By prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) Τ.Ε. Institute of Larissa Greece
This paper was announced to many universities around the world (October 2013)
According to the great works Principia (1687) and Opticks (1704) Newton based on the polarization of light predicted the bending of his rectangular particles of light near the sun confirmed by Soldner in 1801. He also predicted the periodic properties based on colors. In other words, Newton predicted the wave-particle duality of light confirmed by many experiments of the quantum physics. Unfortunately Einstein in 1905 explained incorrectly the photoelectric effect because he believed that light consists of his massless quanta of energy along the wave front of wrong Maxwell's fields moving through a fallacious ether rejected by the Michelson experiment in 1887. In fact, the absorption of photons contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ in accordance with the axperiment of Kaufmann (1902), who interpreted the increase of the electron mass by using the so-called "electromagnetic mass" recognized by J.J. Thomson in 1881. So after the Compton effect (1923) showing that light consists of particles having momentum p = hν /c and mass m = p/c and the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) showing the fallacy of Maxwell's fields I presented at the international conference "Frontiers of fundamental physics" (Olympia, 1993), my dipolic particles, or dipolic photons, which led to my discovery of the PHTON- MATTER INTERATION
hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c2
Here one sees that light consists of photons having momentum p= hν/c and mass m = p/c rejecting Einstein’s massless quanta of fields and his invalid relativity, which violates not only the two conservation laws of mass and energy but also the well-established law of universal gravitation with the fundamental action at a distance confirmed by the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement. (See my NEWTON INVALIDATES EINSTEIN ). Ironically, the photoelectric effect was first discovered by Hertz in 1887 who believed that he confirmed Maxwell’s fields moving through the fallacious ether. In fact, under the applications of the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere we showed that the electric and magnetic properties of light are due not to the invalid fields of Maxwell but to the opposite charges of dipolic photons moving as dipoles at a constant speed c relative to the source of radiation.
On this basis, since the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) showed the fallacy of Maxwell’s fields, I prepared my paper “Impact of Maxwell’s equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles ” presented at the international conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics”(1993). The original paper can be found in User Kaliambos . In that paper I showed that the photon of Lewis (1926) has not only the mass of Newton’s corpuscles of his great work Opticks but also two opposite charges for interpreting the electromagnetic properties of light discovered by Faraday. It is of interest to note that Faraday in 1845 placed a block of glass between the poles of a powerful magnet and then past a beem of plane polarized light through the block along the direction of the magnetic field. He found that the plane of polarization was rotated as it passed through the glass.
Under this important experiment one can ask me why I discovered that light consists of dipolic photons behaving like moving electric dipoles. In a coordinate sysem xyz when the dipole axis is parallel to y and the dipole moves along the x direction one can see that according to the well-established electromagnetic laws only the magnetic field parallel to y causes a torque on the moving electric dipole as in the case of the Faraday experiment. Whereas the magnetic fields along the directions of x and z cannot cause any torque on the electric dipole. In other words light consists not of Einstein's massless quanta of fields but of particles behaving like moving dipoles. Note that Gilbert Lewis considered photons as the carriers of energy, while the wrong Quantum Electrodynamics based on Einstein's fallacious massless quanta of fields describes photons as carriers of the electromagnetic force violating the fundamental action at a distance of the well-established laws confirmed by the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement.
Moreover for understanding the gravitational properties of light, the wave-particle duality, the electromagnetic properties of light, the energy E= hν and the mass of photon m = hν/c2 we were based on laws and experiments like Newton’s laws and his particles of light confirmed by Soldner in 1801. We also were based on the double slit experiment confirming Newton’s predictions of periodic properties of light. For explaining the electromagnetic properties of light we also were based on the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere involving fundamental electric and magnetic forces acting at a distance, on the experiments of Faraday (1845), who discovered the electromagnetic properties of light, on the experiment of Neumann (1847) who showed that the induction law is consistent with the magnetic force of the Ampere law , on the experiments of Weber (1856) which led to the relation E/B = c , on the electromagnetic mass of Thomson (1881). Whereas for the quantum properties of light we were based on the Planch work (1900), on the Kaufmann experiment (1902) according to which the mass of an electron increases when it absorbs electromagnetic energy, and on the Nichols experiment (1903) according to which the photon has a momentum p = E/c.
