**By Prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) Τ.Ε. Institute of Larissa - Greece**

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**HISTORICALLY THE DISCOVERY OF THE ASUMMED UNCHARGED NEUTRONS (1932) LED TO THE ABANDONMENT OF NATURAL LAWS IN FAVOR OF WRONG NUCLEAR THEORIES AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE MODELS. THEN OUR ANALYSIS OF THE MAGNETIC MOMENTS AND THE DEEP INELASTIC SCATTERING LED TO THE DISCOVERY OF 9 CHARGED QUARKS IN PROTONS AND 12 ONES IN NEUTRONS EXISTING AMONG 288 QUARKS IN NUCLEONS. SUCH A DISCOVERY OF CONSIDERABLE CHARGE DISTRIBUTIONS DUE TO EXTRA CHARGED QUARKS LEADS TO THE STRUCTURE OF MAGIC NUCLEI BY REVIIVING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS.**

This scientific article was announced to many universities around the world (March 2013)

Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can find our

Impact of Maxwell’s equation .... presented at the international conference "Frontiers of fundamental physics, (Olympia, 1993)

which invalidates Maxwell’s fields and Einstein’s relativity.The paper was based on the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) who showed that the basic postulation of Maxwell's moving fields through the fallacious ether involves misconceptions. Thus Einstein's massless quanta of such wrong fields led to the invalid relativity which violates the two conservation laws of mass and energy. In fact, the increase of the electron mass is due not to the fallacious relative motions (1905) but to the absorption of the photon mass in accordance with the experiment of Kaufmann(1902).One can also find our paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” presented at the 12th Symposium of the

Hellenic nuclear Physics Society (N.C.S.R. "DEMOKRITOS", 2002) and published in Ind. J. Th. Phys. (2003). In our paper I showed that 9 extra charged quarks of protons and 12 ones of neutrons among 288 quarks in nucleons are responsible for the nuclear structure due to electromagnetic forces acting at a distance. In the same paper I also revealed the structure of magic nuclei. (See in User Kaliambos the above papers along with our additional paper “Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures” based on the electron spin discovery) .

Under this crisis of atomic and nuclear physics, in 2005 we presented our new paper “ On the structure of magic nuclei ” at the 15th Hellenic symposium on nuclear physics. In that paper we showed that according to the well-established electromagnetic laws the structure of noble gases due to our discovery of the two-electron coupling in orbitals, differs fundamentally from the structure of magic nuclei. In general the nuclear structure is due to the application of the same electromagnetic forces on the spinning nucleons, which give rectangles, simple parallelepipeds, and orthorhombic systems surrounded by extra neutrons. Whereas the nuclear shell model based on wrong theories cannot lead to the nuclear structure.

Note that the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron (1932) led to the abandonment of electromagnetic laws in favor of wrong nuclear theories and nuclear structure models. For example in “Nuclear structure- WIKIPEDIA” one reads several incorrect and contradicting models which cannot lead to the nuclear structure, like the Liquid drop model, the Shell model, the Mean field theories, and the Extension of the mean field theories.

**ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR CRISIS **

Historically In 1925 Uhlenbeck and Goodsmit discovered the electron spin having a peripheral velocity greater than the speed of light. Surprisingly we revealed that this fact leads to the two -electron coupling of opposite spin at short distances. Especially the enormous peripheral velocity ( u>>c) at short separations gives magnetic attraction stronger than the electric repulsion leading to the pairing of electrons in orbitals. However despite the enormous success of the Bohr model and the Schrodinger equations which describe accurately the structure of the one-electron atoms, the discovery of the electron spin under the influence of Einstein’s invalid relativity met much opposition by the theoretical physicists like Heisenberg, Dirac, and Pauli who in the 1920s did not use the electromagnetic laws but developed qualitative approaches of the so-called **exchange interactions**, which led to complications for the description of many- electron atoms.

In the 1930s the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron (1932) led to the definite abandonment of electromagnetic laws in favor of wrong nuclear theories about the nuclear force and the structure. Thus Heisenberg in the same year (1932) tried to explain the nuclear force by introducing the wrong hypothesis of **exchanging forces** between electrons without any success. In the same way Yukawa (1935) introduced the theory of mesons, because he believed that the proton and the neutron are attracted by an unknown strong force of short range mediated by mesons like the electromagnetic forces of long range, which were incorrectly thought to be mediated by the fallacious self propagating fields or by the quantum of fields (photons). Note that this idea retarded the progress of physics because we clear that in nature cannot exist the Faraday false fields but the electric and magnetic intensities expressing a kind of unit forces acting at a distance. ( See our LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS INVALIDATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY ). For example after the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) who showed experimentally that Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory (displacement current) involves misconceptions the electric field E = F_{e}/q (defined as a force per unit charge) cannot be the force carrier of the same electric force, since the well-established laws of gravity and electromagnetism involve forces acting at a distance, in accordance with the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement. Note that the entangled particles can become widely separated in space . But even so a measurement on one immediately influences the other regardless of the distance between them. In the 1930s since Einstein believed that it violates his invalid ideas of relativity pointed out that the quantum mechanics must be wrong and called it “ **Spooky action at a distance**”.

