By prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ( Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός ) T. E. Institute of Larissa-Greece. Kaliamboslef@yahoo.gr
This article was announced to many universities around the world (Sept 2011).
WE PRESENTED AT THE 12th SYMPOSIUM OF THE HELLENIC NUCLEAR PHYSICS SOCIETY (N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", 2002) A LARGE NUMBER OF INTEGRAL EQUATIONS BASED ON THE LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM WHICH REVEALED THE NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
See in Google Scholar: Our paper " Impact of Maxwell's equation of the displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles" presented at the international conference "Frontiers of fundamental physics" (Olympia, 1993) which invalidates Maxwell's fields and Einstein's relativity. After the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) who showed the fallacy of Maxwell's fields we discovered the dipolic photons with mass which solves the problem of Einstein's invalid relativity. In fact, the increase of the electron mass is due not to the relative motions of electrons but to the absorption of the photon mass in accordance with the experiment of Kaufmann (1902). In Google scholar you can see also our paper "Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism" presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society and published in Ind. J. Th. Phys. in 2003. In this paper you see that I discovered nine charged quarks in proton and twelve ones in neutron among 288 quarks in nucleons.( See the above published papers in "User Kaliambos " along with our additional paper "Spin-spin interactions of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures").
PREFACE
This brief description is intended to facilitate the readers for understanding the difficult material with quarks, neutrinos, antineutrinos, nucleons and nuclei, by applying fundamental laws and emphasizing the historical discoveries whose the wrong interpretations led to fallacious theories. Since many physicists would like to learn the various subatomic phenomena of our world, considerable effort has been made to describe the spin-dependent forces in quarks, the quark-neutrino interactions, and the spin-dependent nuclear structure of two kinds of p-n bonds with very simple equations. The more complicated mathematics of calculus and vectors one can find in my published papers “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” (2003) and “Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures” (2008).
Photons, neutrinos, antineutrinos, and neutrons, seem to be chargeless particles but I discovered that the electromagnetic properties of them reveal the existence of opposite charges, which interact at a distance, according to natural laws, with electric and magnetic forces of short range. Faraday’s experiment (1845) showed that photons behave like moving dipoles since the magnetic field exerts a torque on the plane of polarization of light. (See http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984ffp..conf..415K in our model of dipolic particles). Experiments also showed that neutrinos and antineutrinos have positive and negative magnetic moments like the protons and the neutrons respectively, since in β^{+} decay neutrinos and positrons as well as in β^{-} decay antineutrinos and electrons are emitted with opposite spin. (See on page 812 of “Nuclear Structure” written by De Shalit and Feshbach in 1990). Moreover the discovery of neutrino flavor oscillations implies that neutrinos and antineutrinos have rest mass. The existence of a neutrino mass strongly suggests the existence of a neutrino magnetic moment allowing the electromagnetic interaction with quarks.
Science tries to understand the structure of matter by using the force as the consequence of the basic laws of nature. According to the well-established natural laws based on the fundamental interactions of matter involving inertia of mass and electric charge, the forces (gravitational or electromagnetic) are the results of fundamental interactions at a distance, which are valid at both macroscopic and microscopic levels without limitations. However after the discoveries of the assumed ‘chargeless ’ neutrons (1932) and the ‘chargeless’ neutrinos and antineutrinos theorists of the twentieth century abandoned the electromagnetic laws based on the well-established charge in favor of qualitative approaches like Fermi’s “weak forces of zero range” for beta decay, or like the “exchange forces” of Heisenberg and Yukawa who used electrons or mesons respectively, as “force carriers”, for explaining the strong nuclear forces of short range, since they did not know the spin-dependent forces between charge distributions of spinning protons and neutrons.
Not long after Yukawa’s theory, muons were found like Yukawa’s hypothesis, but nine years later in 1946 among several mesons the pions π^{+}, π^{-} and π^{ο} were accepted as the true particles of Yukawa’s theory, like the false “mediating fields” of Maxwell. This wrong idea can be seen by using the Coulomb force F = KQq/r^{2} between Q and q acting at a distance. After the definition of the field E = F/q, Maxwell described it (1865) with excellent equations ( but without charges) and under the additional wrong ideas that the field is a force carrier, one observes obviously the inconsistency error, because the assumed carrier of force E = F/q between Q and q is the same force F per unit charge. In fact, if we make some sudden change in a charge distribution, photons are emitted with energy hν and mass m = hν /c^{2}which contains opposite charges providing local time-varying electric Ey and magnetic Bz fields. Using the same incorrect force mediators Feynman in his Quantum Electrodynamics (1950) introduced the virtual photons as quanta of the fallacious fields of Maxwell for comparing the short-ranged nuclear forces with the Coulomb long- ranged forces between point charges. Even in case of stationary charges Feynman assumed that Q and q constantly emit and absorb virtual photons, though all experiments showed that stationary charges cannot lead to photon emissions. In contrast, photons are emitted not only in the electron-proton systems of long-ranged forces but also in the p-n systems of short-ranged forces.
Then, Glashow, Weinberg, and Salam (1968) in their electroweak theory taking into account the “virtual photons” of Feynman and Yukawa’s bosons π^{+}, π^{-} and π^{ο}, introduced analogous W^{+} ,W^{- } and Z^{o} as more massive bosons for adding new “force carriers” in the Fermi weak forces of no range. In that false direction Gell-Mann did not use analogous particles to Yukawa’s and Glashow’s bosons but introduced in his Quantum Chromodynamics (1973) massless hypothetical “gluons” for interpreting the same short-ranged forces of quark and nuclear binding, though Feynman used massless photons for justifying only forces of long range. Moreover his theory led to many complications by assuming that Yukawa’s mesons must be combinations of quarks and gluons and by introducing hypothetical “color charges” though in 1964 revealed the existence of fundamental fractional charges of natural laws in his historical model of spinning quarks.
Despite the enormous success of the Bohr model (1913) and the quantum mechanics of Shroedinger (1926) who applied the electromagnetic laws in explaining the principal features of the hydrogen spectrum for revealing the atomic and molecular structure, here one observes great differences in ideas between Heisenberg (1932), Fermi (1934), Yukawa (1935), Feynman (1950), Glashow (1968), and Gell-Mann (1973), who developed different and contradicting theories under the influence of the wrong self propagating fields of Maxwell (1865) and the fallacious mass-energy conservation of Einstein (1905). So, neither was able to provide a satisfactory explanation of the nuclear properties and reactions. Much was known about the nuclear fusion and fission , but the nuclear force could not be couched in a simple formalism, nor could it be expressed in a closed analytic form.
Hence in the description of nuclear structure one relied on various wrong nuclear structure models, like the liquid drop, the nuclear shell, the Fermi gas, and the collective model, and no single model was completely adequate to reproduce all nuclear experimental data. (See in Google invalidity of Maxwell’s fields , special relativity, and exchange forces). Under such ideas many physicists emphasize that the less mass of deuteron( Mpn) than the sum Mp+Mn of the masses of free protons (p) and neutrons (n) is due to the wrong mass-energy conservation, because they believe that only energy hν is released, whenever nucleons join to form deuteron. In fact, the photon carries also its mass m. Thus we must write separately the conservations.
Of mass: Mp + Mn = Mpn + m. Of energy: Ep + En = Epn + hν.