Since Einstein’s massless quanta of fields are based on the incomplete explanation of the photoelectric effect, we took also into account the Compton effect 1923), the Lewis work, who in 1926 introduced the term “photon” for Einstein’s massless quanta of fields, the experiments of the quantum entanglement confirming accurately Newton’s fundamental concept of force acting at a distance, and the experiment of French and Tessman (1963), who showed the fallacy of Maxwell’s fields.
Unfortunately Einstein in his incomplete explanation of the photoelectric effect used only the Planck energy E = hν. Note that Einsteinat under his fallacious massless quanta of fields at those early years never used the term "Photon"given by the American scientist Lewis in 1926. That is, he did not take into account Newton’s particles of light responsible for the gravitational properties of light and of the increase of the electron mass. Thus he developed his two contradicting theories of special and general relativity based not on the correct photon absorption of mass and energy but on the fallacious relative motions with respect to a randomly moving observer. (See my WRONG AND CORRECT THEORIES IN PHYSICS ).
The Kaufmann experiment showed that the constant inertial mass Mo of an electron after the absorption of photons at a velocity u becomes a variable mass M as
M2/Mo2 = c2/(c2-u2)
Surprisingly we proved that differentiation of this leads to our formula of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION.
Moreover a careful analysis of the Compton effect (1923) showing that light of x-rays has momentum p = hν/c leads to the same photon mass as
m = p/c = hν/c2
This fact tells us why the astronomical observations and various experiments reveal the gravitational properties of photons like the bending of light near the sun and the gravitational red shift.
NEWTON IN HIS OPTICKS SHOWED THAT LIGHT CONSISTS OF PARTICLES MOVING IN VACUUM WITH PERIODIC PROPERTIES
The first experiment which showed that light consists of particles is the polarization of light. Newton cleared that this behavior could be explained only by assuming that the ray of light has “sides” like rectangles or moving dipoles so that its properties depend on its orientation with respect to the direction of propagation of light. Newton also in his Opticks (1704) wrote: “ As in Mathematics so in Natural Philosophy the Investigation of difficult Things by the method of Analysis, ought ever to proceed the method of Composition”. In spite of Newton’s criticism Hooke and Huygens continued to accept the wave theory of Descartes (Optics,1637) , according to which light propagates in terms of impulses moving through a fallacious ether. This was not yet the “wave theory” in the modern sense, because the periodic nature of the pulses had not been recognized. Ironically it was Newton who suggested that light might have to be somehow assigned also periodic properties in order to account for the phenomena of colors. In other words these two experiments of polarization and of colors showed that light consists of massive particles moving in vacuum with periodic properties like the electrons of the quantum mechanics.
NEWTON PREDICTED THE BENDING OF HIS RECTANGULAR PARTICLES OF LIGHT WHEN THEY PASS NEAR THE SUN
At the conclusion of his Opticks, Newton proposed a number of queries. The first of these was the following:
“Do not Bodies act upon Light at a distance, and by their action bend its Rays, and is not this action strongest at the least distance?”
From one point of view this may seem like a very natural suggestion. Newton’s law of universal gravitation already predicted that the path of any material particle (regardless of its composition) moving at a finite speed is affected by pull of gravity. On this basis I revealed that when Newton’s particle of light or photon moves in perpendicular direction to gravity its mass behaves like the constant inertial mass Mo of Galileo’s projectile according to which the gravity cannot affect the horizontal velocity and produces only an acceleration along the direction of gravity. Galileo’s experiments and observations of projectile motion welded together the laws of uniformly accelerated motion, including free fall and the principle of superposition of velocities to produce one conceptual scheme, one over-all method of attacking, predicting, and interpreting every conceivable problem involving bodies of constant inertial mass under the influence of a force. In the same way when a photon with a constant inertial mass mo moves along the perpendicular direction to the gravity it behaves like a projectile in which the observed motion is the result of two separate motions, combined and followed simultaneously by the projectile, the one component of motion being an unchanging horizontal velocity, the other component being a vertical acceleration under a local absolute space and time. So photons obeying the laws of free fall accelerate along the direction of gravity, while the constant velocity c is not changing. Furthermore, these two components do not impede or interfere with each other. That is, the velocity c remains the same, while the acceleration is given by applying Euler’s formula as
F = mo(du/dt)
Here the massive particle of light or photon has not the fallacious rest mass of a particle but a constant inertial mass mo since we proved that Einstein’s concepts of rest mass, rest energy, relativistic mass, and relativistic energy lead to complications, which did much to retard the progress of physics. So the resultant at any moment is the simple effect of a superposition of the two individual components which lead to a curved trajectory.
It is unfortunate that Einstein believed that the massive particles of light have no mass. So in his wrong general relativity he proposed a fallacious “curvature of space time” which might be thought responsible for the bending of light, though Newton predicted the bending of light under his universal law of gravity.
To conclude, in all mechanical energies Newton’s first law which led to the formulation of the Euler formula applies not only on bodies with constant inertial mass but also on massive photons when they move in perpendicular direction to the gravitational force F. Note that in 1801 the German mathematician Soldner confirmed Newton’s predictions according to which the massive particles of light (photons ) have a constant inertial mass. It is unfortunate that Young in order to explain his famous double slit experiment (1803) abandoned Newton’s massive particles of light in favor of the Huygens waves moving through a fallacious ether.
PHOTONS MOVING AS DIPOLES INTERPRET THE PARTICLE- WAVE DUALITY, THE DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT, POLARIZATION, REFRACTION, REFLECTION etc.
In my model of dipolic photons I noticed that the massive photons of light are unable to give a complete wave because they cannot cooperate. Each photon alone makes periodic concentrations and rarefactions due to electromagnetic forces of opposite charges without any cooperation. Thus photons of light moving with respect to a radiation source cannot make a complete wave. However when such photons pass through a narrow slit the radiation is put in order for making a complete wave. In this case, because of the crowding together, they can pass through the small slit when they are only in situation of concentration. So the radiation behind the slit is put in order by a complete wave. Note that by such a method Young was able to produce interference of light.
For understanding the polarization one observes that Maxwell’s fallacious fields cannot explain the plane –polarized of light because they are assumed to oscillate in two planes at right angles. In fact, the phenomenon of polarization is due to a spinning dipole making vibration of its charges +q and -q to a single plane due to electric and magnetic forces between the charges of the dipole (photon). In the simple case in which the separation R between the charges is perpendicular to the velocity c the applications of the Coulomb and Ampere Laws give electric attraction Fe and magnetic repulsion Fm as
Fe = Kq2/R2 and Fm = kq2u2/R2
Since Weber (1856) showed that K/k = c2 we get Fe/Fm = c2/u2
That is, when a spinning photon moves alone at u = c and the distance R between the charges is perpendicular to c, it operates with Fe = Fm acting at a distance. This means that the photon is in a state of rarefaction along a direction perpendicular to the velocity c. But when the distance R is parallel to c we observe only an electric attraction since Fm = 0. This is the state of concentration. So it vibrates without producing the fallacious fields of Maxwell. Only in case in which a photon interacts with the charge (-e) of an electron we may use Ey and Bz which represent the interaction of the photon charges with the charge (-e) acting at a distance.
For explaining the refraction and reflection of an unpolarized light we consider that many dipoles of light rotate together on different planes. To simplify the problem we take two dipolic photons making vibrations of charges at right angles. When the spin axis is parallel to the boundary between vacuum and glass we observe refraction because at a moment one charge of the photon is in the glass and moves slower than the second charge which moves in vacuum. Then the two charges move in the same medium (glass) and the photon moves along a straight line with a speed u < c. It occurs because the charges of the photon affect the electrons of the glass and the attractive force between the photon charges is reduced. Thus the equal magnetic repulsion becomes smaller at a velocity u < c . In case in which the two charges of the photon vibrate along a line parallel to the plane of the boundary we observe reflection. However for understanding the optical effects due to gravity we do not use the vibration of charges but its mass m = hν/c2 .
