This article was announced to many universities around the world ( August 2013).

By Prof.LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ( Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός ) T. E. Institute of Larissa. Greece

Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paper IMPACT OF MAXWELL’S EQUATION OF DISPLACEMENT CURRENT ON ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS AND COMPARISON OF THE MAXWELLIAN WAVES WITH OUR MODEL OF DIPOLIC PARTICLES presented at the International conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” (Olympia ,1993). The paper invalidates Einstein’s relativity and Maxwell’s moving fields by applying the forces acting at a distance of the well-established laws of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere .

One can also see my paper NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics

society (N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", 2002). Following the same method of the enormous success of the Bohr model (1913) and the time- independent Schrodinger equations in three dimensions I published the paper in Ind. J. Th. Phys. (2003). The paper reveals the nuclear structure by using the electromagnetic forces of the well-established laws. Especially I discovered 9 extra charged quarks in protons and 12 ones in neutrons which interact electromagnetically and reveal the nuclear structure and binding. So they invalidate both Einstein’s relativity and the theories of the Standard model developed after the abandonment of natural laws. (See in User Kaliambos the above papers along with my paper “ Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures” published in Ind.J.Th. Phys. in 2008).

**PREFACE**

It is indeed unfortunate that under the great influence of Einstein’s invalid “mass-energy equivalence” today physicists believe that photon is a massless particle. It is well-known that Einstein’s quanta of the fallacious Maxwell’s fields have only energy hν without mass. Under this false idea Einstein in 1905 for the explanation of the photoelectric effect used only the conservation law of energy by assuming that the energy of photons is transformed into the kinetic energy of electrons. However it has been found experimentally before 1905 by Kaufmann that the electron mass increases with speed, which means that the absorption of photons in the photoelectric effect contribute also to the increase of the electron mass. Moreover after the Planck work (1900) that E = hν and the experiment of Nichols and Hull (1903) that E/p = c one concludes that the photon has a real mass m = hν/c^{2} which is able to increase the electron mass during the photon absorption.

Unfortunately Einstein’s idea of massless photons led to the invalid special relativity, which violates the two conservation laws of mass and energy. Therefore today using the biggest errors in the history of physics including Einstein’s false formula E = mc^{2 } physicists believe that the mass defect in atomic and nuclear binding energies is transformed into the energy of photons. So according to the fallacious concepts of the so-called Standard Model the photon is a massless spin 1 particle with no internal structure. Also in the “Photon-WIKIPEDIA” one sees that the photon is currently understood to be strictly massless, because the invalid special relativity demands that a massive photon could not move at the speed of light c.

In fact, after the Kaufmann experiment (1902) which showed that

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} = c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})

all experiments of atomic and nuclear physics showed that when a particle absorbs photons its constant inertial mass M_{o} of the Newtonian mechanics increases to a variable mass M in such a way that it cannot move as fast as the speed of light, since for u = c we see that M acquires an infinite value . On this basis after a careful analysis of all atomic and nuclear experiments we revealed that the differentiation of the above formula leads to the conclusion that the photon has not only an energy hν but also a real mass m = hν/c^{2}. Note that Einstein’s idea of zero rest mass misleads the readers, because in nature the concept of rest mass is incorrect. Under this crisis of physics using the correct constant inertial mas of the Newtonian mechanics, we discovered that a photon has a constant inertial mass when it moves in perpendicular direction to gravity, which is responsible for the bending of light near the sun predicted by Newton. Such an acceleration of photons which invalidates Einstein’s postulation of special relativity occurs under the application of Newton’s first law, while Einstein in his wrong general relativity believed that it is due to a strange curvature of vacuum.

