**( OUR DISCOVERY OF THE UNIFICATION OF FORCES)**

**WEAK AND STRONG INTERACTIONS ARE DUE TO FORCES OF ELECTROMAGNETISM ACTING AT A DISTANCE. UNIFICATION OF FORCES INVALIDATES MAXWELL’S FIELDS, EINSTEIN’S RELATIVITY, AND NUCLEAR THEORIES, FOR EXPLAINING THE MASS DEFECT, THE GRAVITATIONAL REDSHIFT AND THE NUCLEAR STRUCTURE**

By prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ( Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός ) T.E. Institute of Larissa, Greece. (SEPT. 2012)

This scientific article was announced to many universities around the world.

Writing in Google Scholar “ Kaliambos” one can find our paper "Impact of Maxwell's..... ...particles" presented at the International conference " Frontiers of fundamental physics" (Olympia 1993)" That paper invalidates Maxwell’s self propagating fields and Einstein’s relativity, because in gravitational interactions the**variable photon mass**differs fundamentally from the constant mass of particles. Einstein under his fallacious massless quanta of fields explained incorrectly the Photoelectric effect (1905) because he belived that the absorption of his quanta contributes only to the increase of the electron energy . This incorrect explanation led to the invalid relativity which violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass. In fact, Kaufmann in 1902 showed that the absorption of electromagnetic energy contributes not only to the increase of energy but also to the increase of the electron mass which is due to a so-called electromagnetic mass of Einstein's quanta named photons by Lewis in 1926.

**UNIFICATION OF FORCES INVALIDATES MAXWELL’S FIELDS, EINSTEIN’S RELATIVITY, AND NUCLEAR THEORIES**

Prior to 1820 electric and magnetic forces were regarded as two separate interactions . That year, Oersted demonstrated that an electric current generates a magnetic force . Later Weber (1856) found that the constants K and k of electric and magnetic forces respectively are given by the simple relation K/k = c^{2} where c is the speed of light . Thus, for simplicity, when a dipole with opposite charges (+q and –q) moves at a velocity u,with respect to the source of light, and the dipole axis r is perpendicular to u, the two basic laws of Coulomb and Biot-Savart give F_{e }and F_{m} acting at a distance as:

F_{e }= Kq^{2}/r^{2} and F_{m} = kq^{2}u^{2}/r^{2} . So F_{e}/F_{m} = c^{2}/u^{2} .

This simple result of unified forces acting at a distance led me to develop the model of dipolic particles or dipolic photons, since for u = c the moving dipole gives time varying E_{y}/B_{z} = c like the results of Maxwell’s fallacious self propagating fields. See our paper “Impact of Maxwell’s equations…” in which I showed that the speed of light c depends on the source of light. Therefore Einstein’s basic postulation that the speed of light is independent of the light source is invalid.

Today many physicists believe that Maxwell was the first who unified the electric and magnetic phenomena. In fact, he used Faraday’s wrong concepts of fields and Weber’s experiments on electromagnetism. Maxwell in his paper "* A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field*" goes on to discuss some of his results in the following paragraphs:

**The conception of the propagation of transverse magnetic disturbances to the exclusion of normal ones is distinctly set forth by Professor Faraday in his "**

*Thoughts on Ray Vibrations*"... and that the velocity of propagation is the velocity υ found from experiments such as those of Weber...Unfortunately at the beginning of the 20^{th} century Einstein following Faraday’s and Maxwell’s wrong concepts of fields developed his invalid theories of special and general relativity by assuming that relative motions are responsible for the increase of the mass of particles and fields can produce curvatures of vacuum etc.

