SPACE AND TIME OF LAWS ** **

**(REVOLUTION IN SPACE AND TIME BY REVIVING NEWTON’S ACTION-REACTION AT A DISTANCE WITH **

**CONSERVED INSTANANEOUS SIMULTANEITY, WHICH LEADS TO THE LENGTH CONTRACTION AND TO THE TIME DILATION DURING THE PHOTON ABSORPTION UNDER THE UNIVERSAL AND ETERNAL SPACE AND TIME )**

By prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) T. E. Institute of Larissa Greece

This article was announced to many universities around the world (March 2013).

Writing in Google scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paper “

Impact of Maxwell’s …dipolic particles” (Olympia 1993) which invalidates Maxwell’s fields and Einstein’s relativity.

One can also find my paper of 2003 “ Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” in which a large number of equations revealed the nuclear structure and invalidate the theories of the Standard Model.

WE PRESENTED THE NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AT THE 12th SYMPOSIUM OF THE HELLENIC NUCLEAR PHYSICS SOCIETY (N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", 2002)

(See in User Kaliambos the above published papers

**ACCORDING TO NEWTON'S THIRD LAW WHENEVER TWO BODIES a AND b INTERACT AT A DISTANCE SO THAT a EXPERIENCES A FORCE, THEN b EXPERIENCES SIMULTANEOUSLY AN EQUAL AND OPPOSITELY DIRECTED FORCE. THIS IS NEWTON’S FUNDAMENTAL ACTION AT A DISTANCE WITH INSTANTANEOUS SIMULTANEITY, WHICH IS CONSERVED IN ALL INERTIAL FRAMES. HOWEVER EVEN AFTER THE TRIUMPH OF NEWTONIAN PHYSICS MANY SCIENTISTS STILL SHARED THE CARTESIAN FORCE CARRIERS LIKE THE PROPAGATION OF IMPULSES THROUGH A FALLACIOUS ETHER BUT NEWTON STATED THE FAMOUS PHRASE: “I FEIGN NO HYPOTHESES”.**

**IT IS INDEED UNFORTUNATE THAT THE REJECTION OF NEWTON’S PARTICLES OF LIGHT (1803) AND OF HIS FUNDAMENTAL ACTION AT A DISTANCE LED TO FALSE IDEAS OF ETHER, VACUUM, MAXWELL’S FIELDS, AND EINSTEIN’S RELATIVITY. (SEE OUR WRONG AND CORRECT EINSTEIN ). LATER THE ASSUMED UNCHARGED NEUTRON (1932) AND NEUTRINO LED TO THE ABANDONMENT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS IN FAVOR OF THE WRONG STANDARD MODEL INVOLVING FALSE STRONG AND WEAK INTERACTIONS. (SEE OUR NEW STRUCTURE OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS ).**

**ALTHOUGH IN 1887 THE MICHELSON-MORLEY EXPERIMENT CONFIRMED THE NON EXISTENCE OF ETHER, WHICH MEANS THAT THE ACTION AT A DISTANCE AND NEWTON’S PARTICLES OF LIGHT ARE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS, LORENTZ (1904) UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF MAXWELL’S FIELDS MOVING THROUGH A FALSE ETHER TRIED TO EXPLAIN THE INCREASE OF MASS OF KAUFMANN’S EXPERIMENT (1902) BY SUGGESTING A STRANGE CONTRACTION OF THE MICHELSON-MORLEY INTERFEROMETER (1987) WITH A METHEMATICAL TIME DILATION. THEN EINSTEIN (1905) USING THE SAME LORENTZ LENGTH CONTRACTION AND TIME DILATION REPLACED THE NATURAL LAWS BY HIS WRONG POSTULATIONS OF RELATIVE MOTIONS IN VACUUM UNDER THE FALSE FIELDS OF MAXWELL (1865) WHICH VIOLATED THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY IN THE INDUCTION LAW (1832) AND THE CONSERVATION LAW OF SIMULTANEITY IN NEWTON’S THIRD LAW (1687). **