On the other hand when the gravity is parallel to c according to Newton’s second law the gravity increases not the constant velocity c but the photon mass under a length contraction and a time dilation. This fact explains the gravitational red shift and the black holes. Moreover to interpret the electromagnetic properties of photons ( Faraday, 1845 ) we discovered in 1993 that a photon behaves like a moving dipole which can operate only at the speed of light c because at c the moving dipole exert an attractive electric force which is equal to the repulsive magnetic force. So a photon of mass m = hν/c^{2} can move only at the speed of light c, while all particles under the absorption of photons cannot move as fast as the speed of light. Then, for the electromagnetic interaction with the charged particles I discovered also my photon-matter interaction

hν/m = ΔE/ΔΜ = c^{2}

according to which the energy hν of the absorbed photons increases the energy ΔΕ of the particle and also the photon mass m increases the mass ΔΜ of the particle. In case in which the photon had no mass, the formula of the Kaufmann experiment could not exist. Note that a reverse process occurs in the atomic and nuclear binding energies. For example in the Bohr model the energy ΔΕ of the charge-charge interaction of the Coulomb law turns into the energy hν of the generated photon, while the mass defect ΔΜ turns into the mass m of the photon in accordance with the two conservation laws of energy and mass. On the same basis in 2002 I discovered that the binding energy of nuclei is due to the electromagnetic forces between 9 extra charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron existing among 288 quarks in nucleons. Thus the electromagnetic energy turns into the energy hν of an emitting photon while the mass defect turns into the mass of the generated photon.

**BRIEF HISTORY OF CONCEPTS ON THE NATURE OF LIGHT**

Historically, Descartes in his *Optics *(1637) asserted that light is associated with pulses in a medium. Thus he definitely rejects the possibility that “something material passes from the objects to our eyes to make us see colors and light.” Such an idea, though incorrect, had a considerable influence on the ideas of Huygens, Young, Fresnel, Maxwell, Lorentz, and Einstein.

After 67 years Newton in his *Opticks* (1704) recognized that an impulse through a medium could not account for **polarization**, a property of light unknown to Descartes. To Newton it was clear that this behavior could be explained only by assuming that a ray of light is a stream of rectangular particles having mass. So he not only predicted the gravitational properties of light by assuming the bending of his particles of light when they pass near the sun, but also he proposed the periodic properties of them in order to account for the phenomena of colors.

Though in 1801 Soldner confirmed Newton’s predictions of the bending of light near the sun, Young and Fresnel in order to interpret the *double-slit experiment* rejected Newton’s particles of light in favor of the Huygens waves moving through a fallacious ether (1690). This was not yet the “wave theory” in the modern sense. For example the wave nature of electrons led to the successful Schrodinger equations.

Meanwhile in 1845 Faraday discovered the electromagnetic properties of light. So according to the conservation law of charge the mass of Newtonian particles of light could consist of opposite charges with mutual electromagnetic forces or to experience forces per unit charge (fields) when they interact at a distance with charged particles. In other words, Newton’s particles of light with periodic properties could behave like moving dipoles. Therefore thy are their own antiparticles having mass of opposite charges.

Unfortunately, such an important discovery led to the invalid electromagnetic theory of Maxwell (1865) because the theory was based not on the well-established electromagnetic laws of Coulomb and Ampere using forces of moving charges, but on **wrong postulations**, since the fields are produced without charges and move as waves through the fallacious ether of Huygens. Note that Maxwell in his development of electromagnetic theory also violated the principle of relativity by postulating that a hypothetical electric field E of the Faraday induction law (1832) is responsible for the production of currents, while the experiments of the so-called motional EMF showed that the induction law is consistent with the magnetic force F_{m} of the Ampere law (1820). Also he introduced his hypothetical and strange *displacement current,* involving misconceptions after an important experiments performed in 1963 by the two American physicists French and Tessman. On the other hand in 1887 the famous experiment of the two American physicists Michelson and Morley rejected the ether in favor of the Newtonian particles of light having mass.

Nevertheless, in the same year (1887) Hertz believed that he confirmed Maxwell’s fields since an oscillating electric current produces electromagnetic waves. In fact, Hertz confirmed the fields of moving dipoles (photons) which are their own antiparticles.. Ironically Hertz discovered the photoelectric effect which led Einstein to develop in 1905 the theory of photons. However under the influence of Maxwell’s fallacious electromagnetic waves they represent bundles of energy without having mass. So they differ fundamentally from the Newtonian particles of light. Meanwhile in 1902 Kaufmann showed experimentally that the electron mass increases with increasing speed, and under the conservation laws of mass and energy Kaufmann tried to explain it by using the electromagnetic mass recognized by J.J. Thomson (1881). Such an explanation based on an electromagnetic mass led me to introduce the model of dipolic photons (1993) according to which a photon of electromagnetic properties should have opposite charges connected with mass like the rectangular Newtonian particles of light and behaves like a moving dipole producing electric and magnetic intensities (fields) at the speed of light c when it interacts at a distance with a charged particle. Thus the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ and the electron mass ΔΜ are explained accurately not by Einstein’s false relativity but by the absorption of the energy hν and the photon mass m = hν/c^{2} in accordance with our discovery of the photon-matter interaction.