In fact, the increase of mass is due to the absorption of the photon mass. Hence, the so-called “*relativistic mass*” is replace here by the “*surplus mass*” because the theory of relative motions with respect to a randomly moving observer leads to complications. Also gravitational interactions on the photon mass invalidate Einstein’s curvature of vacuum. For example when the gravitational force F_{g} acting on the photon mass is parallel to the velocity c, the mass of the dipolic photon increases under the applications of Newton’s second law, because photons operate at c in the reference frame of the light source, due to the electromagnetic forces of the dipolic photon. ( gravitational frequency shift). That is, in this direction of gravitational interactions a photon has a variable mass which differs fundamentally from the constant rest mass of particles. However, when F_{g} acts in perpendicular direction to the velocity c the mass of the dipolic photon is accelerated and remains constant like all particles. (bending of light). Einstein did not know that his photons have a variable mass of opposite charges. So in the absence of such a detailed knowledge Einstein sought to unify the electromagnetic and gravitational interactions , but without success.

Later the assumed uncharged neutrons, photons, neutrinos, and antineutrinos complicated more the problem, because theoretical physicists abandoned the basic laws of electromagnetism in favor of unknown strong and weak forces mediated by virtual photons, gravitons, mesons, gluons, and bosons (W ,Z).

In fact, as in atoms and molecules, the nuclear structure is due to simple electromagnetic forces between the spinning nucleons having extra charged quarks able to interact electromagnetically for the nuclear structure. Also the neutrinos and antineutrinos are absorbed by quarks like the absorptions of photons, since they have apposite charges and interact electromagnetically with the charged quarks . Of course these two simple cases invalidate the so-called strong and weak interactions.

That is, in the simple fundamental laws of gravity and electromagnetism providing forces acting at a distance physicists added complicated strong and weak forces mediated by fallacious fields, curved vacuums, and virtual photons with more false force carriers, like the Aristotelian geometry of motions and the fifth element, the ether. Under this confusion, physicists have proposed several variants of theories called Grand Unified Theories in order to reduce the additional incorrect number of forces with their false mediators.

In our paper "Nuclear structure...." (2002) we showed with a large number of equations that the so-called strong interaction is due to the electromagnetic forces of the basic laws of Coulomb and Ampere acting at a distance. This action leads correctly to the nuclear structure, while the wrong nuclear theories cannot lead to the nuclear structure. Moreover the spinning photons of opposite charges give the same electromagnetic interactions like the neutrinos and antineutrinos which have opposite charges and interact electromagnetically with the spinning quarks in nucleons. Notice that fundamental particles like the spinning electrons, positrons, neutrinos, antineutrinos, up and down quarks, have peripheral velocities greater than the speed of light for giving magnetic attractions greater than the electric repulsions. ( See in Google “Quarks, Neutrinos, Nucleons, and Nuclei”).Until about 1980 it was assumed that unification of forces required that gravity be reformulated within the context of Einstein’s relativity but all attempts to construct a relativistic theory of gravity failed dismally.

In a different way (without using fallacious theories) I tried to find a relationship between electromagnetic and gravitational forces by using the dipolic photon of our model of dipolic particles, since a photon has a mass m of opposite charges. For example when the opposite charges of such a photon interact with an electron we get dw/dm = c^{2}by using the interaction in terms of fields as:

E_{y} (-e) dy = dw and B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m} dt = dp = cdm.

Since E_{y}/B_{z} = c we get dw/dm = c^{2} = hν/m

Surprisingly we see that the gravitational force F_{g }due to the mass m of photons interacting with a mass M of a massive body is able to give the same result dw/dm = c^{2} which means that, under the quantum physics, gravity and electromagnetism are unified correctly. This is the well-known gravitational blue shift when a photon moves toward a massive star. That is, because of the **variable photon mass**, which differs fundamentally from the constant mass of particles, one observes a blue shift energy hδν. Of course it is similar to the kinetic energy of a simple particle of constant mass accelerated in a gravitational field. Note that Einstein in his general relativity used incorrectly his relativistic accelerations of particles which lead to complications, because he believed that in nature there is a universal principle of relativity giving always his relativistic accelerations. So, under such wrong axioms he thought that the fundamental Newtonian accelerations in gravity are a limited case of his conclusions. In fact, we can see just the opposite situation, because applications of Newton’s laws give the general correct results of both the kinetic energy of particles and the gravitational frequency shift of photons as:

F_{g}ds = dw = ( dp/dt) ds = [d(mu)/dt]ds = [m(du/dt) +u(dm/dt)]ds

In Newton's own formulation of the second law, he states that the force acting on a body is equal to the change of its momentum F = d(mu)/dt. But it was far more convinient to use the rate of change of motion. It is a very simple version F = m(du/dt) formalized by the Swiss mathematician Euler(1750), because physicists did not know that Newton's particles of light have a variable mass able to give an energy of blue shift similar to the kinetic energy of particles having a rest mass.

For a particle with a constant rest mass m we use the well-known first term, because the gravitational interaction affects the velocity u. This leads to the fundamental formula F_{g }= ma = GmM/r^{2 } which covers all accelerations, no matter what is the velocity of the particle. Whereas Einstein’s the so-called relativistic accelerations are due to the limited case when the photons are absorbed by the particles.

Note that for a dipolic photon operating at c with F_{e} = F_{m }the velocity c in free space cannot be affected by F_{g} and remains constant. In the direction of the velocity c the speed of light is the result of the attractive F_{e} which is equal to the repulsive F_{m }. This equality gives the velocity c which is always perpendicular to the vectors of F_{e} and F_{m} . Whereas the speed c of a photon moving through the air is reduced, because the opposite charges of photons cause a polarization of molecules, which reduce the attractive electric forces of photons. In general for a photon moving in free space since u = c we use the second term as:

F_{g}ds = dw = c(dm/dt)ds = dmc^{2} or dw/dm = c^{2 } = hν/m

This formula is very important because it unifies the gravity with the forces of electromagnetism. Moreover it leads us to calculate the gravitational frequency shift δν by using the height H of a homogeneous field . Since the **photon has a variable mass** the potential energy mgH can be transformed into the energy hδν. Thus we write:

mgH = hδν. Then comparing it with mc^{2 }= hν one gets δν/ν = gH/c^{2}

That is, the gravitational interaction explains the gravitational frequency shift, by using the second term of Newton’s second law.

Under this condition the gravitational frequency shift δν/ν for light emitted at the surface of a massive star, like a **NEUTRON STAR**** **or a **BLACK HOLE** **,** is very important because in general gH leads to the GM/R, where M is the great mass of the neutron star and R is its radius. In this case it is well-known that M of a neutron star is greater than the mass of our sun, while the R is much smaller. Note that Einstein in his general relativity ptoposed that such a sufficiently compact mass will deform space and time to form a neutron star or a black hole. Moreover Einstein suggested that on the cosmic scale his curvuture of vacuum might have the effect of making the universe finite though unbounded. In fact, the formation of a neutron star is due to the characteristic long-ranged gravitational attractions which are very important in very massive stars. In our paper "Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism" we showed that the neutron stars are formed when the long-ranged gravitational attraction ovecomes the short-ranged repulsions between neutrons. The opposite situation is observed in very heavy nuclei, where the long-ranged repulsions of protons overcome the short-ranged attractions of the proton-neutron systems and lead to the decay.

We conclude also that all basic laws of Newton, Coulomb and Ampere providing forces acting at a distance lead to the principle of *Photon-Matter Transformation *which is a limited result of the above fundamental laws when particles absorb photons . For example in this case the applications of Newton’s second law give:

Fds = dw = (dp/dt)ds = [d(mu)/dt]ds = u(mdu +udm)

Since the experiments showed that m^{2}/m_{o}^{2 }= c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})

differentiation gives 2mdmc^{2} = 2udum^{2} + 2mdmu^{2}

or dmc^{2} = u(mdu +udm) = dw (Einstein’s equation).

Of course all these equal results of the applications of electromagnetism and Newton’s laws under the quantum physics led me to discover not only the unification of all forces but also the fundamental principle of “*Matter –Photon Transformation*” expressed by ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c^{2} which invalidates relativity for explaining the mass defect.

Under this condition we analyze historically the wrong concepts of special and general theories of relativity with very simple mathematics in order to present carefully with understandable examples all the false assumptions of Einstein.

**EINSTEIN’S FALLACIOUS GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS**

Under Faraday’s wrong ideas (1832) that the free space surrounding magnets and coils was in a state of tension like curved stretched rubber bands (field concept), Einstein in his formulation of the theory of general relativity ( 1915) tried to modify Newton’s law of universal gravitation (action at a distance) by filling the space between interacting bodies with gravitational fields like the fallacious fields of Maxwell. (See in Google “New revolution in physics”). According to Maxwell and Faraday the force F_{e} of the Coulomb law F_{e} = KqQ/r^{2} should be transmitted by the field F_{e}/q = KQ/r^{2} which is a fallacious idea because the force F_{e} cannot be transmitted by the same force per unit charge.

In the same way using Newton’s laws F_{g} = ma = GmM/r^{2}

we see that the problem becomes more complicated because the field is given by using the identity of inertial and gravitational mass as

F_{g}/m = a = GM/r^{2}

In other words, Einstein should suppose that the field F_{g}/m is also an acceleration (F_{g}/m = a) of nothing (empty space) which should act with m to produce the same acceleration on a test mass m. Also his new assumptions of curvatures of vacuum (curvatures of nothing) led to more complications.

It is well-known that such concepts with fields and force carriers like mesons, gluons, and heavy bosons led to serious complications, while our applications of electromagnetic forces acting at a distance led to the correct nuclear structure and binding.

**THE FALSE CURVED SPACE LEADS TO THE WRONG ETHER**

Einstein in his general relativity using the inhomogeneous lines of gravitational forces tried to connect the wrong concept of gravitational field with a curvature of vacuum like the curved stretched rubber bands of Faraday, because in his special relativity he replaced the ether by strange properties of vacuum. In his book “*The evolution of physics”* he wrote that the properties of vacuum are responsible for transmitting light waves .

Under such false ideas Einstein after 1916 radically modified his first ideas of special and general relativity. For example in 1924 he wrote: “* According to special relativity the ether remains still absolute, because its influence on the inertia of bodies…is independent of every kind of physical influence*”.

Historically under the influence of the Aristotelian geometry of motions and the fifth element the “ether” even after the triumph of Newtonian physics many scientists still shared Descartes’ preference for avoiding the “action at a distance”. So at the end of book III of the *Principia*, Newton put his very important remarks:

“**But hitherto I have not been able to discover the cause of those properties of gravity from phenomena [observation and experimentation], and I feign no hypotheses….To us it is enough that gravity does really exist, and act according to the laws which we have explained, and abundantly serves to account for all the motions of the celestial bodies and of our sea**.”

Later the Cavendish experiment (1798) was the first to measure the force of gravity acting at a distance between masses in the laboratory, and the first to yield accurate values for the gravitational constant G.

Note that Einstein’s assumptions about the relative uniform motions with respect to a randomly moving observer or with respect to a wrong immovable ether are fallacious ideas, because the increase of mass is not a kinematic but a dynamical situation. See in Google our papers “**Einstein’s wrong assumptions in special relativity**” and “**Invalidity of special relativity**”. According to our model of dipolic particles which led to the discovery of the principle of “*Photon- matter transformation*” one sees that in our complete formula

hν/m =ΔΕ/ΔΜ =c^{2 }which modifies Einstein’s equation ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2 }

the increase of mass, ΔΜ, of a moving particle is due to the absorption of energy and mass of photons. Moreover the equivalent “*Matter-photon transformation*” invalidates dramatically the special relativity. For example the mass of a moving electron in the hydrogen atom is less than the rest mass of the same electron of the proton –electron system.