Of course such a confusion of contradicting theories led to three wrong ways of assumed fundamental interactions, known as: electromagnetic, strong, and weak. Thus, theorists in vain tried to unify them under a hopeless discovery of a new natural law, since all forces are different types of the same electromagnetic force. Under these serious difficulties in 2002 we revived carefully the basic electromagnetic laws by analyzing the magnetic moments of nucleons along with the deep inelastic scattering which lead to charge distributions as (-5e/3, +8e/3) for proton and (+8e/3, -8e/3) for neutron, invalidating the three- quark picture of Gell-Mann (1964). Especially I discovered that in proton exist (5d,4u) extra charged quarks among 288 quarks in nucleons, while in neutron exist (4u,8d) charged quarks distributed at the centers and along the peripheries respectively. Applications of the basic electromagnetic laws on the fractional charges of these extra quarks give not only the short-ranged binding of spinning protons (p) and spinning neutrons (n) but also lead to the nuclear structure with p-n bonds of two types, (along the radial direction and the spin axis), while the repulsions of p-p and n-n systems interpret all the nuclear properties of radioactivity, saturation, short range force etc.
Detailed experiments showed that the masses (in terms of energies) Mn of the unstable nucleon (neutron) and Mp of the stable nucleon ( proton) are Mn = 939.56 MeV and Mp = 938.27 MeV respectively with a difference of mass ΔΜ = Mn – Mp = 1.29 MeV. Since protons and neutrons represent the stable and unstable states of the same entity respectively I used the discovery of extra quarks and the masses of nucleons to calculate that the mass Md of down quark (d) is Md = 3.69 MeV and the mass Mu of up quark (u) is Mu = 2.4 MeV . Surprisingly they give the same difference of mass ΔΜ = Md – Mu = 1.29 MeV, which is the mass defect when the down quark is transformed into the up quark. ( See in Google New atomic and nuclear physics).
The discovery of extra quarks and the detailed calculations of the masses of up and down quarks led me to discover the 288 quarks in nucleons. (See in Google Discovery of 288 quarks).
They give the total mass of protons or neutrons, since the simple quark model of Gell-Mann (1964), describing three quarks with very small masses with respect to the masses of nucleons, leads to many complications. For example under the influence of the wrong meson theory of Yukawa physicists assumed that the three quarks are surrounded by a cloud of mesons as mediators of nuclear forces. Moreover for the justification of this great difference in masses between a nucleon and the three quarks it was used the fallacious idea of mass-energy conservation. Therefore, while “gluons” were assumed to be massless Gell-Mann using the wrong conservation of mass-energy suggested that they possess energy which should contribute greatly to the overall mass to the nucleon. Finally, since the hypothetical gluons and color charges have never been observed, physicists believe that nucleons contain three valence quarks with an indefinite number of quarks and antiquarks called sea quarks. To resolve such complications it was not difficult for me to discover the 288 quarks in nucleons. For example each nucleon has the same number of quarks, since proton and neutron represent the stable and unstable states of the same entity. If N were the (dud) uncharged triads in each nucleon one may conclude that the proton consists also of one extra (dud) triad and ( 5d,4u) extra charged quarks, while neutron consist of (4u,8d) extra charged quarks. This situation leads to the detailed calculations of the masses of up and down quarks and to the determination of the integer ( number N). Especially in the stable nucleon (proton) the large uncharged mass consists of 92 uncharged triads of (d-u-d) bonds along with one extra uncharged (dud) triad, which is responsible for the stability of proton. Note that the 5d extra spinning charged quarks are distributed at the center, and the 4u extra spinning charged quarks are distributed along the periphery giving the charge distributions (-5e/3, +8e/3) of proton. Also the uncharged mass of the unstable nucleon (neutron) consists of the same 92 (d-u-d) uncharged triads with the extra (4u,8d) charged quarks.
Surprisingly we discovered that the charge distributions due to extra quarks of neutron interact with the fractional charges of extra quarks of proton for making the simplest p-n nuclear structure of deuteron (D) with an attractive electromagnetic force Fem = -Fe –Fm along the radial direction of parallel spin giving a binding energy of -2.2246 MeV. (See my paper “Charge distributions in nucleons able to create the nuclear structure”). Note that in the case of the hydrogen atom the emission of a photon with a real mass m = 13.6 eV (expressed in terms of energy) contributes to the formation of the stable orbital under the quantum jump of electron. Of course the same situation we observe in deuteron, because the liberation of the mass or energy hν = 2.2246 MeV of the emission of a photon (γ) leads to the simple structure of deuteron according to the simple relation p + n = D + γ.
In general the coupling of two spinning charges takes place when their total magnetic field is zero. For this reason in atoms two electrons are coupled only along the radial direction with opposite spin (S = +1/2 -1/2 = 0). Although the like charges of electrons give always repulsive electric force (+Fe) we observe a coupling at distances shorter than 578.8 fm where the attractive magnetic force (-Fm) of short range becomes stronger than the electric repulsion leading to vibrations of electrons, which explain the energies of two- electron orbitals, because the spins of electrons give enormous peripheral velocities greater than the speed of light. In the axial direction of parallel spin the two electrons cannot operate, because the total magnetic field should be twice greater for favoring very strong induced opposite currents able to disturb the system.
Following this fundamental situation of zero magnetic field a spinning proton interacts with a spinning neutron when the interaction takes place along the radial direction with parallel spins for making the simple structure of deuteron, because the peripheral charges are unlike ( +8e/3 and -8e/3 of proton and neutron respectively). This situation is of course against the Pauli principle which means that the principle is limited to cover only identical particles like two free protons or two free neutrons with simple p-p and n-n systems operating along the radial direction with opposite spin. Two deuterons with zero magnetic fields can be coupled along the spin axis of opposite spins for making a two dimensional structure ( a rectangle) of the very stable Helium, because the total spin J = 0 gives zero magnetic field. This situation led physicists to develop the fallacious nuclear structure models of Fermi gas and nuclear shell, because they believed that the zero spin is due to the fact that two protons and two neutrons are attracted separately according to the Pauli principle.
In fact the p-p and n–n systems cannot give any binding energy, because in the spinning nucleons there is not any enormous velocity greater than the speed of light, to give stronger magnetic attractions than the electric repulsions, while in spinning electrons, quarks, and neutrinos, the peripheral velocities are greater than the speed of light. In the case of He-4 one observes two radial p-n bonds and two very strong axial bonds with electric and magnetic attractions given by Fem = -Fe –Fm. The structure is very stable because the p-p and the n-n repulsions along diagonals of the rectangle are very weak. In these cases of p-p and n-n repulsions the opposite spins give a weak repulsive electromagnetic force, Fem, due to the electric repulsion (+Fe) and to the weaker magnetic attraction (-Fm). That is, Fem = +Fe – Fm.
However for the formation of the three dimensional structure like the first parallelepiped of Be-8 the p-p and n-n repulsions along the diagonals in squares are very strong due to the parallel spins. Such spins are unfavorable with strong repulsive Fem = +Fe +Fm which overcome the p-n bonds along the radial directions. Therefore Be-8 decays into two α particles.
Since Triton consists of one proton and two neutrons having a ( n-p-n) structure where the first n-p bond of opposite spin is strong along the spin axis, while the second p-n bond of parallel spin is weaker along the radial direction, we discovered that these n-p and p-n bonds are similar to the quark structure (d-u-d) of the one triad, where the first d-u bond is a strong one along the spin axis, while the second u-d bond is weaker along the radial direction. In Triton we also observe that there is a very weak n-n repulsion along the diagonal, because the opposite spins give a small repulsive Fem given by Fem = +Fe – Fm. Note that in Triton the electric repulsion (+Fe) is always stronger than the magnetic attraction (-Fm) since the spins give υ < c. Surprisingly, in the triad for the d-d system along the diagonal we write the same Fem = +Fe – Fm but the magnetic attraction is greater than the electric repulsion, because the spins give peripheral velocities υ>>c. Detailed applications of basic laws of electromagnetism reveal that this situation differs fundamentally from the nuclear structure, because the binding energy of spinning quarks contains also bonds along the diagonals.
