By Lefteris Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) Τ.Ε. Institute of Larissa Greece.( May 2014)

After graduation, Einstein in a position as patent examiner did have certain advantage to analyze and criticize ideas for new inventions. Moreover, unlike most teaching positions available to young physicists, the patent office job gave Einstein enough free time to do his own reading, thinking, and research. But the complete absence of contact with professional physicists during this period was perhaps a blessing in disguise, for it permitted Einstein to develop his rather unorthodox approach to the problems of fundamental physics. For example under the influence of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in the development of his theory of special relativity (1905) he did not apply the well-established laws of Newton (1887), Coulomb (1785), and Ampere (1820) involving forces acting at a distance, because he believed incorrectly that the well-established laws of nature belong in an old history of physics and only new theories do much for the progress of physics. So later in his book “The evolution of physics (1938) he wrote: "Science is not the collection of natural laws but of new theories”.( See my papers in my new FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS CONCEPTS ).

On the contrary Newton was the first to express with full clarity the modern attitude to science, that its task is to discover the laws which the natural phenomena revealed by experiment and observation and not to discuss the ultimate nature of things in a philosophical manner. In Newton’s time some great discoverers were writing of the question as to what light was. Newton stated his point of view in the first words of his great book *Opticks, *published in 1704 when he was 62 years old, “ My design in this book is not to explain the Properties of Light by Hypotheses, but to propose and prove them by Reason.”

One century later (1801) Soldner confirmed the gravitational properties of light predicted by Newton and later (1905) the photoelectric effect confirmed the particle properties of light introduced by Newton. Moreover the experiment of Michelson (1887) rejected the Maxwellian ether in favor of Newton’s *Opticks* .

However Einstein at the age of 26, (June 1905) was in a great hurry to explain incorrectly the photoelectric effect under his fallacious massless quanta of fields. For such an explanation Einstein leaving out the experiments confirming Newton’s corpuscles begins by paying tribute to wrong Maxwell’s fields and suggests that Maxwell’s theory will probably never be replaced by another theory. Under this physics crisis Einstein did not use the photon mass m = hf/c^{2} but only the energy hf of the Planck work (1900). In fact, after my papers of 1993 and 2002 which led to my discovery of the photon-matter interaction the absorption of a photon by an electron contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ because Einstein’s confusing formula ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2} is modified correctly by my discovery of the following valid formula in accordance with the two conservation laws of energy and mass

hf/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

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**EINSTEIN’S VALID INTERPRETATION OF THE BROWNIAN MOTION**

Fortunately in July of 1905 Einstein published his valid explanation of the Brownian motion which is a continuous random motion of very small particles suspended in a liquid. The phenomenon was first observed in 1827 by Brown, a Scottish botanist. Einstein based on the correct kinetic theory of the Newtonian mechanics showed that the Brownian motion results from bombardment of the suspended particles by the moving molecules of liquid. It is surprising that this valid idea was based on non-professional physicists. Einstein in his book “The evolution of physics” (1938) and especially in chapter THE RATE OF EXCHANGE wrote: "Less than a hundred years ago the new clue which led to the concept of heat as a form of energy was developed by Mayer and confirmed by Joule. It is a strange coincidence that nearly all the fundamental work about the nature of heat was done by non-professional physicists who regarded physics merely as their great hobby". Also for the kinetic theory of the Newtonian mechanics Einstein wrote: “In the kinetic theory of matter we see how this view, arising from mechanical problems, embraces the phenomena of heat and how it leads to a successful picture of the structure of matter.”

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**EINSTEIN COMPLICATED MORE THE SO-CALLED LORETZ TRANSFORMATION BY USING THE WRONG MAXWELL’S FIELDS AND THE RELATIVE MOTIONS OF FALSE EQUIVALENT SYSTEMS**

For a different interpretation of the so-called Lorentz transformation based on the fallacious Maxwellian ether Einstein took into account the false ideas of the philosophers Descartes, Hume, and Mach who believed that all motion is relative under the false assumption that the systems are equivalent. Under such invalid ideas Einstein believed that the earth is “at rest” without abandoning the Copernican system! Thus, for his interpretation of the increase of the electron mass in the laboratory he belived that the increase of the electron mas is due not to the absorption of photons but to the false relative motion of the electron with respect to a randomly moving observer. Such a fallacious idea led to the false concept that a moving observer with the electron in the laboratory can measure the increase of mass of all stationary objects in the laboratory.