Nevertheless, Feynman (1949) in his theory of Quantum Electrodynamics under Einstein’s wrong idea that a photon is a massless particle suggested incorrectly that the electromagnetic forces are mediated by the quantum of electromagnetic fields (massless photon). In general all experiments of orbiting electrons in atoms showed that a photon is generated as a mass carrier after the charge-charge interaction of an electron with the nucleus. Similarly the gravitational field F_{g} /m of a gravitational force F_{g }cannot be the force carrier of the same force. Consequently the hypothetical gravitons of the standard model and Einstein’s gravitational waves have not been discovered at CERN, since they are based on false concepts, which violate the fundamental laws of interaction. Also the electroweak theory with W and Z bosons or the Higgs boson violate the natural laws. (See my CONFUSING CERN RESULTS AND IDEAS ).

On the other hand in 1964 Gell-Mann after a taxonomy of particles suggested that both protons (p) and neutrons (n) consist of (uud) quarks and (dud) quarks respectively having fractional charges.

Of course such structures imply small charge distributions which cannot lead to the nuclear structure. Actually, if we apply the fundamental charge-charge interaction of the well-established laws of electromagnetism on such small charge distributions, it would be impossible for us to get the simplest p-n structure of deuterium (D).

Meanwhile in 1933, Stern measured the magnetic moment of the proton to be 2.79 μ_{N} and in 1940 F. Bloch measured the neutron magnetic moment to be -1.91 μ_{N}._{ } Such results deviate significantly from the predictions of Dirac’s theory and invalidate both Yukawa’s model and the simple quark model because a careful analysis of them provides considerable charge distributions due to a large number of quarks able to give the nuclear binding and structure by applying the well-established and fundamental laws of charge-charge interactions involving forces acting at a distance. In 2002 we presented our paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” at the 12^{th} Symposium of the Hellenic Nuclear Society. In that paper we describe the charge distributions of protons and neutrons respectively by a careful analysis of the magnetic moments of nucleons and the deep inelastic scattering experiments. For example for the proton ( p ) the magnetic moment μ is given by

μ/S = 2.793e /M

where S is the spin of proton, e the charge of electron and M the mass of proton. Here we see that the above experimental relation cannot be consistent with the simple quark model even in case in which the charge +Q = +4e/3 is along the periphery and the charge –q = -e/3 is in the center (deep inelastic scattering experiment). Clearly applying the electromagnetic laws for μ, and the laws of a rotating oblate spheroid (like the proton) we may write for μ and for the spin S (angular momentum) respectively as

μ = i πR^{2} = Qν πR^{2 } and S = t MωR^{2} = tM 2πνR^{2 }

where t is a factor between a rotating sphere and a disc. That is 0.4 < t < 0.5.

Therefore μ /S = Q/2t = 2.793 e.

That is for t = 0.47742 (oblate spheroid) we get for the proton along the periphery +Q = +8e/3 and in the center –q = -5e/3. In the same way for the neutron we get – Q =-8e/3 along the periphery, and +Q = +8e/3 in the center. Surprisingly applications of electromagnetic laws on such experimental charge distributions which give for proton extra (4u,5d) quarks and for the neutron extra (8d,4u) quarks lead exactly to the simplest nuclear binding (-2.2246 MeV) of the deuterium. Moreover such extra quark led to the discovery of 288 quarks in nucleons. As a result the proton has 93 (dud) neutral quark triads. Among them there are 4u charged quarks distributed along the periphery and 5d charged quarks limited in the center. Whereas the neutron has 92 (dud) neutral quark triads and among them are distributed 8d charged quarks along the periphery and 4u charged quarks limited in the center So, the structure of protons and neutrons is given by

PROTON = [93(dud) + 4u +5d ]. NEUTRON = [92(dud) + 8d + 4u]

(See my NEW STRUCTURE OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS ).

However despite the enormous success that the up (u) and down quark (d) have fractional charges of the well-established electromagnetic laws Gell-Mann in 1973 like the wrong theories of Heisenberg (1932) Fermi (1934) Yukawa (1935), and Glashow (1968) abandoned the fundamental charges of basic laws and developed the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) by introducing incorrectly massless gluons as force carriers with strange color forces under the wrong mass-energy conservation of the invalid theory of special relativity.