But for the formation of the three- dimensional structure, as in the case of Be-8, some unfavorable parallel spins lead to the extra (u-u) and (d-d) systems along the radial direction with strong electric and magnetic repulsions along diagonals. That is, Fem = +Fe +Fm. One may observe also (u-d) repulsions because an unfavorable opposite spin gives magnetic repulsion stronger than the electric attraction. These situations lead to the shock of oriented spins which become partially oriented and several quarks are confined in the course of asymptotic freedom. On this basis we revealed also that high temperature can destroy the favorable orientations of spins and quarks become deconfined and exist as free particles in a hot matter called plasma.
Experiments showed that in the decay of neutrons the antineutrino- electron pairs are emitted with opposite spin. It means that the electron and the antineutrino have negative charges along the peripheries like two neutrons or two electrons of opposite spin. Here it is clear that the antineutrino has a positive charge at the center and a negative one along the periphery like a neutron. So antineutrinos have negative magnetic moment (-μ) like neutrons and interact with up quarks of positive charge +2e/3. Both particles have spins of υ>>c and interact with electromagnetic forces of short range which are similar to the short-ranged p-n interactions of the simplest nuclear structure. In this case the antineutrino is absorbed by the up quark which changes into a down quark and a positron like the photon absorption separating the deuteron(D) into the proton and neutron according to the relation γ + D = p + n. But during the interactions of photons with protons and neutrons of the deuteron the energy and the photon mass are transmitted to all 288 quarks in nucleons.
Note that for the photon-electron interaction I showed that the opposite charges of photon interact with electric and magnetic forces of short range to overcome also the long-ranged Coulomb attraction in the electron-proton system. Thus the absorbed energy and mass of photon causes in the system a transition from the stable state to another unstable one of higher energy. ( See in Google Photon-Matter interaction). In the same way an antineutrino interacts electromagnetically with the charged up quark which is transformed into a down quark for the disappearance of the extra (d-u-d) triad. This process leads to the rearrangement of extra quarks (5d,4u) of the stable proton to (4u,8d) of the unstable nucleon (neutron) giving charge distributions able to interact electromagnetically with the charges of proton for constructing the nuclei.
Since nature is inherently symmetric, in the absence of another proton, a free unstable nucleon (neutron) changes into a proton by emitting an electron and an antineutrino. This is the well-known β^{-}decay which provides the antineutrino emission as the inverse reaction of the antineutrino absorption, because one d extra quark of the unstable nucleon, under a quantum jump, like the transitions in atoms, is transformed into an up quark for creating the extra (d-u-d) triad of proton. Here the d quark with the mass Md = 3.69 MeV is transformed into an up quark with Mu = 2.4 MeV by losing a mass Md - Mu = 1.29 MeV, which is the mass defect for the formation of the extra (d-u-d) triad like the emission of a photon during the transition of an excited atomic state when the atom drops into a lower energy of a stable state. We showed also that inside the nucleus the neutron decays when it makes a weak single p-n bond along the radial direction and an additional n-n repulsion reduces the binding energy to a value smaller than 1.29 MeV. For example in the deuteron the neutron does not decay since the binding energy of 2.2246 MeV of the single p-n bond is stronger than the binding of 1.29 MeV of the (d-u-d) extra triad of proton. That is, like the emission of photon, the antineutrino emission under the mass defect of 1.29 MeV is responsible for changing the neutron into proton in order to favor the nuclear stability in neutron- rich nuclides. Similarly the photon emission under a mass defect leads to the nuclear structure.
Though the single bond of deuteron is stable, the simplest neutron- rich nuclide , the H-3 or Triton, is unstable and decays, because it has a structure n-p-n where the first n-p bond is along the spin axis with a binding energy stronger than 1.29 MeV, while the second p-n bond along the radial directions is affected by the n-n repulsion which gives a value weaker than the 1.29 MeV, leading to the decay. Note that the emitted antineutrinos in the neutron decay cannot behave as "force carriers" or as "virtual particles" but as real mass carriers or energy carriers like the emitted photons.
Another process, if the target is a nucleus, is the neutrino absorption, when it interacts with a down quark. Since the neutrino has a negative charge at the center and a positive one along the periphery it interacts with the down quark of charge –e/3 like the p-n interaction of short range. The inverse reaction of the neutrino absorption is the neutrino emission in the processes of electron capture and the positron emission. It cannot occur in isolation because it requires a positive energy from the p-p repulsions in proton-rich nuclides which overcome the p-n bonds. After a systematic study of these processes according to which a proton changes into a neutron, we revealed that both processes occur when a proton on the surface of a nucleus, (in the absence of one or more neutrons), makes fewer p-n bonds than those of a stable nucleus.
So when the long- ranged p-p repulsions between it and the rest protons (along with the strong p-p repulsions of parallel spin) overcome such a small number of p-n bonds per proton with a net repulsive energy ΔΕ > 0.78 ΜeV the up quark of Eu = 2.4 MeV absorbs the energy ΔΕ > 0.78 MeV and the energy Ee = 0.511 MeV of a captured electron to get an energy E> 3.69 MeV. Consequently the up quark can change into a down quark with the energy Ed = 3.69 MeV. Note that the emitted neutrino has a negligible energy. This is the well- known electron capture. When ΔΕ > 1.8 MeV the up quark with an energy Eu = 2.4 MeV after the absorption of ΔΕ = 1.8 MeV gets a great energy E > 4.2 MeV. Thus, it can change into the d quark with Ed = 3.69 MeV and into a positron with Ee = 0.511 MeV. In this case the energy of the emitted neutrino is also negligible. This is the well-known positron emission.
Although the simplest He-3, with a structure (p-n-p), is a proton-rich nuclide, it is stable, because it contains only one very weak p-p repulsion unable to overcome each of the p-n and n-p bonds. However In all heavier proton-rich nuclides of many p-p repulsions which overcome the p-n bonds the neutrino emission leads to the transformation of one proton into a neutron which favors the stability of nuclei because it increases the p-n bonds for overcoming the new smaller number of long-ranged p-p repulsions.
Such reactions of the neutrino emission are also similar to the photon emission. In the same way the photon emission leads to the structure of deuteron according to the relation p + n = D + γ, in which the force is not of long range for using Feynman’s wrong idea of virtual photons.That is, in all cases of long range and short range forces the photon cannot be a “force carrier” but an energy carrier or a mass carrier. Also neutrinos and antineutrinos are emitted in the beta decay as mass carriers or energy carriers for favoring the stability of nuclear structure with attractive electromagnetic forces.
However Glashow, Weinberg, and Salam in 1968, who did not know the electromagnetic neutrino-quark interaction based on natural laws, introduced the hypothesis of electroweak force at very high energies by accepting “force carriers” in order to unify the fallacious Fermi weak force of zero range with electromagnetism. For a hot universe I revealed that the symmetric situation of extreme conditions of high energies is due to a totally non orientation of spins, because thermal motion causes the spins to become randomly oriented. Thus the attractive magnetic forces of short range between spinning quarks, spinning nucleons, or the fundamental quark-neutrino interactions etc. of a favorable orientation of spins disappear and only electric forces are present.
At lower energies the dynamical symmetry of absolutely non oriented spins breaks and the new dynamical situation is unstable due to the partially oriented spins, because the lower thermal energy allows only a partially orientation of spins depending on the temperature. Thus, an unstable region appears under a Quantum Dynamics of Partially Oriented Spins (QDPOS) with unstable states, like the stationary states in atoms with quantum jumps, for producing very heavy unstable quarks and other unstable bosons like the W and Z produced at CERN in 1983.
In this region of (QDPOS) the Standard Model of particle physics was successful for predicting and discovering the bottom quark (1977) the top quark (1995) and the tau neutrino (2000). However this model incorrectly used the previous theories which abandoned the natural laws of forces acting at a distance by assuming wrong "force carriers".
