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This paper was announced to many universities around the world (September 2013).

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By Prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ( Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός ) T. E. Institute of Larissa. Greece

IN THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS CONCEPTS ALL CASES OF PHYSICS CRISIS ARE RESOLVED BY OUR NEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS

It is indeed unfortunate that today physicists influenced by Maxwell’s wrong fields and Einstein’s invalid relativity believe that all theories based on such wrong ideas resolved all electromagnetic phenomena as well as all atomic and nuclear binding energies and structures. For example in the “History of physics-Wikipedia” one sees that Maxwell’s electromagnetic radiation, was a major triumph for physical theories, while Einstein’s relativity resolved the electromagnetic phenomena. Moreover for the nuclear force and binding energies Wikipedia describes satisfied theories for understanding atomic and nuclear phenomena, while it is well-known that such theories led to the crisis of modern physics. In other words in Wikipedia nobody can see any physics crisis in the history of modern physics. Since such a description of the history of physics should mislead the readers, I present here clearly the history of physics crisis including all cases which led to the physics crisis resolved by ourNEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS .

After the triumph of great works of Newton (Principia of 1687 and Opticks of 1704) the first physics crisis occurred when Young in 1803 showed that his interference pattern was able to be explained by the wave theory of Huygens.  It is well-known that Newton for the explanation of colors in his particles of light, suggested that light might have to be assigned also periodic properties. Moreover his prediction of the bending of light near the sun was confirmed by Soldner in 1801. Nevertheless, Young for the explanation of the double-slit experiment abandoned Newton’s particles of light having mass in favor of the Huygens theory of waves (1690) moving through a fallacious ether. In fact, Newton's particles of light are our massive photons of energy of the Planck energy E = hν producing not only waves but also electromagnetic interaction after the discovery of the electromagnetic properties of light by Faraday in 1845.

The second physics crisis occurred when Faraday (1832) and Maxwell (1865) abandoned the electromagnetic forces acting at a distance of the well-established laws of Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820) and developed the false concept of fields moving through the fallacious ether. Faraday imagined that the space surrounding the magnets and currents was in a state of tension, like stretched rubber bands. Whereas Maxwell in his electromagnetic theory introduced the two wrong postulations of a false displacement current and a fallacious generated electric field in the induction law. Note that Faraday according to the principle of relativity explained his induction law by using only a magnetic resultant. Moreover Maxwell believed that his fields are able to carry the electromagnetic forces. This fact which violates the fundamental force acting at a distance is an incorrect idea. For example in the Coulomb law the electric intensity (or field) was defined as the force per unit charge acting at a distance unable to carry the same force. Note that Maxwell’s fields with no mass could be able to transmit energy E and momentum p according to the relation E/p = c . However in the Newtonian dynamics the momentum p was defined as the product of mass and velocity p = mu . That is, according to Newton’s particles of light having mass confirmed by Soldner, and taking into account the discovery of Planck (1900) that E = hν and the experiment of Nichols and Hull (1903) that E = pc we can write

E = pc    or     hν = (mc)c = mc2

This means that Einstein’s photon (quantum of false Maxwell’s fields) should be not a massless particle but a massive one having a real mass m = hν/c2. (See my PHOTON OF LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS  ). It is unfortunate that Maxwell’s fallacious idea of energy with no mass led dramatically to the invalid relativity of Einstein, who believed that his photons are massless particles. Note that the fallacious ether was suggested also by the philosopher Descartes in 1638 for developing his Optics. On the other hand despite the Galilean principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s well-established laws, Descartes in 1644 published his Principles of Philosophy according to which the space is filled with pieces of matter that interact for transmitting the gravitational forces. Such an idea did much to retard the progress of atomic and nuclear physics, because nuclear physicists abandoned the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere in favor of various theories involving wrong virtual particles able to carry the forces. (See my NEW STRUCTURE OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS  ).

The third physics crisis occurred when Lorentz (1904) and Einstein(1905) influenced by Maxwell’s wrong fields tried to explain the increase of the electron mass of the Kaufmann experiment (1902). Despite the famous experiment of Michelson and Morley (1887) who rejected the fallacious Maxwellian ether Lorentz in order to support Maxwell’s fields moving through the ether used the same math of Michelson under a strange hypothesis that the interferometer of Michelson is contracted during the motion through the ether. Moreover Einstein using the same math of Lorentz complicated more the problem by introducing the fallacious hypothesis that the increase of the electron mass is due to its relative motion with respect to a randomly moving observer. For example if an observer moves with an electron in an accelerator, then he will measure the increase of masses of the stationary objects in the laboratory. This fallacious idea that the increase of the mass of a particles is due to a relative motion with respect to an observer did much to retard the progress of physics, because it violate the two conservation laws of energy and mass. In fact the increase of the electron mass is due to the absorption of both the energy and the mass of photons.

