics crisis in WIKIPEDIA one reads:

“After cosmic inflation ends, the universe is filled with a quark–gluon plasma. From this point onwards the physics of the early universe is better understood, and less speculative”.

In fact, according to natural laws ( between 10–12 second and 10–6 second after the Big Bang) we introduce the epoch of the quark plasma due to partially oriented spins in accordance with the creation of the quark plasma at CERN.

 

CONTRADICTING  IDEAS OF  BIG BANG BASED ON INVALID THEORIES

Although LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS INVALIDATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY today cosmologists influenced by the wrong energy-mass conservation of the invalid fields and relativity keep on believing that time and space  had a finite beginning that corresponded to a fallacious origin of an unknown energy.  For example  in 1968 and 1970, Hawking and others  published papers in which they extended Einstein's INVALID GENERAL RELATIVITY in order to support that the first moment of OUR EARLY UNIVERSE is related not with the two conservation laws of energy and mass (developed by the Greek philosophers and confirmed by experiments)  but with a fallacious mathematical anomaly called Singularity. They also believed incorrectly that the singularity didn't appear in space; rather, space began inside of the singularity and prior to the singularity, nothing existed, not space, time, matter, or energy - nothing. Of course such ideas violate the two conservation laws of energy and mass. For example in the Bohr model the energy of the charge-charge interaction turns into the energy of the generated photon. In the same way the mass defect turns into the mass of the same photon, in accordance wth the first law of thermodynamics. So where and in what did the singularity appear if not in space? Hawking claimed that this was the work of a Creator.

Later in the Grand Design (2010) Hawking  changed his previous ideas by arguing that God is not necessary to explain the origins of the universe, and that the Big Bang is a consequence of the laws of physics alone. Nevertheless in his book he underestimates the natural laws of three dimensions and tried to explain the 11 dimension of a strange M-theory.

 Despite the two conservation laws of energy and mass and the enormous success of the Bohr model and the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions based on laws (See my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN )  the central claim of the book is that the theory of quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity together could help us understand how universe could have formed out of nothing. Moreover Hawking  invoking only the law of gravity which rejects relativity (see my NEWTON AND GALILEO REJECT EINSTEIN )  wrote:

“Because there is a law such as gravity, the universe can and will create itself from nothing. Spontaneous creation is the reason there is something rather than nothing, why the universe exists, why we exist. It is not necessary to invoke God to light the blue touch paper and set the universe going”.   

 

CORRECT BIG BANG BASED ON THE WELL-ESTABLISHED NATURAL LAWS

Today it is well-known that after the invalid relativity which violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass our early universe started off with a very dense black hole including all the visible and dark matter of our universe, because energy and mass are always constant, no matter what is the change of energy or mass.  For example the energy of the charge-charge interaction of the electron and positron turns into the energy of the two generated photons, while the mass of them turns into the mass of the same photons. Therefore during the Big Bang under the quantum dynamics of non oriented spins a very dense black hole was made by isolated quark triads in which at very short distances  the triad-triad electric repulsions of short range were able to overcome the attractive gravity of long range, because the magnetic attraction (due to spins) was absent . However later under the orientation of spins the magnetic attraction became stronger than the triad-triad electric repulsions for the formation of hadrons in the so-called hadron epoch.  

In my paper QUAKS NEUTRINOS NUCLEONS AND NUCLEI one sees that the quark binding in protons and neutrons is due to very strong electromagnetic attractions based on the applications of the well-established laws of electromagnetism. In this case under the orientation of spins the binding energy of quarks is much more stronger than the nuclear binding because the spin of quarks gives a peripheral velocity greater than the speed of light. So like the coupling of two electrons the magnetic attraction of spinning quarks is greater than the electric repulsions between up-up interactions and down-down interactions. However during the very hot Big Bang under the quantum dynamics of non oriented spins we apply only the electric forces of the quark-quark interactions because the magnetic forces (due to spins) were absent. So  in the absence of the magnetic attractions due to non oriented spins one can find approximately  the very strong net electric attraction -Fe of the quark binding of isolated quark triads by using the following scheme

D(-e/3)…U(+2e/3)…d(-e/3)

Since the distances (DU) = (Ud) = α (where α is the diameter of a quark) we may write the electric attractions - 2F of the Coulomb law as

-2F = 2K(-e/3)(+2e/3)/α2  = (-4/9)(Κe2/α2).

 However at the distance (Dd) = 2α  the quarks D and d exert  an electric repulsion +F  as

+F = K(-e/3)(-e/3)/22α2 = (1/36)(Ke2/α2).