**WRONG IDEAS OF EINSTEIN’S “PRINCIPLE OF EQUIVALENCE” **

After the so-called “ *special relativity*” Einstein tried to study the phenomena as they appear to observers in different *noninertial frames*. Using the two fundamental properties of mass,(the * inertia* and the

*),*

**gravity***expressed in Newton’s laws, Einstein underestimated Newton’s laws and believed that he discovered a fundamental principle called “*

*Principle of equivalence*”, in which he proposed accelerations of his results of special relativity producing the increase of mass. In other words he believed that his relativistic accelerations are fundamental, while the Newtonian accelerations should cover a limitation for u<<c.

Under such fallacious ideas Einstein In his book “*The Evolution of Physics*” wrote: “ **Is this identity of the two kinds of mass purely accidental, or does it have a *** deeper significance'''''*?

**” .**Historically, Newton, in the formulation of his fundamental laws, recognized that the inertia is a fundamental attribute of mass. For example the centrifugal force is the reaction force to a centripetal force. It is an inertial force experienced by a rotating object with respect to its surroundings, and appears to be the cause of the outward tangential motion. Actually, the outward motion results from the absence of the centripetal force needed to keep the object moving in a circle. So Newton was one of the first to recognize that all these dynamical phenomena are due to the natural tendency-inertia- of any body to keep on moving in the same direction if it is not constrained to do otherwise. So astronauts orbiting the earth, as in free fall, feel weightless because the centrifugal force is equal but opposite to the gravitational one. Especially Newton found that in both sides of his fundamental formula

F_{g} = ma = GmM/r^{2} the mass m is the same.

Therefore Einstein’s the so-called “*Principle of *equivalence” is valid only under the fundamental Newtonian mechanics, since the accelerations of particles due to gravity contain always constant masses.

Moreover after his theory of photons (1905) having only energy hν Einstein incorrectly used a pulse of light in an accelerated system of his relativistic conclusions. Thus for avoiding complications in his applications of the Doppler effect (1842) δν/ν = u/c he interpreted the gravitational frequency shift by using the limitation u<<c . In fact this relation of Doppler effect (without limitations) is used in all accelerations of gravity and only in limited cases of accelerations due to the photon absorptions one may use Einstein’s relativistic accelerations, which cannot be related with the gravitational accelerations.

**EINSTEIN’S RESULTS IN GENERAL RELATIVITY CONTRADICT HIS BASIC POSTULATION OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY**

In the theory of general relativity Einstein in order to interpret the gravitational frequency shift used an accelerated closed box of height H, having a source of light fixed to the ceiling and a detector at the floor. For analyzing correctly and carefully this shift we use the same box of acceleration a = -g and apply the Doppler effect as given by the fundamental Newtonian mechanics: δν/ν = u/c. Thus the time t for photons to traverse the distance H to the detector is t = H/c. Note that according to our model of dipolic particles the velocity c of a photon depends on the source of light, no matter what is the velocity of the box. During the acceleration a = -g both the ceiling (source) and the floor (detector) are accelerated with the same acceleration.

So at the time t =H/c the detector and the source have risen at the end of a distance S = gt^{2}/2 with a velocity u = gt . In this case we observe a displacement of the same distance H to the new positions of the detector and the source. At the time t =H/c the accelerated detector moving along the distance S meets a photon and receives an additional energy hδν because it approaches with the velocity u = gt = gH/c the photon of a speed c = H/t .

Here we clear that since the speed c of photons depends on the source of light the position of the distance H = tc is the new position of the displacement produced after the acceleration. Of course it means that the speed of light c always depends on the source of light, no matter what is its velocity of the source. Note that Einstein put incorrectly the limitation u = gH/c <<c . Therefore he did not know that his conclusions contradict his basic postulation of special relativity that the speed of light in free space is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body.