Historically, after the discovery of the conservation laws of mass by Lavoisier (1789) developed by the Greek philosophers Anaximander, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Leucippus, Democritus and Epicurus, there was still room for doubt. In 1872 the German chemist Lothar Meyer suggested that the rearrangement of atoms during chemical reactions might be accompanied by the absorption or emission of the mass of the particles of light or light waves. In 1881 J.J. Thomson recognized that there is an electromagnetic mass associated with the electromagnetic energy. Thus Kaufmann under the two conservation laws of energy and mass using the electromagnetic mass tried to explain his experiment. In fact the increase of the electron mass is explained by our discovery of the photon-matter interaction.

hν/m = ΔE/ΔM = c2

In this interaction both the energy hν and the mass m = hν/c2 of photons are absorbed by the electron which increases both the energy ΔΕ and the mass ΔΜ during the absorption under a length contraction and a time dilation in accordance with Newton’s third law.

The fourth physics crisis occurred again by Einstein in 1916, since he believed that the well-established laws of Newton should be modified in favor of his various hypotheses that gravity is not an action at a distance but is transmitted via a gravitational field or gravitational waves like the electromagnetic force of the fallacious Maxwell’s moving fields. In his book “ The evolution of Physics” (1938) Einstein noticed that science is not the collection of laws but of theories” (See EINSTEIN by L. Kaliambos ). Influenced by Maxwell’s wrong fields moving through the fallacious ether he introduced a false “ether structure’ or a strange “curvature of space time” in accordance with the Faraday strange properties of space assumed to transmit the fallacious Maxwell’s fields. Despite the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement (1935) which confirmed accurately the action at a distance (called by Einstein “Spooky action at a distance” ) it is unfortunate that physicists today believed that general relativity is a universal law of gravity. However we showed that the introduction of Einstein’s Equivalence principle of Newton’s constant inertial mass rejects his incorrect ideas of rest and relativistic mass. Nevertheless theoretical physicists influenced by the general relativity did not follow the experiments of the quantum Entanglement. So they tried to unify it by the quantum physics. In the “List of unsolved problems in physics-Wikipedia” we read:

Quantum gravity. Can quantum mechanics and general relativity be realized as a fully consistent theory (perhaps as a quantum field theory)?[7] Is spacetime fundamentally continuous or discrete? Would a consistent theory involve a force mediated by a hypothetical graviton, or be a product of a discrete structure of spacetime itself (as in loop quantum gravity)? Are there deviations from the predictions of general relativity at very small or very large scales or in other extreme circumstances that flow from a quantum gravity theory? ierarchy problem. Why is gravity such a weak force? It becomes strong for particles only at the Planck scale, around 1019 GeV, much above the electroweak scale (100 GeV, the energy scale dominating physics at low energies). Why are these scales so different from each other? What prevents quantities at the electroweak scale, such as the Higgs boson mass, from getting quantum corrections on the order of the Planck scale? Is the solution supersymmetryextra dimensions, or just  anthropic fine-tuning?” In fact gravity is governed not by vatious theories but only by the well-established laws o Newton. (See my NEWTON AND GALILEO REJECT EINSTEIN).

The fifth physics crisis occurred by Pauli (1926) and Heisenberg (1927) who abandoned the natural laws of electromagnetism and tried to interpret the atomic structure with many electrons by using qualitative approaches like the “exclusion principle” (which cannot be applied in deuteron), and the “exchange interaction”. Note that the discovery of the electron spin (1925) showed that the peripheral velocity of the electron spin is greater than the speed of light. Since this fact invalidates Einstein’s relativity physicists believed that the electron spin could be explained only in terms of the quantum mechanical formulation of the Schrodinger equations. However despite the enormous success of the Bohr model and the Schrodinger mechanics for explaining the one-electron atoms based on the electromagnetism under the quantum rules, neither was able to provide a satisfactory explanation of the simplest case, the helium atom with two electrons. In fact we showed that the opposite spin of the two electrons gives at short interelectron separations magnetic attraction greater than the electric repulsion because the peripheral velocity of the electron spin is greater than the speed of light. This situation is responsible for the electron coupling which leads to a vibration energy. 

The sixth physics crisis occurred by Fermi (1934) and Yukawa (1935) because nuclear physicists assumed that both antineutrino and neutron are uncharged particles. Thus they abandoned the natural laws of Coulomb and Ampere in favor of wrong theories like the fallacious weak and strong interactions respectively. (See my WRONG STANDARD MODEL ). In fact, we discovered that both cases are due to electromagnetic interactions, because the antineutrino has positive charge at the center and negative charge along the periphery. In the same way the neutron has 4 up quarks with charge (+8e/3) at the center and 8 down quarks with charge (-8e/3) along the periphery. (See my NEW STRUCTURE OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS).

Finally, the seventh physics crisis occurred after the discovery of the charged quarks (1964) by Gell-Mann. It is of interest to note that the fundamental electromagnetic forces of such spinning charged quarks should be able to resolve the problem of the binding quarks in nucleons by the applications of the well-established laws of electromagnetism.. However Gell-Mann in 1973 abandoned the well-established natural laws of electromagnetism and introduced strange color forces in his wrong Quantum Chromodynamics by suggesting hypothetical massless gluons, though in nature massless particles cannot exist. Also in 1968 there was developed the so-called “Electroweak Theory” in order to unify the fallacious “weak interaction” with the real electromagnetic forces under the invalid Higgs Field. (See my CONFUSING CERN RESULTS AND IDEAS ).