 Thus the net electric attraction –Fe  is given by 

-Fe = -2F +F = (-4/9 +1/36)(Ke2/α2 = -0.42Κe2/α2 

Since α < 1 fm one concludes that the quark binding of an isolated quark triad in the conditions of the Big Bang is much more stronger than the nuclear binding. (See my DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE).  It is so strong that the triad-triad repulsions in the same direction cannot lead to the isolation of quarks because in the same direction the electric force of the triad-triad repulsion of the two quark triads D1U1d1 and D2U2d2 is weaker than the quark binding of a quark triad . The repulsion at the shortest distance r = α in the same direction is given by using the following scheme

(D1…U1…d1)…(D2…U2…d2)

Since the distance (d1D2) = α we may calculate the repulsive forces +4F between the down quarks as

+4F = KD1D2/32α2 +KD1d2/52 α2 +Κd1D2/α2 +Kd1d2/32α2

Since D1D2 =D1d2 = d1D2 = d1d2 = (-e/3)(-e/3) = e2/9

we may write

+4F = (1/9)( 1/9 + 1/25 + 1/1 +1/9) (Ke2/α2) = 0.14Κe2/α2      

Also the repulsion +F of the two up quarks is given by

+F = KU1U2/32α2 Since U1U2 = (+2e/3)(+2e/3) = 4e2/9 we may write

+F = (4/81)(Ke2/α2) = 0.0494Ke2/α2

On the other hand the attractive forces -4F  between the down and up quarks are given by

-4F = KD1U2/42α2 + Kd1U2/22α2  + KU1D2/22α2 + KU1d2/42α2

Since D1U2 = d1U2 =U1D2 = U1d2  = (-e/3)(+2e/3) = -2e2/9

we may write

-4F= (-2/9)(1/16 +1/4 + 1/4 +1/16)(Ke2/α2 = -0.1389Ke2/α2

Thus the net repulsive electric force Fe = +4F +F-4F  is

Fe = (0.14 +0.0494 -0.1389)(Ke2/α2) = 0.05Κe2/α2 

That is,  in the same direction the binding force of a quark triad is stronger than the triad –triad repulsion which means that the triad-triad repulsions cannot lead to the isolation of quarks.

 

DYNAMIC BIG BANG DUE TO VERY STRONG TRIAD-TRIAD REPULSIONS

To avoid confusions with fallacious forces of the so-called strong and weak interactions we modify the confusing "Chronology of the universe-WIKIPEDIA" as

Epoch of (dud) quark triads (Up to 1/1012 seconds)

In this very hot epoch under the quantum dynamics of not oriented spins the magnetic attraction was zero. So, initially the primordial gravity of long range could overcome the weak electric repulsions of short range between the nearly neutral (dud) quark triads. Of course, in this epoch of a dominant gravity the fallacious epochs of Planck, GUT, and electroweak could not exist because they violate the fundamental laws of gravity and electromagnetism. Also Guth’s idea of very small inflationary epoch during the so-called very early universe based on a wrong inflationary field and false vacuum energy is an incorrect idea.  In fact, a primordial attractive gravity of long range reduced the distance r of the quark triads. Thus when r = α at the size of quarks , The quark triads of the following scheme exerted enormous electric repulsions responsible for the rapid acceleration. . Here I describe not Einstein’s WRONG GRAVITATIONAL WAVES but the primordial gravity of Newton’s law and the electric repulsions of the triad-triad interactions  involving forces of the Coulomb law acting at a distance. Note that the magnetic attraction between the quarks could not exist because the very high energy of very early universe contributed to non-oriented spins of spinning quarks.  In fact, the primordial gravitational attraction of long range acting at a distance on the quark triads caused the electric repulsions of short range between the quark triads when the quark triads were at very short distances. Using the triad-triad interaction of two triads of the following scheme

D2 (-e/3)…U2(+2e/3)…d2(-e/3)

D1 (-e/3)…U1(+2e/3)…d1(-e/3)

one may conclude approximately that  when the distance r = ( D1D2) =( U1U2) =(d1d2) between the two quark triads D1U1d1 and D2U2d2 is much more greater  than the quark diameter α =( D1U1) = (U1d1)  that is, when  r >> α  the two quark triads behave like neutral particles. Thus the primordial gravitational attraction of long range acting at a distance reduces the distance r. However when r = α  the two quark triads exert a very strong electric repulsion of short range in the triad-triad interaction of the Coulomb law.