**UNDER SUCH A CONFUSION IN 1924 EINSTEIN RE-INTRODUCED THE ETHER IN HIS RELATIVITY WHICH CONTRADICTS NEWTON’S SECOND LAW F = d(mu/dt ACCORDING TO WHICH THE INCREASE OF MASS IS NOT A KINEMATIC BUT A DYNAMICAL PHENOMENON OF QUANTUM PHYSICS. ALSO THE EXPERIMENTS OF THE SO-CALLED QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT CONFIRMED NEWTON’S INSTANTANEOUS SIMULTANEITY. BUT SINCE EINSTEIN BELIEVED THAT IT VIOLATES HIS WRONG HYPOTHESES THEN IN THE 1930s HE CALLED IT “SPOOKY ACTION AT A DISTANCE”. ESPECIALLY EINSTEIN BELIEVED THAT THE SIMULTANEITY IS NOT A UNIVERSAL PHYSICAL SIGNIFICANCE BUT RELATIVE WITH RESPECT TO A RANDOMLY MOVING OBSERVER. **

**AFTER THE FRENCH-TESSMAN EXPERIMENT (1963)**

**WE DEVELOPED IN 1993 OUR MODEL OF DIPOLIC PARTICLES AND APPLIED THE NATURAL LAWS ON MASS AND ON CHARGES OF PHOTONS WHICH NOT ONLY UNIFY THE FORCES ACTING AT A DISTANCE BUT ALSO INVALIDATE BOTH SPECIAL AND GENERAL RELATIVITY, BECAUSE THE INCREASE OF MASS IS NOT TO THE RELATIVE MOTION OF A PARTICLE WITH RESPECT*** *** TO AN OBSERVER BUT TO THE ABSORPTION OF PHOTONS HAVING MASS . ( SEE OUR UNIFIED FORCES SOLVE THE CRISIS OF PHYSICS )**

**THEREFORE ACCORDING TO THE GALILEAN PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY DEDUCED FROM NEWTON'S LAWS THE INTERVALS OF SPACE AND TIME ARE THE SAME IN ALL INERTIAL FRAMES UNDER THE UNIVERSAL SPACE AND TIME WICH ARE ETERNAL IN OUR COSMOS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONSERVATION LAWS. MOREOVER THOUGH GRAVITY ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM WORK UNDER A EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY EINSTEIN BELIEVED THAT THE BENDING OF LIGHT IS AN EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE OF STRANGE C'URVATURE OF SPACE-TIME WITH FOUR DIMENSIONS. IN FACT THE GRAVITY IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ACCELERATIONS OF PHOTONS WHEN THE FORCE ACTS IN PERPENDICULAR DIRECTION TO THE VELOCITY c. (See my paper LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS INVALIDATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY). **

**NOTE THAT IN 1993 WE SHOWED ALSO THAT A PHOTON WORKS WITH ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FORCES ACTING SIMULTANEOUSLY. HOWEVER WHEN THE PHOTON INTERACTS WITH AN ELECTRON THE MAGNETIC FORCE ON THE ELECTRON APPEARS AFTER THE ELECTRIC FORCE WHICH PRODUCES A VELOCITY dy/dt RESPONSIBLE FOR THE MAGNETIC FORCE. BUT ACCORDING TO THE CONSERVATION LAW OF THE INSTANTANEOUS SIMULTANEITY IN NEWTON’S THIRD LAW THE dy/dt MUST APPROACH TO ZERO UNDER A LENGTH CONTRACTION dy AND A TIME DILATION dt. IN THIS CASE THE PHOTON GIVES OFF ITS MASS AND ENERGY TO THE ELECTRON DURING A DYNAMICAL ABSORPTION. SO THE MASS DEFECT OF ORBITING ELECTRONS, THE RED SHIFT, AND THE BENDING OF LIGHT INVALIDATE EINSTEIN’S THEORIES INVOLVING THE BIGGEST ERRORS IN THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS, LIKE THE RELATIVISTIC SIMULTANEITY, THE REST MASS, THE MASS-ENERGY EQUIVALENCE, THE CURVATURE OF SPACE-TIME, THE GRAVITATIONAL WAVES, THE GRAVITONS etc. VIOLATING ALL LAWS OF NATURE.**

