By Prof. Lefteris Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) Τ.Ε. Institute of Larissa Greece
( June 2014)
For a few millionths of a second, shortly after the big bang of laws , in our early universe the first particles (isolated quark triads) turned to neutrons, protons, electrons, positrons antineutrinos and photons. (See my FIRST PARTICLES in my FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS CONCEPTS ). At first, the primordial isolated quark triads were characterized by non oriented spins responsible for the absence of magnetic attractions. Thus, very strong electric repulsions of short range between quark triads were able to overcome the primordial gravity of long range. As the universe cooled the non oriented spins of quarks became partially oriented and magnetic attractions appeared for the formation of the so-called quark plasma.
Note that the discovery of the electron spin (1925) showed that the peripheral velocity of the spinning electrons is much more greater than the velocity of light. This situation which rejects Einstein’s contradicting relativity is able to explain the coupling of two electrons with opposite spin responsible for the creation of two-electron atoms and for the molecular structure. (See my published paper of 2008 “ Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures”). In the same way since the spinning quarks have mass and size a little greater than those of electron the peripheral velocity of them is greater than the speed of light. So in the spinning quark triads appeared magnetic attractions stronger than the electric repulsions when the spins were partially oriented for the formation of the quark soup.
It is indeed unfortunate that today physicists at CERN for explaining the quark plasma do not apply the well-established laws of nature, because they are strongly influenced by the invalid relativity which led to various wrong nuclear theories.(See my CONFUSING CERN RESULTS AND IDEAS ). Therefore they believe incorrectly that the so-called quark plasma is due to the fallacious massless gluons of the false theory of Quantum Chromodynamics developed by Gell-Mann (1973).
Today it is well-known that after my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism ” (2003) the attractive forces between the quark triads are due to electromagnetic attractions of spinning 288 quarks in nucleons. In 2002 I presented at the 12th symposium of the Hellenic Nuclear Physics Society nine extra charged quarks of proton and twelve ones of neutron which interact electromagnetically for the formation of nuclei. Thus the binding energies in quarks and in nuclei are due to the electromagnetic forces of the well-established laws of Coulomb ( 1785 ) and Ampere (1820) which reject Einstein's ideas.
Although the natural laws tell us that massless particles cannot exist, today physicists at CERN continue to believe incorrectly that the fallacious gluons are the force carriers of a strange color force appearing between the quarks. So they believe that in those first evanescent moments of extreme temperature, quarks and gluons were bound only weakly, free to move on their own in what’s called a fallacious quark-gluon plasma.
In fact, the quark gluon plasma cannot exist. Instead a simple quark plasma exists which obeys the natural electromagnetic laws according to which the partially oriented spins of an enormous peripheral velocity create magnetic attractions greater than the electric repulsions between the iosolated quark triads. This situation which rejects Einstein's ideas leads to the formation of the quark plasma produced at CERN.
To recreate conditions similar to those of the very early universe, powerful accelerators make head-on collisions between massive attractions, such as gold or lead nuclei. In these heavy-ion collisions the hundreds of protons and neutrons in two such nuclei smash into one another at energies of upwards of a few trillion electronvolts each. This forms a miniscule fireball in which everything “melts” into a quark plasma. An early discovery was that the quark plasma behaves more like a perfect fluid with small viscosity than like a gas, as many researchers had expected.
In heavy-ion collisions, the first evidence for the quark plasma was seen in 2003 in the STARExternal Links icon and PHENIXExternal Links icon experiments at Brookhaven National Laboratory’s Relativistic Heavy Ion ColliderExternal Links icon (RHIC) in the US. These situations showed a remarkable difference from those in simpler collisions, however.
Recently the ALICE, ATLASExternal Links icon and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have confirmed the phenomenon of jet quenching in heavy-ion collisions. The much greater collision energies at the LHC push measurements to much higher jet energies than are accessible at RHIC, allowing new and more detailed characterization of the quark plasma.