Since the theorists of electroweak theory used a gauge theory with massless particles which become very massive bosons under a spontaneous symmetry breaking, one sees that the real W and Z bosons only fill slots in the gauge theory, and no experiment could tie them to beta decay. Therefore, the real W and Z bosons cannot be used as "force carriers" or as mass carriers in beta decay, because they are very huge unstable particles of partially oriented spins produced at high energy accelerators. Their use in beta decay of low energies violate the two conservation laws of mass and energy, because they are too massive particles, while the beta decay occurs at every day of low energies due to the electric and magnetic forces of short range between quarks neutrinos and antineutrinos with negligible masses. In other words W and Z bosons could be able to interact with heavy unstable quarks in QDPOS region or other particles to behave as mass carriers or energy carriers like photons, antineutrinos, and neutrinos.
In this dynamical region of unstable states of partially oriented spins the electroweak theory succeeded in predicting unstable very heavy particles related with unstable massive quarks. For example the ratio W/Z is related to the mass of the top quark. But it is unfortunate that the Standard Model does not correctly account for neutrino oscillations and their non-zero masses, which imply opposite charges with magnetic moments able to interact electromagnetically of short range at every day low energies of beta decay. Note that the huge Gargamille bubble chamber photographed the tracks of a fiew electrons suddenly starting to move, and this was interpreted as a neutrino interacting with the electron. So the model despite its success in predicting unstable particles is responsible for developing fallacious theories.
At the lowest energies of stable states under an absolute orientation of spins attractive spin-dependent forces of short range between spinning quarks hold the quarks together for constructing stable nucleons (protons) with extra quarks (5d,4u) giving a net positive charge (+e). Meanwhile energetic antineutrinos with spin-dependent forces of short range interact with the up quark of the extra (d-u-d) triad and lead to the unstable nucleons (neutrons) with (4u,8d) extra quarks giving zero charge. It is of interest to note that the zero charge of neutron unfortunately led to several fallacious theories, because physicists believed that an uncharged particle is unable to interact electromagnetically with the charged proton. Moreover nuclear experiments showed that nuclear forces are of short range.
In this direction I showed that the charge distributions of spinning proton and the spinning neutron interact strongly with spin-dependent forces of short range, like dipoles, for constructing the simplest nucleus (deuteron) with a strong binding energy of 2.2246 MeV. But several heavier nuclei ( neutron-rich nuclides) with weaker single p-n bonds than the value of 1.29 MeV lead to the β^{-} decay, while all nuclides of (N>Z) having two or more n-p bonds per neutron are stable. Also at heavy proton-rich nuclides the long-ranged p-p repulsions lead to the β^{+} decay. As the surface of the nucleus increases we observe that for N=Z nucleons on the surface are bound to fewer neighbors than those in the interior. So the number N of neutrons at the surface becomes greater than the number Z of protons for making two or more p-n bonds per neutron able to overcome the long-ranged p-p repulsions. In general there is a compromise between the long ranged p-p repulsions and the non single p-n bonds which lead to the well- known Segre plot where the stability region departs more and more from the line with N = Z. Note that in neutron stars we observe the opposite situation, where the long-ranged attractive gravitational forces overcome the short-ranged neutron-neutron repulsions.
THE STRUCTURE OF NUCLEONS WITH 288 QUARKS
When I discovered the extra quarks as (5d,4u) for the stable nucleon ( proton) and (4u,8d) of the unstable nucleon (neutron) the discovery met much skepticism at the Hellenic Symposium of Nuclear Physics in 2002, because physicists believed that the three quarks of Gell-Mann are the only three elementary particles in nucleons described by the so-called Standard Model under additional hypothetical interactions known as strong and weak interactions. Although the interaction of the fractional charges of extra quarks is based on natural laws many physicists did not accept the real forces of the laws of electromagnetism for the nuclear structure, because they believed that the nuclear binding energy is due to the mass defect according to the fallacious mass-energy conservation of Einstein. Especially one old man at the Hellenic Symposium, who was in old years a student of Einstein, did not ask me any question about the discovery of extra quarks and the application of electromagnetic laws on the charges of extra quarks for the nuclear binding and structure. Instead, he emphasized that the ideas of his teacher (Einstein) will be forever the correct basis of fundamental physics.
Note that for the discovery of extra quarks we applied natural laws of the well-known magnetic moments of nucleons by using very simple mathematics. For example the discovery of extra quarks in proton is based on the relation μ /S = 2.793e/M where the S, e, and M are the spin, the elementary charge, and the proton mass respectively. This leads to the conclusion that the positive charge +Q of up quarks is spinning along the periphery and behaves like a circular current loop. For such a loop of radius R with a current I the magnetic moment (+μ) is given by μ = ΙπR^{2 }. So for the proton spinning with a frequency ν we may write μ = QνπR^{2}. On the other hand the spin S of an oblate spheroid which rotates like the spinning proton is
S = tMωR^{2} or S = tM2πνR^{2} where 0.4 < t < 0.5
In this case we emphasize that for a spinning sphere the spin is given by S = 0.4 M 2πνR^{2} , while for a spinning disk t = 0.5. So if we replace μ/S = 2.793 e/M by QνπR^{2} /tM2πνR^{2 }= 2.793 e/M we get Q/2t = 2.793e . Consequently for t = 0.4 < 0.47742 < 0.5 we get Q = 8e/3 which is the summation of the charges of 4 up quarks. On the other hand the deep inelastic scattering experiments showed that the negative charge – q is at the center. Since Q - q = +e we get –q = -5e/3, which does not contribute to the magnetic moment.
Moreover, since proton and neutron represent the stable and the unstable states of the same entity, and since the extra quarks invalidate all ideas of quantum chromodynamics it led me to discover the 92 uncharged triads (dud) of neutron (n) and 93 uncharged triads of proton (p) giving the 288 quarks in nucleons which can be described as n = 92(dud) + (4u + 8d ) or 192d + 96u = 288 quarks. p = 93(dud) + (5d + 4u) or 191d + 97u = 288 quarks. Starting with the twelve extra quarks of the unstable nucleon (neutron) one concludes that the three more down quarks than those of proton during the decay of neutron change into the extra (d-u-d) triad of the stable nucleon ( proton). That is, the mass defect Δ E = Md – Mu = 3.69 - 2.4 = 1.29 MeV is responsible for the binding energy of d-u and u-d bonds of spin-dependent electromagnetic interactions under the rearrangement of extra quarks. Using the fractional charges +2e/3 for u and –e/3 for d of the extra quarks in the second parenthesis one describes the distributions of charges (+8e/3,-8e/3) for neutron and also the charges (-5e/3,+8e/3) for proton distributed at the centers and along the peripheries respectively. Such charges of extra quarks give very strong electromagnetic forces of short range acting at a distance between the spinning nucleons, like the dipole-dipole interactions of short range. Since the spin of nucleons gives a peripheral velocity less than the speed of light, the simple p-p and n-n systems which operate along the radial direction with opposite spin (Pauli principle) gives a repulsion Fem = +Fe –Fm because the magnetic attraction is weaker than the electric repulsion. Whereas in the simple p-n bonds (deuteron) of parallel spin there is always an electromagnetic attraction Fem = -Fe –Fm, because both electric and magnetic interactions give always attractive forces. Hence we do not need any theory with mesons or gluons with strange ‘color charges’ out of the well-established natural laws, because so far no new natural laws have been discovered out of the fundamental charge e = 1.6/10^{19} Cb which revealed the atomic and nuclear structure. Furthermore the transmitted fields or virtual photons or virtual gluons assumed as mediators of forces are based on the fallacious idea of self propagating fields of Maxwell.