UNFORTUNATELY, UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF EINSTEIN'S RELATIVITY BASED ON MAXWELL'S , FALSE FIELDS AND ON MACH'S SPECULATIONS ABOUT RELATIVE MOTIONS WITH RESPECT TO THE FALLACIOUS "FIXED STARS" (1893), PHYSICISTS DEVELOPED SPECULATIVE THEORIES LIKE THE STRING THEORIES OF MANY DIMENSIONS. SUCH THEORIES CONTRADICT THE WELL-ESTABLISHED FORM OF THE TIME-INDEPENDENT SCHRODINGER EQUATION IN THREE DIMENSIONS, WHICH DESCRIBES ACCURATELY THE PRINCIPAL FEATURES OF THE HYDROGEN SPECTRUM AND OF OTHER ONE-ELECTRON ATOMIC SYSTEMS. FOR EXAMPLE HAWKING IN HIS GRAND DESIGN (2010) EXPLAINS 11 DIMENTIONS (M-THEORY) AND THAT THE THEORY OF QUANTUM MECHANICS AND THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY TOGETHER HELP US UNDERSTAND HOW UNIVERSE COULD HAVE FORMED OUT OF NOTHING. OF COURSE SUCH IDEAS VIOLATE THE BASIC LAWS ALONG WITH THE CONSERVATION LAW OF MASS DEVELOPED BY ANAXIMANDER.

** **

**EXPERIMENTS CONFIRM THE ACTION AT A DISTANCE OF LAWS, THE GALILEAN RELATIVITY, AND NEWTON’S PARTICLES OF LIGHT OR OUR DIPOLIC PHOTONS**

Despite the Galilean principle of relativity (1632), Descartes (1937) in his “* Optics *begins by asserting that light is associated with a motion in a medium (immovable ether). Also in his work “

*” (1644) for avoiding the action at a distance postulated that*

**Principles of Philosophy****a force between two bodies is due to pieces of the immovable ether that can interact only when they touch**.

Note that this philosophical idea did much to retard the progress of physics, because physicists of the 19^{th} and 20^{th} centuries abandoned the natural laws of forces acting at a distance and developed wrong fields and false force carriers like the mesons of Yukawa (1935), the virtual photons of Feynman (1949), the W and Z bosons of Weinberg (1967), the gluons of Gell-Mann (1973), the gravitons of the Standard model, and the invalid Higgs bosons. (See our CONFUSING CERN RESULTS AND IDEAS ).

Despite the famous Cartesian philosophy Newton in his law of gravity (**Principia,** 1687) using detailed observations of forces acting at a distance and avoiding any medium in space remarked: “* I FEIGN NO HYPOTHESES*”. This statement of course predicted the non existence of the ether confirmed by the American physicists Michelson and Morley in 1887.

Furthermore following Galileo’s relativity Newton deduced the principle of relativity (1687) from his laws of motion and remarked: “* From the positions and distances of things from any body considered as immovable we define all places. And then with respect to such places we estimate all motion…And so, instead of absolute places and motions we use relative ones*”.

An important experiment which confirmed the principle of relativity was that of the Faraday induction. In 1832 Faraday discovered that the motion of a coil with respect to a magnet or the motion of the magnet relative to a coil gives exactly the same magnetic effect. That is, only the relative motion matters. It is well-known that the Faraday electromotive force (emf) is expressed by the simple equation

emf = - dΦ/dt

which is a magnetic resultant, because it is consistent with the Ampere law of magnetic force. Faraday summarizes the results in the following short paragraph: “* All these results show that the power of inducing electric currents is circumferentially excited by a magnetic resultant*…” However Faraday in order to explain his induction, underestimated the fundamental laws of force of Coulomb and Ampere. So he introduced the wrong concept of fields, which did much to retard the progress of physics. In fact, the experiments of the so-called motional emf showed that the Faraday induction is consistent with the Ampere magnetic force acting at a distance. So in nature exist only electric and magnetic intensities, which represent unit forces acting at a distance. For example in the Coulomb law the force F

_{e}between two charges Q and q is written

F* _{e}* = (KQ/R

^{2})q or for q =1 we get F

_{e}= KQ/R

^{2}= E

That is F_{e} = E (Electric intensity) which represents a unit force acting at a distance. Of course such a force cannot be a mediator of the same force. In our paper (1993) we showed that both postulations of Maxwell are invalid. Especially in the Faraday induction Maxwell violated the principle of relativity by introducing a false electric field and used not the real forces of two natural laws of Coulomb and Ampere but only the two modified laws of induction and Ampere with a fallacious displacement current. In the same way Einstein developed his wrong relativity by violating the principle of relativity in the induction law. See on page 421 of my paper presented at the international conference “FRONTIERS OF FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS”(Ancient Olympia, Sept. 1993).

Another famous experiment which confirmed the action at a distance of laws was that of Michelson and Morley (1887). The experiment was performed in order to determine the Earth’s movement through Maxwell’s wrong ether. So they used an interferometer with mirrors separated by equal lengths L and L_{o} (distances along the parallel and perpendicular directions to the hypothetical velocity u through the assumed ether). Also in the laboratory they used a light source and measured the total time T required for the round trip of light along the length L and the total time T_{o} along the length L_{o} given by

T = 2Lc/ (c^{2}- u^{2}) and T_{o} = 2L_{o} /(c^{2}- u^{2})^{0.5}

However the experiment showed that T/T_{o }= 1 and since L = L_{o} it means that the ether cannot exist ( u = 0 ) as given by their formula:

T/T_{o} = c /(c^{2 }- u^{2}) ^{0.5} = γ =1

In other words the Cartesian ether of his philosophy cannot exist and the earth behaves as an inertial frame of Newton’s laws. Thus, not only Newton’s law of gravity based on action at a distance but also the Newtonian particles of light having mass, defeated Maxwell’s ether.

To simplify this situation consider that the source of light with the interferometer were on a moving train (inertial frame) emitting the Newtonian particles of light having a mass m like our dipolic photons. Since Newton’s particles of light behave like all particles having mass, all observers on the train will measure the same velocity c, by measuring the same frequency ν, no matter what is the velocity of the train, while an observer on the ground will measure not only a different frequency according to the Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics, but also a bending of light predicted by Newton.

So another case showing the mass of dipolic photons interacting at a distance is indeed the astronomical observation of the bending of light performed in 1919 by Eddington during a total solar eclipse. According to the kinematics of Galileo the Newtonian particle of light invalidates the second postulation of Einstein because it has an accelerated motion along the vertical direction like the projectile motion. This is the bending of light near the sun confirmed by astronomical measurements. For example using the mass of our dipolic photon we discovered that when the gravitational force F_{g} acts along a perpendicular direction to the velocity c the photon mass m behaves like the constant mass M_{o} of a particle. Here we do not use Einstein’s false rest mass because in gravity the mass of a particle remains always constant when the potential energy turns into a kinetic one. Thus applications of Newton’s second law give

F_{g} ds = dw = (dp/dt) ds = m_{o}(du/dt) ds = m_{o}udu

That is, when c is perpendicular to gravity the photon accelerates with a constant mass m_{o} along the vertical direction.

Another experiment showing the mass of dipolic photons is the gravitational frequency confirmed by the Pound-Rebka experiment in 1959. Indeed when the constant c is parallel to F_{g }the photon mass is a variable mass m because the force cannot affect the constant velocity c. Thus application of Newton’s second law gives

F_{g}ds = dw =(dp/dt)ds = (dmc/dt)ds = dmc^{2} = hdν

This equation explains the gravitational frequency shift by applying Newton’s second law. Note that Einstein in his general relativity incorrectly believed that he replaced the natural laws by his assumptions of fallacious gravitational waves in a strange curvature of vacuum. On the other hand in gravity he did not use his wrong relativity (which leads to complications) but the Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics. Also Mercury’s precession under a detailed knowledge was found that it is due to the Newtonian Sun-tide. Especially in his general relativity Einstein used the Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics δν/ν = u/c, which leads to the above equation. It leads also to our discovery of Photon - Matter interaction

hν/m = ΔW/ΔΜ = c^{2}

which leads to the formula of the increase of mass

M/M_{o} = c / (c^{2} –u^{2})^{0.5}

Moreover all experiments on electrons of the Bohr model show that the photon has mass, because during the absorption of a photon by an electron the photon gives off both energy and mass to the electron, while Einstein for the explanation of the photoelectric effect believed that photons give off only their energies hν.

Another experiment showing that photon has mass was the experiment of American physicists Nichols and Hull (1902) . They measured that in the absorption of light

dw/dp = c or hν/p = c.

Note that this relation led to the development of Quantum Mechanics. This is the law of absorption of photons having energy dw and momentum dp . That is, writing p = mc where m is the mass of our dipolic photon one leads to Einstein’s equation E = (mc)c. Also the same law leads to our Photon-Matter transformation which invalidates Einstein’s ideas because the applications of Newton’s second law give dp = dmc and explain the experiments of Kaufmann.

Another important experiment showing the action-reaction with a conserved instantaneous simultaneity of Newton’s third law is that of the so-called **Quantum Entanglement**, which occurs, since particles of quantum physics interact instantaneously. Repeated experiments have verified that this works even when the measurements are performed more quickly than light. Note that Einstein was dissatisfied with such experiments, because he believed that they violate his invalid hypotheses of his relativity. So he called it “* Spooky action at a distance*”.

** **

**NEWTON’S SIMULTANEITY IS THE SAME IN ALL INERTIAL FRAMES. THEREFORE EINSTEIN’S RELATIVISTIC SIMULTANEITY IS INVALID**

Einstein in his confusing relativity starts with the postulation that all laws are the same in all inertial frames ( on moving train or on the earth). Note that it is not a postulation because Einstein repeated the Galilean principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s laws. On the other hand though Einstein rejects the ether which means u = 0 and T = T_{o} ( result of the Michelson - Morley experiment) under the influence of Maxwell's fallacious fields he did not accept the experimental result but proposed an arbitrary motion u with respect to a randomly moving observer which leads to T/T_{o} = γ >1 of the Lorentz transformation based on the fallacious ether. Of course this fact contradicts his first postulation of the principle of relativity according to which all laws are the same in all inertial systems under the experimental result T/T_{o} =1 .

In fact, we showed in 1993 that a correct axiom in Newtonian principle of relativity is that the time is universal, because mass is invariant during the transformation of the potential energy into a kinetic one. Moreover according to the Newtonian principle of relativity a game of billiards played on a table in a railway car is the same whether the car is at rest with respect to the earth or is moving with a uniform velocity relative to the earth (inertial frame). So time and space are independent of the particular inertial frame used. For this reason Newton wrote: “* Absolute time, true, and mathematical time, of itself and from its own nature, flows equably without relation to anything external”*. Under this condition the simultaneity of the action at a distance of laws remains the same in all inertial frames, because the laws are the same in all inertial systems. Note that in theoretical magnetism when the velocities of two charges or current elements are not parallel there is a net magnetic force which looks as though it violates Newton's third law. This difficulty is explained by the fact that, actually, the magnetic force is complete only when we integrate over the entire current loops. It can be shown that the net force on the whole system is then always zero.

On the other hand Newton showed experimentally that in rotating systems there is a kind of absolute space. Especially he wrote that in a spinning bucket half filled with water the content of the water rises up on the sides thus showing that it is rotating in space though it is at rest relative to the bucket. We emphasize that it is a local kind of absolute space depending on the spin axis. It is well-known that under the Galilean principle of relativity the same spinning bucket of water gives the same acceleration of Newton's second law in all inertial reference frames. Moreover the angular momentum conservation which has numerous applications in physics (gyrocompass) confirms the Galilean principle of relativity according to which space and time are the same in all inertial frames . For example the spin axis of a gyroscope points always to the same direction on a train moving with a uniform velocity, no matter what is the velocity of the train.

No one dreamed of disputing this definition until the physicist and philosopher Mach (1893) speculated that the same observation would be made if the bucket of water were kept still and the "fixed stars" were set in rotation with respect to the bucket under a hypothetiacal law which would contribute to the inertia effects. Of course such a speculation violates Newton's second law according to which the change du of velocity of the vector u of a rotating system produces an acceleration. It is indeed unfortunate that Einstein underestimating Newton's laws accepted such speculations in his relativity. Einstein reported that he was deeply influenced by reading Mach's book. So **Dr Mahesh C. Jain** ( who did not know that laws and experiments invalidate Einstein's relativity ) in his work " **PHYSICS WITHOUT FOUNDATIONS IN NATURAL PHENOMENA**" is wrong , because the natural laws of Newton Coulomb and Ampere are the well-established laws based not on relative motions with respect to the fallacious "fixed stars" but on detailed experiments and observations under the Galilean principle of relativity deduced from Newton's laws.

We clear here that in quantum dynamics when a photon interacts with an electron the Kaufmann experiment (1902) showed that the mass of the electron increases under our discovery of the Photon – Matter Transformation

M/M_{o} = c/ c^{2}-u^{2})^{0.5} = γ

That is, we observe an increase of mass under a length contradiction and a time dilation related to the same factor γ . It is surprising that the increase of mass is due to the photon mass m or to Newton’s particle of light because during the absorption we showed that

hν/m = ΔW/ΔΜ = c^{2}

In our paper (1993) we showed that before the absorption the dipolic photon works with electric and magnetic forces which act at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity in accordance with Newton’s third law. For simplicity we consider an electric dipole when the separation r of charges +q and –q is perpendicular to the velocity u. In this case using the laws of Coulomb and Biot - Savart we get an electric attraction F_{e} and at the same time a magnetic repulsion F_{m} acting at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity as

F_{e} = Kq^{2}/r^{2} and F_{m} = k q^{2}u^{2} /r^{2}

Since Weber (1856) showed that K/k = c^{2} we see that in the dipole occurs a simultaneity of electric and magnetic forces because both charges move with the same velocity u. They are given by

F_{e }/ F_{m } = c^{2 }/ u^{2 }

Thus for u = c (photon) we observe equal electric and magnetic forces acting with instantaneous simultaneity like the action-reaction of Newton's third law. Then following the idea of the electromagnetic mass recognized by Thomson in 1881 we see that when a photon interacts with an electron of charge (-e ) , the applications of electromagnetic laws on our dipolic photon of mass m with opposite charges lead to the following expressions

E_{y}(-e)dy /B_{z}(-e) dy = dW/F_{m}dt = dW/dP = dW/dmc

Since E_{y}/Bz = c one gets dW/dm = c^{2 }

We do not use here the Faraday fields but the electric intensity E_{y} and the magnetic intensity B_{z} which represent a kind of unit forces acting at a distance, which lead to our Photon - Matter Transformation under the unification of forces.

However during the absorption of photon the magnetic force on the electron appears after the electric force which produces the velocity dy/dt. In other words the magnetic force F_{m} given by

F_{m} = B_{z}(-e)(dy/dt)

does appear after the electric force because of the distance dy and the time dt. Of course this situation looks as though it violates the conserved simultaneity of Newton’s third law. But this problem is solved when the velocity dy/dt approaches to zero. So under a quantum dynamics of a length contraction dy and a time dilation dt. the velocity of the electron does exist but with a length contraction and a time dilation. It is of interest to notice that in the electrons in accelerators which absorb non mechanical energy (due to photons) the increase of mass is accompanied by a length contraction and a time dilation related to γ.

So one concludes that Einstein incorrectly replaced the natural laws by his invalid postulations of his confusing relativity according to which the relative motion with respect to a randomly moving observer assumed to be responsible for a changing of simultaneity. This fact did much to retard the progress of physics, because the replacement of natural laws by hypotheses led to many complications like the violation of the conservation law of mass etc.

It is indeed unfortunate that the complexity of mathematics in Einsteins relativity and in all modern theories cannot allow physicist to determine between the laws and the theories in order to choose the correct way for understanding the physical phenomena. Under this condition there is a great difficulty for physicists to abandon the wrong traditional ideas, which replaced incorrectly the fundamental concepts of natural laws.

For example in the “Criticism of the theory of relativity –**WIKIPEDIA**” one reads: “* Though some of these criticisms had the support of reputable scientists, Einstein’s theory relativity is now recognized as self-consistent in accordance with many experiments, and moreover serves us the basis of many successful theories such as Quantum Electrodynamics*”.

Of course such traditional ideas mislead the physicists.

For example in “Newton’s laws of motion-**WIKIPEDIA” **one reads: “* Newton stated the third law with a world-view that assumed instantaneous action at a distance between material particles. However he was prepared for philosophical criticism of this action at a distance, and it was in this context that he stated “I feign no hypotheses”. In modern physics, action at a distance has been completely eliminated, except for subtle effects involving quantum entanglement*”.

**CONCLUSIONS**

Summarizing we emphasize that Greek philosophers under the conservation laws of mass and energy -developed by Anaximander and Heraclitus- believed that space and time had an infinite past with no beginning, while medieval philosophers and theologians developed the wrong concepts of space and time having a finite past with beginning. On the other hand according to the Galilean principle of relativity deduced from Newton's laws the coordinate systems are related by the Galilean transformation with a separated time. That is, according to the angular momentum conservation the spin axis of a gyrocompass points always to the same direction in all inertial frames. Therefore space and time are the same in all inertial frames. Whereas in the quantum dynamics we observe a lenght contraction and a time dilation, because Newton's third law involves a conserved simultaneity in all inertial frames. However according to the invalid Einstein's relativistic simultaneity the time is not separated from the three dimensions of space, because it is assumed that the rate at which time passes for an object depends on the object's velocity relative to the observer. Such wrong ideas led to other speculative theories such as String Theory which introduces 10 or 26 dimensions (with M-Theory) introducing 11 dimensions: 10 spatial and 1 temporal.

** **