In general for r/α = x applying the Coulomb law we can find the three dominant electric repulsions (+3F) of charges at the distances (D1D2) = (d1d2)  = (U1U2), = r = αx    as

+3F = 2K(-e/3)(-e/3)/a2x2  + K (+2e/3)(+2e/3)/a2x2 = (6/9x2)(Ke2/α2)

Also to calculate the electric repulsions ( +2Fcos φ ) of charges along the two diagonals (D1d2) and (d1D2) we see that the distances (d1D2) =( d1D2) =(α2x2 + 4α2). Thus   cosφ = (D1d1)/(d1D2) = αx/(α2x2 + 4α2)0.5. So we write

+2Fcosφ = [2K(-e/3)(-e/3)][αx/(α2x2+4α2)0.5][1/(α2x2+4α2)]

Or   +2Fcosφ = (2Ke2/9)[x/(x2+4)0.5][1/α2(x2+4)] = [2x/9(x2 +4)1.5](Ke2/α2)

However to calculate the four electric attractions (-4Fcosθ ) of charges along the diagonals

 (D1U2) = (D2U1) =(d1U2) = (d2U1)  = (α2x2 + α2)0.5 and since cosθ =αx/(α2x2 + α2)0.5  

we can write

-4Fcosθ  = 4K(-e/3)(+2e/3) [αx/(α2x2 + α2)0.5][1/(α2x2 + α2)]

Or  -4Fcos θ =  ( -8Ke2/9)[x/(x2+1)0.5][1/α2(x2+1)] =  [-8x/9(x2+1)1.5](Ke2/α2)

 Thus the net electric repulsion Fe =  +3F +2Fcosφ  -4Fcosθ  is given by

Fe = [6/9x2 + 2x/9(x2+4)1.5 - 8x/9(x2 + 1)1.5](ke2/α2)

Since the total repulsive force is of short range here for  x >> 1 the value in brackets becomes zero and the two quark triads behave like two neutral particles. Under this condition the primordial gravitational attraction between the quark triads could overcome the very small electric repulsions and contributed to the reduction of the distance r. Note that according to my DISCOVERY OF QUARKS IN PROTON AND NEUTRON  the mass of the quark triad is

(d + u +  d)  = 3.69 +2.4 +3.69  = 9.78 MeV

 which is 19.14 times greater than the electron mass ( m = 0.511 MeV)

However when r = α  or  x = 1 we can find the very strong electric repulsion Fe as

Fe = [(6/9 +2/9(5)1.5 -8/9(2)1.5]( Ke2/α2 )  =  0.37Ke2/α2

Since here α < 1 fm one concludes that the triad-triad repulsion (+Fe) is much more stronger than the proton-proton repulsions in the enormous nuclear fission.

On the other hand the very strong quark-quark  attraction between the quarks of a quark triad tells us that our early universe started off with quark triads  behaving at large distances with respect to the size of quarks as neutral particles able to receive the attractive gravity of long range. However they exert very strong electric repulsions at very short separations near the size of quarks for creating the rapid acceleration of our very early universe. Then, as the universe cooled the spins of the quarks were partially oriented and the magnetic attractions between the quarks were responsible for the creation of the so-called quark plasma.

Epoch of quark plasma (1/1012 - 1/106 seconds)

This is the epoch of long-ranged gravity and the short-ranged electromagnetic forces of the quark plasma which was unable to form nucleons under the quantum dynamics of partially oriented spins. It is well-known that at such high energies of partially oriented spins the accelerators produce a large number of unstable particles. It is also known that a quark plasma (which at lower energies form baryons, leptons, and photons), has been created in the lab by stamping nuclei together at extremely high speeds at Brookhaven RHIC. However under the wrong theory of quantum chromodynamics the physicists at CERN believe that the quark plasma is a quark –gluon plasma having the hypothetical massless gluons of energy, though energy without mass cannot exist. Note that despite the fact that energy cannot turn into mass, this epoch in WIKIPEDIA begins after the end of a false electroweak epoch in which all the fundamental particles acquire a mass from massless particles via the wrong Higgs field, though massless particles are the results of false theories, since energy without mass cannot exist.  At the end of this epoch the spins of the quarks were oriented  and the magnetic attractions between the quark triads were able to overcome the electric repulsions.  In this case since the size of quarks is a little greater than the size of an electron the peripheral velocity of the spinning quarks is greater than the speed  c of light. So the magnetic attractions at very short separations are stronger than the electric repulsions. That is under the orientation of spins the triad-triad interaction is characterized by  a very strong attractive electromagnetic force responsible for the creation of neutrons and protons. For understanding the formation of neutrons, protons, electrons, antineutrinos, positrons, and photons, please see my FIRST PARTICLES .