THE PHOTON MASS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE EXPLANATION OF THE GRAVITATIONAL RED SHIFT UNDER A BASIC LENGTH CONTRACTION AND A TIME DILATION DEDUCED FROM NEWTON’S LAWS
In my model of dipolic photons (1993) I showed that photons behave like moving dipoles. Thus when the R is perpendicular to c a photon operates at the velocity c with equal electric and magnetic forces acting at the same time. That is, a photon cannot move faster than c because the greater repulsive magnetic force than the electric attraction will violate Newton’s third law of equal forces. So under the constant velocity c of photons I apply Newton’s formula
F = dp/dt of his second law as
F = dp/dt = c(dm/dt)
This formula in terms of energy can be written
Fds = dw = (cdm/dt)ds = dmc2 = hdν.
Note that Einstein in his false general relativity tried to explain the gravitational red shift by using the Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics, because the relativistic one leads to complications. In our accurate interpretation one sees that by using Newton’s second law the force affects not the velocity but the mass under a basic length contraction and a time dilation. Here I notice that according to Newton’s third law of instantaneous simultaneity the photon cannot accelerate along the c direction, because the increase of the magnetic force will violate the third law of Newton. So the acceleration during this gravitational interaction must approach to zero under a length contraction and a time dilation.
To conclude, for all photons when interact with gravitational forces parallel to c one must apply Newton’s formula of his second law according to which the photon mass changes under a length contraction and a time dilation. Since dm = hdν/c2 one can explain the experiments of the gravitational shift.
INTERPRETATION OF THE KAUFMANN EXPERIMENT BY APPLYING NEWTON’S SECOND AND THIRD LAW REJECTING EINSTEIN’S MASSLESS QUANTA OF FIELDS
According to our discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION when photons interact with electrons the photons are absorbed to give both their energy hν and mass m under a basic length contraction and a time dilation as
hν/m = ΔW/ΔΜ = c2
Here the charges of a photon interact with the charge (-e) of the electron in terms of Ey and Bz as
Ey(-e) dy = dW and Bz(-e)(dy/dt) = Fm or BZ(-e)dy = Fm dt = dp = dmc
Since the experiments of Weber (1856) lead to Ey/Bz = c
we get dW/dp = c or dW/dm = c2
However the magnetic force Fm must appear after the electric one because of the velocity dy/dt produced by the electric force Ey(-e). Since this situation must violate Newton’s third law the velocity dy/dt should approach to zero under a basic length contraction and a time dilation.
It is indeed unfortunate that Einstein for the explanation of the photoelectric effect under the influence of wrong Maxwell’s fields suggested that his massless quanta of fields are only quanta of energy. Under this false idea he formulated his incomplete formula E = mc2 with basic errors which did much to retard the progress of physics. Note that this incomplete and incorrect formula violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass under his fallacious concepts of rest mass and rest energy E = Moc2 because Einstein believed incorrecty that the mass can be transformed into an energy.
Under this fallacious idea Dirac in in 1928 introduced his false theory of the quantum electrodynamics by using the wrong formula
E2 = Mo2c4 + p2c2
Note that here the math is correct but the result is wrong due to the false concept that energy is due to the mass which violates the fundamental potential energy due to the forces of interaction acting at a distance. Also Einstein used the relativistic energy due to a relativistic mass M. In fact, according to our discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION in the Kaufmann experiment the mass M is not a fallacious relativistic mass but a variable mass due to the absorption of massive photons. Thus the energy is due not to the fallacious relativistic mass but to the absorption of photon energy. Under this confusion we write here the correct math by using Einstein’s wrong relativistic energy E = Mc2 . Therefore
E2 = M2c4 . Since M2 = Mo2c4 [c2/(c2-u2)] one gets
E2 = Mo2c2 [c4/(c2 – u2 )] But c4 can be written as c4 = c4 – u2c2 + u2 c2 That is
E2 = Mo2c2[ (c4-u2c2 + u2c2)/(c2-u2) = Mo2c2[c2(c2 -u2)/(c2-u2) + u2c2/(c2-u2)] or
E2 = Mo2c2[ c2 + u2c2/(c2 –u2) ] = Mo2c4 + Mo2c2u2c2/(c2-u2)
Since Mo2c2/(c2-u2) = M2 we get E2 = Mo2c4 + M2u2c2
And because Mu = p we write E2 = Mo2c4 + p2c2
which is the biggest error in the history of physics. It is indeed unfortunate that in “photon-WIKIPEDIA” one reads the following fallacious paragraph:
“In empty space, the photon moves at c (the speed of light) and its energy and momentum are related by E = pc, where p is the magnitude of the momentum vector p. This derives from the following relativistic relation, with m = 0:"
This wrong fact led to the physics crisis , because it violates the fundamental potential energy due to the forces of interaction at a distance. For example in the Bohr model the energy hν of the generated massive photon is due not to the mass defect but to the energy Δw of the charge-charge interaction of 13.6 eV which turns into the energy hν of the generation of photon, while the mass defect ΔΜ of the electron during the binding energy turns into the mass m of the photon. This situation invalidates dramatically the special relativity according to which the orbiting electron around the nucleus should have greater mass. In the opposite reaction during the absorption of the photon energy both the mass M and the velocity u of an electron are changed under the application of Newton’s formula of his second law as
Fds = dW = [d(Mu)/dt]ds = d(Mu)u = (Mdu + udM)u = dMc2
Here Newton’s formula
F = dp/dt = d(Mu)/dt
says that the force changes not only the velocity u of the particle but also its mass M. So one will explain the result of the Kaufmann experiment given by
M2 / Mo2 = c2/ (c2- u2)
Here Mo is the constant inertial mass before the interaction and M is the increasing mass during the interaction. Whereas according to Einstein’s errors the constant inertial mass was replaced by the false rest mass. Also Einstein believed incorrectly that when an observer moves with an electron he will measure greater mass of the stationary objects in the laboratory. In fact, in the Kaufmann experiment the electron absorbs a non mechanical energy on our earth which is due to the photons of sun. In other words under the photosynthesis the energy of the sun’s rays is the source of all non mechanical energies on our earth.
Now differentiating the above equation we get
M2c2 = M2u2 or 2MdMc2 = 2MdM u2 + 2udu M2 Or dMc2 = ( Mdu + udM )u
Taking into account that theories cannot replace the natural laws one concludes that the Kaufmann experiment cannot be explained by the incorrect theories of Lorentz and Einstein which led to the crisis of physics (under the violation of the two conservation laws of mass and energy) but by the well-established laws of Newton. In the same way the three fundamental interactions of electric, magnetic, and gravitational forces acting at a distance cannot be replaced by the theories which complicated the interactions and then in vain tried to unify the complications. In the Standard Model it is assumed incorrectly that the photon is one of four gauge massless bosons of the fallacious electroweak interaction. In fact, the antineutrino-proton interaction is due to electromagnetic interaction between the antineutrino and the proton, because the antineutrino has negative charge along the periphery and positive one at the center like the neutron which interacts with electric and magnetic forces with the proton for the nuclear structure, while all theories and models did not lead to any nuclear structure. Today physicists continue to hypothesize that grand unified theories that connect gauge massless bosons with the fallacious gluons of the wrong Quantum Chromodynamics. In fact, our massive photons are responsible for the unification of gravity with electromagnetism because the weak and the strong interactions cannot exist. (See my UNIFIED FORCES SOLVE THE CRISIS OF PHYSICS ). Although Lewis (1926) who introduced the term photon consider photons as the carriers of radiant energy, today physicists under the false theories of quantum electrodynamics believe that they are quanta of fields which can carry the electric and magnetic forces. However in the Coulomb law the field was defined as a force per unit charge unable to carry the same force. In fact, photons are both carriers of mass and energy generated after the forces of interaction acting at a distance. In the Bohr model it is well-known that the electric energy between the electron and the proton turns into the energy of the generated photon while the mass defect turns into the photon mass.
On the other hand in our universe the energy cannot turn into mass (See my OUR EARLY UNIVERSE ). Thus all forces like contact forces and the so-called weak and strong interactions are due to the fundamental acting at a distance gravitational, electric, and magnetic forces of the well-established laws of Newton Coulomb and Ampere. It is fortunate that the Bohr model and the Schrodinger equations are based on the well-established laws. I hope that soon all those fallacious and incorrect theories which are not consistent with the well-established laws of Newton Coulomb and Ampere should be demolished never to reappear in scientific circles.