In fact, according to Newton’s third law the force F_{g }of attraction of the sun with mass M on the earth with mass m is equal in magnitude to the attraction of the earth on the sun. Under this condition in the system sun-earth only the acceleration α_{1} of the earth is measured with respect to the sun which in the system sun-earth is “at rest” because in the same system the mass M of the sun is much more greater than the mass m of the earth . In this case applying Newton’s second law the acceleration α_{2} of the sun approaches to zero because M >> m. That is

F_{g} = mα_{1 }
= Mα_{2} Since M >> m one concludes that α_{1 }>> α_{2 }

Under such fallacious ideas of relative motions of equivalent systems, in September of 1905 Einstein using again his fallacious massless quanta of fields tried to explain differently the so-called Lorentz transformation introduced incorrectly for the experiment of Kaufmann who showed that an electromagnetic mass recognized by J. J. Thomson in 1881 was responsible for the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ.

Especially in 1902 Kaufmann showed experimentally that the constant inertial mass M_{o} of a moving electron in the laboratory increases to M with its velocity u as

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} = c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})

It is well-known that formidable quantities of energy reach the earth as a continuous unending stream of rays from the sun. The energy of the sun’s rays is indeed the source of various other forms of energy that make life possible on earth. Therefore using my discovery of the Photon-Matter Interaction I showed that the increase of the electron mass in the Kaufmann experiment is due not to the invalid special relativity but to the Photon-Matter Transformation. So differentiation of this formula gives

2MdMc^{2} = 2MdMu^{2} + 2uduM^{2 } or dMc^{2 } = d(Mu)u

Indeed when an electron absorbs a photon with energy dW and mass m = dW/c^{2} the absorption of photon increases both the mass M and the velocity u of the electron. Thus application of the well-established second law of Newton gives

Fds = dW = (dp/dt)ds = [d(Mu)/dt]ds = d(Mu)u

Here we revealed that the Kaufmann experiment is explained accurately by using the Thomson electromagnetic mass m or the mass of the photon m = hf/c^{2} where hf is the energy of the photon after the great work of Planck (1900) . Moreover I showed that the absorption of photons occurs under a length contraction and a time dilation in accordance with the well-established third law of Newton.

It is unfortunate that despite the famous experiment of the Michelson and Morley (1887) who rejected accurately the ether, Lorentz in 1904 influenced by the Maxwellian ether tried to interpret the Kaufmann experiment by violating the two conservation laws of energy and mass under a strange hypothesis that the interferometer of Michelson is contracted. In 1905 Einstein using the same math of Lorentz complicated more the problem, because he replaced temporarily the ether by a randomly moving observer. For example if an observer moves with the electron he will measure the increase of mass of all stationary objects in the laboratory. So he violated temporarily Newton’s discovery of the constant inertial mass Mo by introducing the fallacious concepts of rest mass and relativistic mass. Note that in his general relativity Einstein introduced an "Ether structure” and the “equivalence principle” of Newton’s constant inertial mass Mo which invalidates his concepts of rest and relativistic mass. According to the well-established Newton’s first law or law of inertia the force is not only the gravity but also an electric and magnetic force.

Moreover in his introduction of special relativity he violated not only the two conservation laws of mass and energy but also the principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s laws. Especially he used the fallacious electric field of Maxwell in the induction law, though Faraday in 1932 for the induction law wrote: “ All these results show that the power of inducing electric currents is circumferentially excited by a magnetic resultant or axis of power, just as circumferential magnetism is dependent upon and is exhibited by an electric current.” Later (1847) Neumann proved experimentally that the induction law is consistent with the magnetic force acting at a distance of the well-established Ampere law (1820).

It is notable that Einstein’s paper of special relativity contains not direct references to other papers. However many historians of science have tried to find out possible influence on Einstein. He denied any significant of the most important experiments. A possible source is the writing of Max Abraham who was a supporter of the so-called electromagnetic mass which led to my discovery of the photon mass. It is surprising why Einstein did not use the so-called electromagnetic mass recognized by Thomson in 1881. Note that Thomson's electromagnetic mass led to my discovery of photon mass which invalidates both fields and relativity in accordance with the two conservation laws of energy and mass developed by the Greek philosophers.

'*EINSTEIN’S FALSE ΔΕ = ΔΜ'***c ^{2} IS REPLACED BY MY Δ'**

*hf/Δ'*

**m = ΔΕ'**

*/ΔΜ'*

**= c**

^{2}In Newtonian dynamics, and in the absence of a photon absorption the kinetic energy (KE) of a body is the work done by the net force F that acts on the body in accelerating it to the speed u under a constant inertial mass M_{o} . That is,

KE = Fds = dW = [Mo(du//dt)]ds = M_{o}udu or FΔs = ΔW = Mou^{2}/2

Unfortunately Einstein believed that in the absence of a photon absorption such a fundamental motion could be described by his fallacious concepts of rest mass M_{o }and a relativistic mass M moving with respect to a randomly moving observer. That is, he replaced incorrectly Newton’s discovery of the constant inertial mass by the two wrong concepts of rest and relativistic mass. Note that Einstein introduced the same discovery of the constant inertial mass in his “equivalence principle” of his general relativity, which invalidates his concepts of rest and relativistic mass. For example in the simple gravity where the potential energy FΔs is transformed into a kinetic one under a constant inertial mass Einstein introducing the false concept of relativistic mass replaced the fundamental constant inertial mass of Newton’s first law by his rest mass (mass of a stationary object with respect to a randomly moving observer). Thus he proposed that

KE = ΔW = ΔΜc^{2 }= Mc^{2} – M_{o}c^{2}

In other words he believed incorrectly that the first term is an energy called “relativistic energy” depending on the velocity u with respect to a randomly moving observer. So an observer moving with an electron in an accelerator will measure a “relativistic energy” of the stationary objects in the laboratory. Whereas the second term expresses an energy called “rest energy.” Such ideas led to the biggest errors in the history of physics, because they violate the conservation law of energy according to which the potential energy due to the fundamental force of an interaction at a distance turns into the kinetic energy. That is, according to the definition of work the energy is due not to the mass but to the force of interaction. Under this fallacious idea Einstein assumed also that the mass defect in atomic and in nuclear structures turns into the energy of the generated photons. As Einstein himself wrote: “Pre-relativity physics contains two conservation laws of fundamental importance, namely, the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation of mass; these two appear there as completely independent of each other. Through relativity theory they melt together into one principle" Under this fallacious idea physicists today believe that in the so-called annihilation process the total mass of an electron and a positron is converted into the energy of two generated photons. In fact, the energy of the charge-charge interaction of the system electron-positron turns into the energy of the two photons, while the mass of the two particles turns into the mass of the two photons in accordance with the two conservation laws of energy and mass.

Since this idea did much to retard the progress of physics, in 2002 we presented at the 12th symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society our paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism.” In fact, in the Bohr model we see that there is not any rest or relativistic energy. During the quantum jump of the electron the energy of the Coulomb interaction turns into the energy of the generated photon. Thus, according to the two conservation laws of energy and mass the mass defect turns into the mass of photon. In the same way I revealed that in the nuclear binding the charge-charge interaction turns into the energy of photon while the mass defect of nucleons turns into the mass of the generated photon. Especially we discovered that the binding energy is due to the electromagnetic interaction of 9 extra charged quarks in proton and 12 extra charged quarks in neutron existing among 288 quarks in nucleons.

**EINSTEIN TRIED TO MODIFY THE WELL-ESTABLISHED LAW OF GRAVITY BY INTRODUCING VARIOUS WRONG HYPOTHESES IN HIS GENERAL RELATIVITY**

Historically in 1644, Descartes published his work *Principles of Philosophy* by attempting to construct a theory about the concepts of matter and motion. It was failure but it left an indelible impact on subsequent thinking about the nature of the physical world. Even after the triumph of Newtonian physics many scientists still shared Descartes preference for avoiding the concept of fundamental force acting at a distance ( confirmed by the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement) and for postulating instead that space is filled with pieces of matter (Aristotelian ether) that can interact. What appear in Newton’s laws to be long range forces acting across empty space, such as gravity, would on Descartes view be explained by the propagation of waves through an invisible ether. It is indeed unfortunate that such false ideas led not only to Einstein’s fallacious gravitational waves moving through an “ether structure” but also to the introduction of a strange “curvature of vacuum” for the explanation of the bending of light near the sun. Note that Newton based on Galileo’s curved trajectory of a projectile predicted the bending of his rectangular particles of light near the sun. Also such fallacious ideas led to the false force carriers like virtual photons, gluons, and gravitons of the wrong standard model.