THE DIPOLAR NATURE OF PHOTONS SOLVES THE CRISIS OF FIELDS AND RELATIVITY

Under this crisis of physics in 1993 I developed my model of dipolic particles describing the dipolar nature of photons. Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paper IMPACT OF MAXWELL'S EQUATION OF DISPLACEMENT CURRENT ON ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS AND COMPARISON OF THE MAXWELLIAN WAVES WITH OUR MODEL OF DIPOLIC PARTICLES" presented at the International conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” (Olympia, 1993). The paper invalidates Maxwell’s fields moving through a fallacious ether and Einstein’s relativity. Especially after the discovery of Faraday (1845) that Newton’s particles of light have not only gravitational properties but also electromagnetic ones, Maxwell preferred to follow not the particles of Newton but the Huygens waves by applying not the well-established laws of Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820) but by using wrong postulations. For example in the Faraday induction law (1832) of relative motions of magnets and conductors he used not the Faraday magnetic resultant exhibited by an electric current but a hypothetical electric field which violates the principle of relativity. Also in the Ampere law he used not the force acting at a distance but the false concept of field produced by a hypothetical “Displacement Current” between the plates of a capacitor. Note that according to the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) the hypothetical displacement current involves misconceptions. Moreover since such wrong fields do not carry mass, they did much to retard the progress of physics because Einstein’s massless photons as quanta of Maxwell’s fields violate the two conservation laws of mass and energy.

OUR NUCLEAR STRUCTURE SOLVES THE NUCLEAR PHYSICS CRISIS <p class="western" style="margin-bottom:0.35cm">It is fortunate that all the detailed experiments of the Quantum Entanglement (1935) confirmed accurately the fundamental forces of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere acting at a distance with instantaneous

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NCSR DEMOKRITOS (2002)

simultaneity, which reject the idea that forces are carried by fields or by virtual massless photons or hypothetical massless gluons. Under this condition I revived the well-established laws for revealing the nuclear structure and binding. Thus in nuclear phenomena the energy of generated photons is due not to the mass defect of nucleons but to the energy of electromagnetic forces, while the mass defect turns into the mass of photons. So writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can also see my paper NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM presented at the12th Symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society (N.C.S.R. "Demokritos" , 2002). Using the well-established laws which led to the enormous success of the Bohr model (1913) and the time- independent Schrodinger equations in three dimensions (1926) I prepared the above paper published in Ind. J. Th. Phys. (2003). The paper reveals the nuclear structure by reviving the electromagnetic forces of the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere.

Therefore it invalidates both Einstein’s relativity and the theories of the WRONG STANDARD MODEL developed after the abandonment of natural laws. It is unfortunate that the so-called Standard Model under the influence of Einstein’s quanta of fields proposed that photons are massless bosons able to carry the electromagnetic forces, though Gilbert N. Lewis who coined the name photon in 1926 (from Greek ΦΩTA or PHOTA “light bulbs”) considered that photons, in fact, are simple carriers of energy. (See in User Kaliambos the above papers along with my paper “ Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures” published in Ind.J.Th. Phys. in 2008).

Prior to my papers it was assumed that nuclear phenomena are governed by the fallacious strong and weak interactions regarded as two separate, unrelated phenomena. The so-called strong and weak interactions were still shrouded in mystery, because the forces could not be couched in a simple formalism, nor could they be expressed in a closed analytic form. Hence in the description of nuclear properties one could rely on various wrong and contradicting theories and models. Therefore in the “List of unsolved problems in physics-Wikipedia” we read:

Neutrino mass. What is the mass of neutrinos, whether they follow Dirac or Majorana statistics? Is mass hierarchy normal or inverted? Is the CP violating phase 0? Quantum chromodynamics What are the phases of strongly interacting matter, and what roles do they play in the cosmos? What is the internal landscape of thenucleons? What does QCD predict for the properties of strongly interacting matter? What governs the transition of quarks and gluonsinto pions and nucleons? What is the role of gluons and gluon self-interactions in nucleons and nuclei? What determines the key features of QCD, and what is their relation to the nature of gravity and spacetime? Helium atom The helium atom is the simplest three-body problem in quantum mechanics; while approximations to a solution to the Schrödinger equation for He exist,[21], can an exact solution be found?[22] Solar neutrino problem (2002) Solved by a new understanding of neutrino physics, requiring a modification of the Standard Model of particle physics—specifically, neutrino oscillation”.

In fact, both strong and weak interactions are fallacious forces because all nuclear phenomena are interpreted by the detailed applications of the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere under the two conservation laws of mass and energy. So to avoid such a confusion in fundamental physics and For the progress of  physics please see myNEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS .