This article was announced to many universities around the world (September 2013).

By Prof.LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ( Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός ) T. E. Institute of Larissa. Greece

**PREFFACE **

Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paper IMPACT OF MAXWELL’S EQUATION OF DISPLACEMENT CURRENT ON ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS AND COMPARISON OF THE MAXWELLIAN WAVES WITH OUR MODEL OF DIPOLIC PARTICLES presented at the International conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” ( Olympia, 1993). The paper invalidates Maxwell’s fields moving through a fallacious ether. Especially Maxwell for formulating his electromagnetic theory (1865) was based not on the well-established laws of

Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820) but on wrong postulations. For example in the Faraday induction law (1832) of relative motions of magnets and conductors he used not the Faraday magnetic resultant exhibited by an electric current but a hypothetical electric field. Also in the Ampere law of force acting at a distance Maxwell used not the real current but a hypothetical “Displacement Current” between the plates of a capacitor. Note that according to the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) the hypothetical displacement current involves misconceptions.Although the famous experiment of Michelson and Morley (1887) rejected the ether in favor of Newton’s particles of light having mass, Einstein using the Lorentz math of the ether theory develop his invalid theories of special and general relativity by using massless photons, which violate not only the two conservation laws of mass and energy but also the Galilean principle of relativity of the well-established laws of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere. Note that Einstein influenced by Maxwell’s wrong self-propagating fields transmitting energy with no mass in his explanation of the photoelectric effect used only the energy of his quanta of light, while Newton in hiss Opticks (1704) proposed particles of light having mass. So Newton predicted the bending of light near the sun confirmed by Soldner in 1801. (See myPHOTON OF LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS ).

It is fortunate that all the detailed experiments of the Quantum Entanglement (1935) confirmed accurately the fundamental forces of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere acting at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity, which reject the idea that forces are carried by fields or by virtual massless photons or hypothetical massless gluons. Under this condition I revived the well-established laws for revealing the nuclear structure and binding. Thus in nuclear phenomena the energy of generated photons is due not to the mass defect of nucleons but to the energy of electromagnetic forces, while the mass defect turns into the mass of photons. So one can also see my paper NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE

FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society (2002). Using the well-established laws which led to the enormous success of the Bohr model (1913) and the time- independent Schrodinger equations in three dimensions (1926) I prepared the above paper published in Ind. J. Th. Phys. (2003). The paper reveals the nuclear structure by reviving the electromagnetic forces of the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere.Therefore it invalidates both Einstein’s relativity and the theories of the wrong standard model developed after the abandonment of natural laws. It is unfortunate that the so-called Standard Model under the influence of Einstein’s quanta of fields proposed that photons are massless bosons able to carry the electromagnetic forces, though Gilbert N. Lewis who coined the name photon in 1926 (from Greek ΦΩTA or PHOTA “light bulbs”) considered that photons, in fact, are simple carriers of energy. (See in UserKaliambos the above papers along with my paper “ Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures” published in Ind.J.Th. Phys. in 2008).

Prior to my papers it was assumed that nuclear phenomena are governed by the fallacious strong and weak interactions regarded as two separate, unrelated phenomena. The so-called strong and weak interactions were still shrouded in mystery, because the forces could not be couched in a simple formalism, nor could they be expressed in a closed analytic form. Hence in the description of nuclear properties one could rely on various wrong and contradicting theories and models. In fact both strong and weak interactions are fallacious forces because all nuclear phenomena are interpreted by the detailed applications of the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere.

**EINSTEIN’S IN THE EXPLANATION OF THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT (1905) PROPOSED QUANTA OF WRONG FIELDS WITH NO MASS**

It is indeed unfortunate that Einstein in his incomplete explanation of the photoelectric effect and in his theory of invalid special relativity (1905) did not use the quantum dynamics of the absorption of photons which interact electromagnetically with the charge of an electron for increasing both the energy and mass. (See my EINSTEIN BY KALIAMBOS ). Since the wrong hypothesis of massless photons violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass after a careful analysis of the Kaufmann experiment we revealed that in the absorption of photons both the energy and mass of a photon increase the kinetic energy and the mass of an electron by applying the well-established laws of Newton, Coulomb and Ampere.(See my AMPERE AND COULOMB REJECT EINSTEIN ). However Einstein influenced by Maxwell’s wrong fields used the Lorentz math of the ether theory. Also in the incomplete explanation of the photoelectric effect influenced by wrong Maxwell’s fields Einstein proposed that light consists of only bundles of energy hν having no mass although in the same year in his so-called “ mass-energy equivalence” he proposed that ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2 }which means that the absorption of photons increases not only the energy ΔΕ of the electron but also its mass ΔΜ . Since Einstein believed that photon is a massless particle this equation was interpreted as a transformation of energy into mass which did much to retard the progress of physics. (See my NEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS ).

Especially Einstein influenced by Maxwell’s fields in his paper (1905) of the explanation of the photoelectric effect begins by paying tribute to the assumed wide usefulness of Maxwell’s theory of light; it “has proved itself excellently suited for the description of purely optical phenomena [reflection, refraction, polarization, etc.], and will probably never be replaced by another theory.”

Here we note that the purpose of new ideas is to penetrate beyond to immediate and visible to the unseen, and thereby to place the visible into a new, larger context. On a simple level, a new idea helps us to explain not only one experiment but a number of observed phenomena and the relationships between them, thereby bringing together into one structure the laws and observations from often very widely different fields.

**EINSTEIN IN HIS PHOTON THEORY DID NOT USE A NUMBER OF EXPERIMENTS LAWS AND OBSERVATIONS TO PRODUCE ONE CONCEPTUAL SCHEME **

Unfortunately Einstein did not took into account a number of experiments and observations for developing a photon theory which must correlate many separate facts in a logical, easily grasped structure of thought. For example Newton in his Opticks (1704) based on the mass of his particles of light predicted the bending of light near the sun confirmed by Soldner in 1801, while Maxwell based on the electromagnetic properties of light discovered by Faraday (1845) in his theory of wrong self-propagating fields suggested the transmission of energy with no mass.

On the other hand it was well- known that in 1881 the discoverer of the electron J.J. Thomson recognized that the electromagnetic energy corresponds to a certain mass called electromagnetic mass. Thomson also recognized that the mass of a body in motion is increased by a constant quantity. Meanwhile, the famous experiment of Michelson and Morley (1887) rejected the Maxwellian ether in favor of Newton’s particles of light having mass. In this way of particles of light Planck in 1900 discovered that light consists of discrete quantities (quanta) having energy hν. Then, Kaufmann was the first to confirm that the mass of an electron increases with velocity and he explained his experiments of 1901-1903 by using the so-called electromagnetic mass.

Under this condition of a number of experiments showing the gravitational and electromagnetic properties of light and the fact that Planck discovered that light consists of particles having energy hν, Einstein should compare the gravitational properties of Newton’s predictions with the electromagnetic properties of light which could lead to the conclusion that the so-called electromagnetic mass of Thomson should be the photon mass of his photons behaving like moving dipoles able to produce electric and magnetic forces of the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere when they interact with electrons. Thus in the photoelectric effect the absorbed photons should give off not only the energy hν discovered by Planck, but also the mass of Newton’s particles of light or the so-called electromagnetic mass recognized by Thomson.

**EXPLANATION OF THE BENDING OF LIGHT UNDER THE APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON’S FIRST LAW REJECTING EINSTEIN’S RELATIVITY**

Starting with Newton’s predictions confirmed by Soldner for the explanation of the bending of light near the sun one may use Galileo’s projectile motions, which are similar to a photon at the speed c. The Kaufmann experiments showed that when an electron absorbs photons it cannot move at c because it absorbs the mass of photons. However in the absence of such a detailed knowledge Einstein believed that his photons are massless particles because they move at the speed of light. In fact, a photon moving at c has a real mass which differs from the mass of particles. In case in which photons had only energy hν with no mass the electrons under the absorption of photon energy could move faster than the speed of light.Moreover Einstein starting also from the wrong hypothesis that a rest mass has energy he tried to demonstrate that the energy of a photon E = pc is correct when the photon is treated as a massless particle. Note that in atomic and nuclear bindings the mass defect cannot be transformed to the energy of the assumed massless protons. In fact the electromagnetic energy turns into the energy of photon ,while the mass defect turns into the real mass of photon in accordance with the conservation laws of energy and mass. (See my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN ). It is surprising that the discovery of the electron spin (1925 showed that the peripheral velocity of spinning electrons is much more greater than the speed of light because the spin cannot be related with the absorption of photon mass. Thus rejecting Einstein’s ideas we revealed that the opposite spin of electrons gives stronger magnetic attraction than the electric repulsion responsible for the atomic and molecular bindings. Under this condition when a photon moves in perpendicular direction to gravity the application of Newton’s first law gives an acceleration du/dt along the direction of gravity under a constant inertial mass m_{o} discovered by Galileo and Newton

F_{g} = m_{o}du/dt or F_{g}ds = dW = m_{o}udu or F_{g }Δs = ΔW = m_{o}u^{2}/2

In this case we see that the photon behaves like all particles which are accelerated under a constant inertial mass and a constant space or time. Thus the photon mass in this case behaves like the constant inertial mass rejecting the fallacious rest mass of Einstein. Under this condition the result of the acceleration and the constant velocity c will give a curved trajectory under a simple effect of a superposition discovered by Galileo. Thus the well-established principles of Galileo reject Einstein’s hypotheses that the bending of light is due to a fallacious “ether structure” or to a strange of “curvature of spacetime”.

**EXPLANATION OF THE GRAVITATIONAL FREQUENCY SHIFT BY APPLYING NEWTON’S SECOND LAW REJECTING EINSTEIN’S “EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE”**

On the same basis that photons have real mass I found that the experiments of the gravitational frequency shift are interpreted when the constant velocity c of a photon is parallel to gravity F_{g}. In this case the application of Newton’s second law gives

Fg = dp/dt = d(mc)/dt = c(dm/dt) or Fg ds = dW = hdν = c(dm/dt)ds = dmc^{2 }

Surprisingly for the explanation of the gravitational frequency shift the photon mass differs fundamentally than the photon mass of the bending of light because here the photon cannot be accelerated along the constant velocity c. Under this condition the photon mass is a variable mass occurring under a length contraction and a time dilation. This situation rejects Einstein’s “Equivalence principle” according to which the accelerates of a particle under a constant inertial mass is equivalent to gravity. That is Einstein's general relativity is incorrect. Since a photon behaves like an electric dipole moving with equal electric and magnetic forces at the speed of light any acceleration along the direction of c will give stronger magnetic force than the electric one which could violate Newton’s third law Thus the acceleration always must approach to zero under a basic length contraction and a time dilation.

**EXPLANATION OF THE PHOTON MASS BY USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF PHOTONS UNDER THE APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS OF COULOMB AND AMPERE WHO REJECT EINSTEIN’S RELATIVITY**

For simplicity a photon interacts with the charge (-e) of an electron in terms of E_{y} and B_{z} . In order to avoid the wrong concept of Faraday fields I call them electric and magnetic intencities respectively. So applications of the Coulomb and Ampere laws give

E_{y}(-e)dy = dW and B_{z}(-e)(dy/dt) = F_{m} Or B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m}dt = dp = dMc

Since Weber (1856) discovered that E_{y}/B_{z} = c we get dW/dM = c^{2} .

That is, under the applications of the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere a photon provides both energy and mass absorbed my an electron as

hν/m = dW/dM = c^{2}

So all wrong hypotheses of Einstein about the interpretation of the photoelectric effect and the development of his invalid special relativity according to the two conservation laws of energy and mass of the fundamental Newtonian mechanics should be modified since the increase of the electron mass is due not to the invalid Einstein’s relativity but to the absorption of energy and mass of photons which increase the energy ΔΕ and mass ΔΜ of an electron as

hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

Note that the invalid special relativity of the so-called “mass –energy equivalence” violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass, because during the absorption of photons energy cannot turn into mass but both energy and mass of a photon are transformed into the energy and mass of the electron. In other words the so-called “massless photons” of Einstein did much to retard the progress of physics.( See my OUR EARLY UNIVERSE ).

In fact, the photon energy and mass increases the energy and mass of an electron in accordance with the fundamental conservation laws of energy and mass of the Newtonian mechanics under the application of the well-established laws of Newton, Coulomb and Ampere. For example the experimental results of Kaufmann (1901-1903)

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} = c^{2}/(c^{2-}u^{2})

are interpreted by applying Newton’s second law F = dp/dt. = d(Mu)/dt

Here M_{o} is not the fallacious rest mass of Einstein but the constant inertial mass M_{o} of the electron, which becomes a variable mass M under a basic length contraction and a time dilation. We also discovered that it is due not to Einstein’s wrong relativistic simultaneity of two events but to the application of Newton’s third law of instantaneous simultaneity of forces acting at a distance, confirmed by detailed experiments of the Quantum Entanglement. Since in the quantum dynamics the energy of the absorbed photon increases both the mass M and the velocity u of the electron the application of Newton’s second law leads to

Fds = dW = (dp/dt)ds = [d(Mu)/dt]dt = d(Mu)u = ( Mdu + udM)u

Indeed differentiation of the experimental results of Kaufmann leads to

dMc^{2} = (Mdu +udM)u = dW . That is, hν/m = dW/dM = c^{2}

In this interaction we see that the magnetic force F_{m} of the Ampere law due to the velocity dy/dt produced by the electric force of the Coulomb law must occur after the electric force. As a result this situation should violate Newton’s third law of instantaneous simultaneity. So to avoid such a situation the velocity dy/dt should approach to zero under a basic length contraction (dy) and time dilation (dt).

To conclude we emphasize that the photon mass is deduced not only from gravitational properties of photons but also from electromagnetic properties. This situation unifies the gravity with the electromagnetic forces. In other words the photon mass is responsible for the unification of all natural laws of gravity and electromagnetism. (See my UNIFIED FORCES SOLVE THE CRISIS OF PHYSICS ).