Although nature works in only one way, as early as 1907 Einstein was showing dissatisfaction with his wrong special relativity in which he used velocities with respect to a randomly moving observer, while we proved that the explanation of the Kaufmann experiment is based not on Einstein;s incorrect relativity but on the quantum dynamics of the absorption of photons under the applications of the well-established laws of nature. So under the influence of philosophical speculations he tried to find a better way for the solution of hypothetical problems by saying: Why was only uniform motion relative with respect to a hypothetical moving observer ? Why was only acceleration absolute? At the same time he wanted to modify Newton’s well-established universal law of gravity. So at first he assumed that there is a problem of gravitation which must be linked with the problem of acceleration. On this basis he starts with Newton’s fundamental gravity F_{g }on an object with constant inertial mass mo and gravitational mass m on the earth having mass M and radius R. That is

F_{g} = m_{o}g = GmM/R^{2}

Since Galileo showed experimentally that the acceleration g is the same for all objects, then Newton concluded that m_{o }= m. Under this universal law when a photon of mass m moves in perpendicular direction to gravity the gravitational force according to Galileo’s projectiles will cause an acceleration along the direction of gravity. So we will observe a curved trajectory as a result of the combined two separate motions like the constant velocity c and the acceleration along the gravity in accordance with Newton’s first law or law of inertia. This situation was predicted by Newton confirmed by Soldner in 1801. However, Einstein believed that his theory of general relativity interprets it under a fallacious “ether structure” or a strange “curvature of space-time with four dimensions.” Note that later Schrodinger (1926) formulated his time- independent equations in three dimensions with enormous success.

It is surprising that Newton and Galileo discovered that mass has the two properties of inertia and gravity. So Einstein using this discovery introduced his “equivalence principle”, which states that it is impossible to distinguish between acceleration and gravity. However this statement is incomplete because Newton found that all kinds of forces like electric and magnetic ones cause the same acceleration under a constant inertial mass of his first law. Furthermore this invalidates dramatically the two concepts of rest and relativistic mass. Einstein also believed incorrectly that the most transparent prediction of his “equivalence principle” is the gravitational red shift, while we revealed that this effect invalidates the so-called “equivalence principle.” For example when the velocity c of the photon is parallel to gravity F_{g} we cannot use Newton’s first law or law of inertia. In this case we revealed that the photon cannot behave like a particle with a constant inertial mass, because the gravitational force cannot cause any acceleration along the constant velocity c . So after the application of Newton’s second law we get

F_{g}ds = dW = hdf = (dp/dt)ds = (cdm/dt)ds = dmc^{2}

Here the acceleration approaches always to zero under a basic length contraction and a time dilation, because the photon with a dipolar nature operates with equal electric attraction and magnetic repulsion with instantaneous simultaneity, in accordance with Newton’s third law, which is the same in all inertial frames. Note that any velocity greater than c will produce stronger magnetic forces than the electric ones, which should violate Newton’s well-established third law. Thus Einstein’s relativistic simultaneity of two events is a fallacious concept. Note that Einstein for the gravitational red shift used the Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics

δν/ν = u/c

because the relativistic one leads to complications. Also Einstein tried to unify his false fields without success, while we unified the forces acting a t a distance because the electromagnetic properties of photons lead to the same results.

Einstein also believed that he solved the problem of Mercury’s Precession by using his wrong hypotheses of special relativity that energy is associated with mass. In fact, the observation that the orbit of Mercury slowly rotates around the sun at the perihelion is due to the Newtonian sun-tide. Unfortunately Einstein influenced by the wrong fields of Maxwell moving through a fallacious ether believed that there are also gravitational fields or gravitational waves able to carry the gravitational forces at the speed of light, though the electric field was defined as a force per unit charge unable to curry the same force. Thus Einstein’s gravitational waves or gravitons of the wrong Standard Model will never be observed. Note that detailed experiments of the Quantum Entanglement confirmed accurately Newton’s fundamental action at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity. Since it invalidates Einstein’s ideas Einstein himself called it “Spooky action at a distance.” Therefore in vain Einstein after a work of many years tried to unify his fallacious fields but without success. So in 1954 he expressed his frustration to his fiend Bess by writing: “ I consider it quite possible that physics cannot be based on the field concept , i.e., on continuous structures.”