THE BINDING OF QUARKS
In the case of atoms and nuclei the study of the hydrogen atom and the deuteron lead to the general ideas of the atomic and nuclear structures. So we need to examine here carefully the simple structure of the uncharged triad (d-u-d). In the study of deuterons since the proton and the neutron are packed along the radial direction with parallel spin (total spin J = +1 ) giving a binding energy E= -2.2246 MeV the structure of deuteron D can be written as D = p(+1/2) n(+1/2) . Whereas two deuterons of opposite spin are coupled along the spin axis to form the very stable helium nucleus with a total spin J = 0. Then, it was possible to describe the structure of Triton (n-p-n) with a total spin J = +1/2. See the mathematics and the diagrams in our published paper ‘Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism’.. However for the study of the structure of the triad [d-u-d] we observe always not only d-u and u-d bonds but also d-d bonds with Fem = +Fe –Fm where Fm is stronger than Fe because the spins give peripheral velocities greater than the speed of light. This situation of course describes the great difference between the nuclear structure and the quark binding. In the [d-u-d] triad having an orientation along the axis x the (d-u) bond is strong as in the case of Triton because it is along the spin axis z with opposite spins, while the second (u-d) bond is weaker in strength, because it operates along the radial direction ( axis x) with parallel spins like the p-n bond of deuteron. That is, in both cases we write Fem = -Fe –Fm with different strength. For comparing the favorable orientations of spins with the axial and radial bonds you can see the first triad [d-u-d] of the two-dimentional structutre of four triads coupled in in a two dimensional system of xz plane.
In the first Triad the d(-1/2) is packed with the u(+1/2) as in the case of Triton to make the strong (d-u) bond with strong Fem = -Fe –Fm along the spin axis z of opposite spins. Because of the unlike charges this binding is opposite to two current loops with the same current, which are attracted magnetically when they have a parallel spin along the spin axis z. Moreover as in the case of Triton the u(+1/2) is packed with the d(+1/2) to make the weaker bond (u-d) with a weaker Fem = -Fe –Fm along the radial direction. In this case of Triad the opposite charges of +2e/3 and –e/3 give always an attractive –Fe. We observe also a binding between d(-1/2) and d(+1/2) along the diagonal with an attractive Fem = +Fe –Fm, since the attractive -Fm is stronger than the repulsive +Fe because of the enormous peripheral velocity (υ>>c). Moreover we observe that the total spin of this simple Triad is J = +1/2 as in the case of Triton.
THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF MANY TRIADS
In the case of the very stable He-4 ( see the diagram) the p-n bonds along the spin axis z are very strong with Fem = -Fe -Fm while the p-n bonds along the axis x are weaker with the same Fem = -Fe –Fm. For favoring the stable structure the p-p and the n-n repulsions along the diagonals of the rectangle are very weak, because the opposite spins give a weak repulsion Fem = +Fe – Fm. After a systematic analysis we see that such a structure is similar to the two-dimensional structure of four triads which give a total spin J = 0. Surprisingly the spin orientations of triads give not only bonds along the spin axis and the radial direction but also favor additional bonds along the diagonals as shown in the following two-dimensional structure.
The two-dimentional srtructure of four (d-u-d) triads with J = 0
[d(-1/2).... { d(+1/2).... u(+1/2)..... [d(+1/2).... {d(-1/2).... u(-1/2)
u(+1/2).... d(+1/2)]..... d(-1/2) }.... u(-1/2)...... d(-1/2)].... d(+1/2)}
Here we see that the first and the third triad [d-u-d] have the same orientation along the x axis, while the second and fourth triad {d-u-d} have the same along the -x axis. Note tht all spins favor the bindings not only the spin axis z but also along the radial direction x and along the diagonals giving a total spin J = 0 with zero magnetic field. In all cases all orientations of spins favor attractive magnetic forces (-Fm) which are stronger than the electric Fe, because the spin gives peripheral velocities greater than the speed of light. For example in the second axial bond we see that the two adentical d(+1/2) quarks belong to the first and second triad. Their spins are parallel for the magnetic attraction, because the two quarks have the same charges of -e/3. Also the third quark d(+1/2) of the first triad is packed with the third quark d(-1/2) of the second triad along the radial direction with opposite spins. One also sees that the oriented spins favor the mafnetic attractions along the diagonals, which are stronger than than the electric repulsions.
In general, one observes 4 axial (u-d) bonds with opposite spin like the axial p-n bonds of Helium. In this direction there are also 2 axial (d-d) bonds with positive parallel spins and negative parallel spins for giving zero magnetic field. They operate like two current loops coupled along the spin axis z. We also see 6 radial (u-d) bonds with parallel spin like the p-n bond of deuteron and 4 radial (d-d) bonds with opposite spin like the opposite spin of two electrons. Furthermore one sees 5 diagonals (d-d) bonds with opposite spin, 4 diagonals (u-d) bonds withparallel spin and 1 diagonal (u-u) bond with opposite spin. That is, in the two-dimensional structure of only four packed triads one can observe 26 bonds which lead to the conclusion that the binding of quarks is much more stronger than than the very stable Helium which consists of four p-n bonds including also p-p and n-n repulsions.
QUARK CONFINEMENT DUE TO THE THREE- DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE
This situation occurs when the binding takes place in three- dimensional structure. Though υ >> c we see that an unfavorable orientation of spins leads to magnetic repulsions for giving extra (u-u), (d-d) and (u-d) repulsions. For example consider that an up quark, u(+1/2) is along the perpendicular y axis (perpendicular to the page) packed with the third quark d(+1/2) of the first triad. We see that it forms with the d(+1/2) an (u-d) bond along the radial direction (y axis of the yz plane). But in this case we observe also a strong repulsion along the diagonal (radial direction) between it and the second quark u(+1/2) of the first triad, because the two positive quarks have parallel spin. Of course such an u-u repulsion of parallel spin along the diagonal of the yz plane is similar to the p-p strong repulsions of parallel spin along the diagonals of a square between the two rectangles in nuclear structure for making the first simplest unstable parallelepiped of Be-8 with three p-n bonds per nucleon. Note that in the compound stable parallelepiped of oxygen we see that in the inner squares the three bonds become four bonds per nucleon to overcome such repulsions along the diagonals for making a stable structure. Here we observe also the same repulsion along a diagonal between it and the third quark d(-1/2) of the second triad, since they have unlike charges with opposite spins. In the study of nuclear structure I described carefully this situation of unfavorable orientation of spins which lead to the emission of α particles. For example Be-8 decays emitting the two α particles because of the very strong electric and magnetic repulsions of p-p and n-n systems of parallel spin. Fem = +Fe +Fm. (See the diagram). However in spinning quarks we do not observe any decay. Instead we observe confined quarks in the course of asymptotic freedom . I discovered that it is due to a shock of the orientation of spins. Under such a non orientation of spins the magnetic force of repulsions is reduced in such a way that all the adjacent bonds should be stronger than the repulsions. That is, several adjacent binding energies are reduced less than the reduction of repulsions. As this quark is separated the repulsive magnetic force along these diagonals is reduced more and the spins try to be oriented for increasing the other bonds which bring the quarks together as though they were some kind of rubber band. We revealed also that under sufficiently extreme conditions, quarks may become deconfined and exist as free particles because a high temperature may destroy the favorable orientations of spins. So an extremely hot plasma of freely moving quarks would be formed. Such a plasma in lower energies would be characterized by a great increase in the number of heavier unstable quarks in relation to the number of stable up and down quarks. That is, the partially oriented spins seem to be like the unstable stationary states of the Bohr model.
ANTINEUTRINO - UP QUARK ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERACTION
When an electron antineutrino interacts with the extra (dud) triad of the stable nucleon (proton) the opposite charges of it interact with the charge of the up quark with parallel spin like the simple interaction of the n-p systems. That is, we write the analogous formula of the photon -matter interaction as: Eν/Μν = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2 }where Εν is the energy of the antineutrino and Μν is the mass of it. Since the charge must be conserved, when the antineutrino is absorbed it gives off its energy Eν and its mass Mν not only to the up quark for the transformation into a down quark but also for the creation of the positron with +e. Many experiments showed that the antineutrino has positive charge at the center and negative charge along the periphery like the neutron, while the electron neutrino has a negative charge at the center and a positive charge along the periphery. Especially in the neutron decay the pairs of electrons and antineutrinos are emitted of opposite spin like two electrons or like two neutrons. It means that the antineutrinos have positive charge at the center and negative charge along the periphery. Moreover the discovery of neutrino flavor oscillations implies that neutrinos and antineutrinos have rest mass. The existence of a neutrino rest mass strongly suggests the existence of a neutrino magnetic moment.