Indeed using correctly the Doppler effect of the fundamental Newtonian mechanics we write

δν/ν = u/c. Since u = gt and t = H/c we get δν/ν = gH/c^{2}

or hδν/hν = mgΗ/mc^{2} which leads to hν/m = c^{2}

That is we can find the same relation as those of the gravitational interaction and electromagnetism by using the first term of Newton’s second law under the application of the Doppler effect. However if the source is located on the floor and the detector attached to the ceiling, the frequency measured at the detector is shifted toward the “red”.

**NEWTON PREDICTED THE BENDING OF LIGHT**

Under the fundamental identity of the inertial and gravitational mass Newton predicted the bending of light when his particles of light pass near the sun. According to his laws any particle regardless of its mass should experience the same acceleration at the same point near the sun. So we see his first “Query” in his *Opticks* : “**Do not Bodies act upon Light at a distance, and by their action bend its rays, and is not this action strongest at the least*** '''''*distance?'''''

*In 1801, just a few years before the experiments of Young and Fresnel, who rejected the Newtonian particles, a German mathematician, J.von Soldner, computed the trajectory of the Newtonian particle of light that passes close to the periphery of the massive sun. ( J. von Soldner, Berl. Astr. Jahrb, 1804, p.161). Therefore Soldner was able to answer Newton’s query. Note that I used: A) Soldner’s computations showing that the particles of light have a mass. B) the Faraday effect showing the electromagnetic properties of light and C) the photons of Einstein, for developing our model of dipolic particles or dipolic photons.*

**”.**

**THE BENDING OF LIGHT INVALIDATES EINSTEIN’S IDEAS**

To simplify the problem of the bending of light we study a photon when it is moved horizontally ( in perpendicular direction to the gravitational force. Using Galileo’s projectile motion for a vertical distance H from the surface of the Earth one sees that the horizontal velocity c of photon and the vertical velocity υ = (2gH) ^{0.5 }are always independent.

Here the vertical velocity υ is a real velocity, responsible for the bending of light, which invalidates the postulation of Einstein that the speed of light is the same for all observers . Since the force F_{g} is perpendicular to the velocity c the mass m of the photon behaves like a particle of constant mass which can be accelerated under Newton’s gravitational interaction. Under this condition applications of Newton’s laws give :

dw = F_{g}dH = mgdH = mυdυ or mgH = mυ^{2}/2

In other words when a photon move along a direction perpendicular to the vector F_{g }the at a distance gravitational interaction produces a gravitational acceleration like Galileo’s projectiles, which is responsible for the bending of light. This fact invalidates not only the concepts of special relativity but also the strange curved vacuum around the photon.

**CONCLUSIONS **

The laws of Newton Coulomb and Ampere involving forces acting at a distance give the same formula hν/m =c^{2} since the dipolic photons have mass of opposite charges. The unification of the Coulomb and Ampere laws is responsible for the operation of photons because photons operate always at the constant speed c in the reference frame of the source of light, under the fundamental relation K/k =c^{2} which unifies electromagnetic forces . Thus the interaction of photon charges with the charges of particles lead to the above fundamental formula. Moreover under the constant velocity c when the gravitational force F_{g} is parallel to the vector of the velocity c it cannot affect the speed of photon. In this direction it affects the mass leading to the same fundamental formula. However when the velocity c is perpendicular to the F_{g} the photon mass behaves completely like a particle of constant mass and accelerates giving an additional velocity υ perpendicular to c. Finally, when the mass of a particle absorbs a photon mass or gives its mass to the photon, we must apply the principles of *Photon-Matter Transformation *( surplus mass) or the equivalent principle of* Matter-Photon Transformation *(mass defect ). Note that in atomic nuclear and quark physics electromagnetic forces acting at a distance lead correctly to the structure and binding like the forces of atoms and molecules. On the other hand since the neutrinos and antineutrinos have opposite charges interact electromagnetically with charged quarks and like photons they are absorbed. Of course such interactions are equivalent to our discovery of *Photon-Matter Transformation* which invalidates the so- called weak interactions mediated incorrectly by very heavy bosons.