Note that all particles which have positive charge along the periphery have a positive magnetic moment (+μ) while the particles with the negative charges along the periphery have negative magnetic moments (-μ). For simplicity for the up quark, the positron, and the neutrino with (+μ) we may write u^{+}, e^{+}, ν^{+} . Whereas for the down quark, the electron, and the antineutrino we write d^{-} , e^{-} , ν^{-}. Since the magnetic moment (+μ) or (-μ) must be conserved the antineutrino absorption can be written as follows:
ANTINEUTRINO ABSORPTION............... ν^{- }+ u^{+} = d^{- } + e^{+}
In this reaction a proton changes into a neutron and a positron is emitted as the up quark changes into the down quark. That is, the antineutrino interaction with the up quark leads to the transformation of the stable nucleon (proton) into the unstable nucleon ( neutron) like the excitation of an atom under the absorption of photon. The same photon absorption we also observe when we separate the deuteron (D) into its component protons (p) and neutrons (n) according to the relation γ + D = p + n .
As in the case of the photon-electron electromagnetic interaction since the electron antineutrino has positive charge at the center and negative one along the periphery it behaves like a dipolic particle and interacts with the positive charge +2e/3 of the up quark with electromagnetic forces of short range like the simple interaction of the n-p system. In this case both particles have spins of υ>>c. This process can be observed in complex nuclei and also for a hydrogen target if the energy of the antineutrino is sufficiently large (greater than 1.8 MeV). Using the masses in terms of energy we write the equation of conservation of mass as
Mν + Μu = Md + Me or Mν = (Md-Mu) + Me = 1.29 + 0.511 = 1.8 MeV.
Analogous equation for the masses m of photon and Mpn of deuteron is written as
m + Mpn = Mp + Mn or m = (Mp +Mn) – Mpn = 2.2246 MeV.
Note that in the interaction of a photon with an electron of charge (-e) we may write
Εy(-e) dy = hν and Bz(-e)dy = p = mc.
Since Ey/Bz = c we get the following fundamental formula hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}
It occurs because of the photon absorption. Though the mass Mν of the antineutrino is negligible we see that here it is an energetic particle for giving off its mass not only to the up quark but also to the positron according to the charge conservation. Since the antineutrino has two equal and opposite charges we write the charge conservation as +2e/3 = -e/3 + 3e/3.
ANTINEUTRINO EMISSION
The inverse reaction involving antineutrino emission is the β^{- }decay of the neutron, whenever the conversion of neutron into a proton is energetically favorable. Here the β^{-} decays are from free neutron and from neutron-rich nuclides when neutrons make weak single p-n bonds at the surface of nuclear structure . Such processes are similar to the photon emission in the deexcitation of an excited atomic (or nuclear) state as the atom drops into the lower stable state. Under the conservation of the magnetic moment (+μ) or ( –μ) the process can be written
Antineutrino emission due to β^{-} decay......... d^{- } = u^{+} + e^{-} + ν^{-}
It is similar to the photon emission in atoms and nuclei. For example when proton (p) and neutron (n) join to form deuteron (D) we write the relation p + n = D + γ .
In the antineutrino emission since an electron is also emitted the equation of conservations of charge and mass can be written as Conservation of charge: -e/3 = +2e/3 -3e/3
Conservation of mass : Md = Mu + Me + Mν or Mν = (Md-Mu) – Me.
That is Mν = 1.29 - 0.511 = 0.78 MeV.
Or Me + Mν = Md-Mu = 1.29 MeV. It means that both electrons and antineutrinos are emitted as energetic particles.
COMPLICATIONS OF ELECTROWEAK THEORY IN BETA DECAY
Since the unstable W and Z bosons are produced at high energy accelerators with significant masses they should interact with particles of high energy to justify the decay of unstable very massive quarks produced in the same high energies. For example the decay of top quark t can be written with the following reaction: t = W + b where b is the bottom quark. However at every day low energies as in the beta decay the use of such massive bosons leads to complications. According to the above description the transformation of d quark with a charge –e/3 into an up quark with a charge +2e/3 by emitting an electron with a charge -e and an untineutrino with two opposite charges justifies very well the conservation of charge. But the electroweak theory for interpreting β^{-} decay with hypothetical force mediators introduces the additional W^{-} boson for justifying again the conservation of charge because it was assumed that W^{-} having the same charge of electron is emitted by d quark and during its absorption gives off its charge. Of course it seems to be strange. One can say how the mass Md = 3.69 MeV of d quark can emit the very huge boson W with a mass Mw = 80,398 MeV. Under these fallacious ideas the real reaction of β ^{-}decay which justifies the conservation laws of mass, energy, magnetic moment, and charge can be incorrectly visualized as a two-step process as follows: d = u + W^{- } and W^{-} = e^{-} + ν . Here obviously the law of conservation of mass is violated because the W boson cannot be produced at every day low energies. Furthermore using it as a virtual particle we have a huge amount of energy like a bomb coming from nowhere and then disappearing into nothing. This inconsistency is due to the fact that the innovators of electroweak theory focused on using the previous fallacious theories with wrong force carriers formulated with excellent mathematics but not looking for physical consistency errors. In fact W and Z unstable bosons can interact with unstable quarks of high energy as mass carriers or energy carriers.
NEUTRINO – DOWN QUARK ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERACTION
A similar reaction to the antineutrino absorption is the neutrino absorption. It can be seen when the target is a nucleus. In this absorption a neutron changes into a proton and an electron is emitted when the opposite charges of a neutrino interact electromagnetically with the fractional charge –e/3 of a down quark.
NEUTRINO ABSORPTION............. ν^{+} + d^{- } = u^{+} + e^{- } Such a process principally leads to the proton-rich nuclides as follows
ν^{+ }+ ( Z,N) = (Ζ+1, Ν-1) + e^{-}
In such an absorption the up quark increases its mass to a value (Mu +ΔΜ). When the nucleus become a proton–rich nuclide the long-ranged p-p repulsions and also the short ranged p-p repulsions of parallel spin usually overcome the short- ranged p-n bonds. In this reaction the equations of the conservation of charge and mass can be written as Charge conservation -e/3 = +2e/3 -3e/3
Mass conservation Mν + Md = (Mu + ΔΜ) + Μe or ΔΜ = (Md-Mu) –Me + Mν
That is ΔΜ = 1.29 – 0.511 + Mν = 0.78 MeV + Mν
NEUTRINO EMISSION
nverse reactions involving neutrino emission have been observed in the proton –rich nuclides when the long–ranged p-p repulsions overcome the p-n bonds. The net repulsive energy contributes to the increase ΔΜ of the mass Mu of the up quark of the extra d-u-d triad, which can become (Mu + ΔΜ). This reaction is characterized by the orbital electron capture and the positron emission or β^{+} as follows:
Neutrino emission due to electron capture........... u^{+} + e^{-} = d^{- } + ν^{+}
Neutrino emission due to β^{+} decay...................... u^{+} = d^{-} + e^{+} + ν^{+}
In the neutrino emission due to electron capture since Mν is negligible writing Mν = 0 the mass conservation can be written as
(Mu + ΔΜ) + Me = Md or ΔΜ = ( Md –Mu) – Me = 1.29 - 0.511 = 0.78 MeV
It means that for a proton at the surface of the proton-rich nucleus the neutrino emission can take place when the energies of the p-p repulsions (Epp) overcome the p-n attractions (-Epn) for giving a total positive energy greater than 0.78 MeV. That is, the total energy for Mν > 0 will be (Epp – Epn) > 0.78 MeV.
For the neutrino emission due to β^{+} using again Mν = 0 the equation of the mass conservation can be written as follows:
(Mu + ΔΜ) = Md + Me or ΔΜ = (Md-Mu) +Me = 1.29 + 0.511 = 1.8 MeV.
In other words the electron capture occurs when 0.78 MeV < Epp-Epn < 1.8 MeV while the positron emission occurs when (Epp-Epn) > 1.8 MeV. Note that neutrino oscillation experiments indicate that the neutrinos have negligible rest mass providing a magnetic moment μ with opposite charges. So for a non energetic neutrino the reaction can take place when the total positive energy is a little greater than 1.8 Mev. It is of interest to note that the Standard model incorrectly assumed that neutrinos are massless . So it is responsible for the development of fallacious theories
CONTRADICTIONS IN FERMI’S WEAK FORCE OF ZERO RANGE
In 1934 Fermi did not know the quark-antineutrino electromagnetic interactions since the model of quarks was developed in 1964. He believed neutrons and protons to be structureless. He also believed that in the β^{-} decay antineutrinos are massless as well as chargeless. Especially Fermi emphasized that it is due to a coupling of neutron , proton, electron ant antineutrino with hypothetical interaction of no range operating out of natural laws called ‘weak interaction’. This is a contradicting idea against all natural laws. For example using the fundamental Coulomb force F = KQq/r^{2} one sees that for r = 0 the force F cannot be a weak one but becomes infinitely enormous with infinite strength. He emphasized also that the reaction takes place under the wrong idea of conversion of energy into mass. Moreover since Fermi did not know the interactions of quarks with antineutrinos he believed that the β^{-}decay is the coupling of the neutron, proton, electron and antineutrino where the electromagnetism is absent as follows :
Neutron decay n = p + e + ν
Therefore many physicists of the twentieth century accepted Fermi’s theory of zero range which means that the interaction is not of weak strength but of an infinitely enormous strength. Taking into account these complications Glashow in his electroweak theory tried to justify the Fermi’s force of zero range by assuming that it is of very short range operating with very massive force mediators. However the electroweak theory predicted very massive unstable particles for very high energy conditions unable to be related with the low energy reactions of beta decay.
INVALIDITY OF FEYNMAN’S VIRTUAL PHOTONS
When a photon interacts with the electron in the proton-electron system the force is not of long range but of short range because the photon is a dipolic particle. So we observe an interaction of short range between a photon and the electron able to overcome the long ranged attraction between the electron and the proton. Since nature is inherently symmetric the electron of an excited state returns again to the first orbit (stable state) by giving off its mass ΔΜ to the photon mass m. Thus a photon is created after the interaction of the electron- proton system. Consequently photon is not a force carrier but a mass carrier or an energy carrier. In 1950 Feynman in his quantum electrodynamics supposed that the photon in the case of interactions is a virtual particle carrying the fallacious self propagating fields of Maxwell. Moreover under the wrong ideas of Yukawa that the nuclear forces of short range are due to massive particles he tried to justify the long ranged electric forces at a macroscopic level by using a massless photon because he did not know that a photon has always a mass with opposite charges which interact with forces of short range. Experiments showed that its mass is given by the formula m = hν /c^{2} since photons are never at rest. In the second case of deexcitation, photons cannot exist for carrying the force. Especially Feynman used the fallacious self propagating fields of Maxwell to introduce the idea that the photon is the field particle of the fallacious self propagating fields. Note that the force of interaction between electron and proton exist prior to the creation of photon. On the other hand the magnetic attraction between two spinning electrons is always of short range. Also in the relation p + n = D + γ the emitted photon is the result of short-ranged interactions. In general during the absorption of photons we may accept the fundamental concept of natural laws, that the charges of a photon interact at a distance with other charges Whereas during the emission of the photon it cannot be a force carrier but a carrier of energy or a carrier of mass, since it is generated after the interaction of charges in the electron-proton system. ^{ }
INVALIDITY OF COLOR CHARGES AND GLUONS
With the great development in physical science that have occurred in the last three centuries about the discovery of electromagnetic laws and the successful application of them in atoms and molecules, there has come a need for fundamental rebirth of the basic laws which are related to experimental observations at many points in nuclear and quark physics. It is well-known that the fundamental electric charge for the two last centuries led to the development of all microscopic phenomena in atoms and molecules. The most noticeable thing about electric charges is that the forces between them are extremely large at very short distances comparable to the dimensions of spinning nucleons and spinning quarks. At such distances since the forces act of short range all physicists believed that there is another force where the fundamental charge is unable for explaining the phenomena. For example the introduction of mesons as mediators of unknown forces and the use of hypothetical charges out of natural laws did not succeed in reproducing the nuclear and the quark phenomena. Especially such hypothetical mediators based on the fallacious ideas of Maxwell’s self propagating field and on Einstein’s wrong mass –energy conservation could not lead to any nuclear or quark structure and binding. In many situations they led to complications, whereas the applications of natural laws by using the fundamental charge were able to lead to both the nuclear structure and the quark binding. Thus both gluons and color charges have never been observed, while the fundamental electric charge led to the formulation of natural laws, since everywhere it is present by providing forces from the smallest spinning neutrinos and quarks to the greatest stars of our universe.
MECHANISM FOR CONSTRUCTING STABLE NUCLEI
THE SINGLEST ONE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF DEUTERON
Starting with the simplest nuclear structure the deuteron( D) we see that in the relation γ + D = p + n the opposite charges of photon cannot interact with quarks. They interact with the charge distribution of each nucleon to separate the deuteron into its component protons and neutrons. During the interaction the photon gives off its mass or energy of 2.2246 MeV to overcome the binding energy of D of -2.2246 Mev due to the electromagnetic interaction of the charge distributions of extra charged quarks (5d,4u) of proton and (4u,8d) of neutron. Although in the one-dimensional structure D = p(+1/2) n(+1/2) of parallel spin along the radial direction the neutron makes a single n-p bond it cannot be transformed into a stable proton because the binding energy of deuteron E = 2.2246 MeV is stronger than the binding energy (Ed-Eu) = 1.29 MeV which expresses the binding of the (d-u-d) bonds of the extra uncharged triad of the stable proton. Thus, the deuteron is stable because the charge distributions (-5e/3,8e/3) of the extra quarks of proton interact strongly with the charge distributions (8e/3,-8e/3) of the extra quarks of neutron. Note that in the one-dimensional structure of deuteron there is not any repulsion as in complex nuclei between p-p or n-n systems to reduce the binding energy E = -2.2246 MeV. Thus the single bond of deuteron is the only one which cannot lead to the decay of neutron. Under the influence of the Yukawa wrong meson theory and Einstein’s fallacious mass-energy conservation many physicists believe that neutron in the deuteron is pictured as continually sending out, and rapidly reabsorbing, negative π- mesons.
THE TWO-DIMENTIONAL NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
In my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” one can see that the two mirror nuclei of Triton and He-3 have the same axial p-n bond of -7.277 MeV and the same radial p-n bond of -1.3 MeV. However the n-n repulsion of Triton has the value +0.097 MeV while the p-p repulsion of He-3 has the value of + 0.867 MeV because the p-p repulsions are always stronger than the n-n repulsions. Since Triton is a neutron-rich nuclide we expect the one neutron to decay into a proton. Indeed we see that the second neutron makes the single n-p bond in radial direction of -1.3 MeV. It leads to the β^{- }decay where the unstable neutron is transformed into the stable proton because the algebraic summation -1.3 + 0.097 = -1.203 MeV is less strong than the binding of the( d-u-d) bonds of the extra triad of proton having the value of -1.29 MeV.
Under this β^{- }decay the Triton is transformed into the He-3. Although this system is a proton-rich nuclide it is stable because the weak p-p repulsion of +0.867 MeV is not stronger than the radial p-n bond of -1.3 MeV. In this case of p-n-p system (see the structure) one observes that the neutron makes two n-p bonds per neutron whose the summation is stronger than the -1.29 MeV. Especially it makes one very strong n-p bond of -7.277 MeV along the spin axis and a second weaker radial n-p bond of -1.3 MeV. So, one can explain why He-3 of a total binding energy E = -7.71 MeV is stable while the Triton of stronger binding energy ( E = -8.48 MeV) is unstable.
The same neutron decay we observe in many neutron-rich nuclides in which the neutrons make single p-n bonds. For example the unstable He-6 with J = 0 (see the two- dimensional structures) has two single bonds along the radial direction which are very weak because of the n-n repulsions. Here the two single bonds are outside the brackets representing the boundaries of the stable He-4 . Comparing the binding energy of He-6 with E = -29.27 MeV and that of He-4 with E = -28.29 MeV one concludes that each single n-p bond has the value of E = - 0.49 MeV which is less strong than the value of -1.29 MeV. Thus one neutron is transformed into a proton for making two n-p bonds per neutron. In contrast, the neutron-rich nuclide of Be-9 with J = -3/2 is stable because all neutrons make two or more n-p bonds per neutron. Especially the neutron in the center makes four p-n bonds .
He -3 with J = +1/2 | |
p(-1/2) | |
n(+1/2) |
p(+1/2) |
He -6 with J = 0 | ||
n(-1/2) |
[ p(-1/2) n(-1/2) ] | |
[ n(+1/2) p(+1/2)] |
n(+1/2) | |
Be-9 with J = - 3/2 |
n(-1/2)..... p(-1/2)..... n(-1/2) |
p(+1/2).... n(+1/2).... p(+1/2) |
n(-1/2)..... p(-1/2)..... n(-1/2) |
This situation implies that only the single bonds which are made by the extra neutrons with the protons on the surface of nuclei lead to the decay of neutrons, while the extra neutrons which make two or more bonds lead to the stable nuclides.
THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE WITH Z = N
In Be-8 of the first parallelepiped with Z = 4p and N = 4n although we observe three p-n bonds per neutron or per proton it decays into two α particles because of the very great p-p and n-n electric and magnetic repulsions of parallel spin along the diagonals of the two squares which are stronger than the p-n bonds. However in the heavier compound parallelepipeds of alpha particle nuclei like the stable O-16 with Z = 8p and N = 8n we see that there is a great stability because there exist four p-n bonds per nucleon in inner squares (see the diagrams). Note that in this type of parallelepipeds belong also C-12, Ne-20 and the elongated Mg-24. However as the nuclei become heavier the structure must be non elongated and extra neutrons must make extra p-n bonds on the surface while in the interior the equal numbers of p and n must make the maximum number of six p-n bonds. (See the diagram of Pb-208.
INSTABILITY OF PROTON–RICH NUCLEI
It is of interest to note that only one proton –rich nuclide like He-3 is stable because in its structure it contains only one weak p-p repulsion. In heavier nuclei all proton-rich nuclides are unstable because there are many p-p repulsions of long range. In the absence of one neutron (for example in the first square of O-16) the parallelepiped of high symmetry which leads to the stability of O-16 with J = 0 becomes the unstable proton-rich nuclide O-15 with Z = 8p and N = 7n having a total spin J = -1/2. Under this asymmetry we see that each proton of the first square has only two p-n bonds per proton. Also the one proton of the second square has only three p-n bonds per proton. That is in O-15 we observe 3 p-n bonds less than those of the stable O-16. In this case we see that for the one proton in the first square there is a p-p repulsion of parallel spin along the diagonal of the first square. Also there are six p-p repulsions of long range between the six rest protons and the one proton. So all these repulsions are stronger than the two p-n bonds and lead to the β^{+ }decay.
ΤΗΕ ΤΗRΕΕ DIMENTIONAL STRUCTURE WITH N>Z
As the nuclei become heavier for the construction we need more neutrons than protons for making a sufficient number of p-n bonds because of the long-ranged p-p repulsions. It is well-known that the repulsions are proportional to Z because the new charged proton interacts at great distances with all the other charged protons. This situation accounts for the systematic increase in the neutron –to-proton ratio N/Z of the stable nuclides, with increasing Z. We discovered that in the interior of heavy nuclei the construction takes place with N=Z for making compound parallelepipeds with six p-n bonds per nucleon which is the maximum number of p-n bonds. However on the surface of the nuclear structure, as Bohr predicted in his liquid drop model, the p-n bonds are less than six and the p-p repulsions of long range try to lead to the instability. For this reason the structure takes place in such a way that the extra neutrons at the surface, indicated by small circles, try to make two or more n-p bonds as shown in the diagram of the heavier magic nucleus the Pb-208 with 82p and 126n. That is, the protons at the surface make blank positions able to receive extra neutrons with two or more n-p bonds per neutron, because the single n-p bonds per neutron lead to the β^{- }decay. For example the Pb with 82p and 127n is unstable leading to β^{- }decay, because the one extra neutron makes a single n-p bond. Whereas the Pb with 82p and 123n (in the absence of three neutrons) is also unstable and leads to the electron capture because the p-p repulsions of long range overcome the fewer p-n bonds than those of the stable Pb with 82p and 126n. In general we analyzed the magic numbers 2,8,20,28,50,82 , and 126 to discover that unlike the regular behavior of the electron orbital structure the magic nuclei are only special shapes of very stable arrangements in widely different groups. For example He-4 belongs to the group of a two-dimensional structure, while O-16 belongs to the group of parallelepipeds with Z=N . Moreover the heavier magic nucleus Pb-208 belongs to the group of tetragonal systems with N>Z.
Diagrams of He-4, Be-8, O-16, and Pb-208.
CONCLUSIONS
The natural forces of electromagnetism hold quarks for constructing the nucleons and also hold the groups of nucleons together to form nuclei. A useful description of the world around us involving quarks, neutrinos, antineutrinos, nucleons, nuclei, atoms and molecules actually requires only the natural laws of electromagnetism. Additional sets of hypothetical assumptions involving hypothetical weak forces and unknown strong forces with mesons gluons color charges etc. cannot give any nuclear structure or quark binding and lead to complications which favor the development of various fallacious nuclear structure models. On the other hand though the W and Z bosons are useful for interacting with unstable massive quarks as mass carriers or energy carriers, their use in beta decay as force carriers leads to many complications, because they cannot be produced at the every day low energies. The well-established natural laws of electromagnetism cover all macroscopic and microscopic levels without limitations like the universal gravitational forces. We discovered 288 spinning quarks in each nucleon, which have enormous peripheral velocities υ>>c giving strong Fm of short range for the formation of the matter of nucleons with a considerable number of 92 uncharged triads of neutron and 93 triads of proton. Here the uncharged (d-u-d) groups give very strong u-d, u-u, and d-d bonds, providing also extra charged quarks (5d,4u) for proton and (4u,8d) for neutron. At the nuclear distance the extra charged quarks in spinning nucleons interact electromagnetically with short-ranged Fem, which leads only to p-n bonds, since the spin of nucleons gives υ<c. Thus, the p-p and n-n repulsions in many cases (especially in heavy nuclei) lead to the decay. In alpha particle nuclei with N= Z the parallelepipeds are stable because in inner squares one observes four p-n bonds per nucleon However in heavier nuclei because of the large number of long-ranged p-p repulsions the nuclei try to make six p-n bonds in the interior. Since for N=Z on the surface the nucleons are bound to fewer neighbors than those in the interior extra neutrons are received at certain blank positions for making two or more p-n bonds per neutron in order to overcome the p-p and n-n repulsions.