It is of interest to note that in 1903 the two American physicists Nichols and Hull discovered that the energy ( E ) and the momentum ( p ) of light is given by E/p = c, which means that light consists of particles having mass. Note that after Planck’s discovery (1900) that E = hν and since p = mc one could conclude that m = hν/c^{2}. Unfortunately in 1905 Einstein based on Maxell’s invalid electric field, which violates the principle of relativity in the induction law, and using the Lorentz math of the ether theory developed a confusing relativity with the fallacious “Mass-energy equivalence” according to which the mass defect in atomic and nuclear physics turns into the energy of photons. Note that such wrong hypotheses violate not only the principle of relativity but also the two conservation laws of energy and mass, because Einstein believed incorrectly that photons are massless particles (quanta of Maxwell’s fields). For example in the explanation of the photoelectric effect Einstein recognized that the absorption of the photon energy is responsible for the kinetic energy of electrons in accordance with the conservation law of energy. However according to the Kaufmann experiments the kinetic energy of an electron is characterized also by the increase of its mass. This fact should lead to the conclusion that the photon during the absorption should give also its mass to the electron in accordance with the fundamental conservation law of mass. Instead Einstein in his invalid relativity violated the two conservation laws, because he believed incorrectly that any mass defect in atomic and nuclear binding energies is transformed into the energy of generated photons.

Fortunately, in 1913 Bohr discovered that the energy of the Coulomb law of the interaction between the charges of proton and electron turns into the energy hν of a generated photon which confirms the conservation law of energy and rejects Einstein’s E = mc^{2 }of his wrong hypothesis of “Mass-energy equivalence”. (SeeBohr and Schrodinger reject Einstein ). Also in 1923 the American physicist Compton showed experimentally that a beam of x- rays consists of particles colliding with electrons. Compton found that the observable momentum of the recoil electron was numerically just equal to the change of momentum of the x-ray. On the other hand de Broglie in 1924 proposed a sweeping symmetry of physics: Just as photons behave like particles as well as like waves, so electrons should behave like waves as well as like particles. This fact which means that particles of mass can have periodic properties led to the enormous success of the independent-time Schrodinger equations in three dimensions.

Later, the experiments of the Schrodinger Quantum entanglement (1935) confirmed accurately Newton’s action at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity. However Feynman in 1950 influenced by Maxwell’s fields and Einstein’s relativity developed the theory of the quantum electrodynamics according to which the electromagnetic forces should be carried by hypothetical virtual massless photons (quanta of Maxwell’s fields). Note that, in fact, the electric field was defined as an electric force per unit charge unable to be a force carrier of the same force.

Under this confusion of the physics crisis, in 2002 we discovered that the nuclear binding energy is due not to a mass defect of fallacious nuclear forces but to the electromagnetic forces of the well-established laws acting at a distance between 9 extra charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron existing among 288 quarks in nucleons. So as in the case of the hydrogen atom according to the conservation laws of energy and mass the nuclear binding energy turns into the energy of generated photons, while the mass defect turns into the mass of photons. This fact invalidates dramatically Einstein’s hypothesis of the “Mass-energy equivalence”.

It is surprising that the photon of mass m = hν/c^{2} is the only particle which moves at the speed of light c . Whereas when photons are absorbed by particles the mass of them increases in such a way that they cannot move as fast as the photons do. It is also surprising that the peripheral velocity of the electron spin is greater than the speed of light which gives stronger magnetic attraction than the electric repulsion when the electrons have opposite spin. This situation is responsible for the paring of spinning electrons in the atomic and molecular structures.(See my Helium atom ). Nevertheless, despite the enormous success of the Schrodinger equations based on the well-established laws, today physicists under the great influence of Einstein’s incorrect relativity and the assumed uncharged neutron abandoned the well-established laws in favor of wrong theories about the structure of many-electron atoms, molecules, and nuclei.. Nevertheless under the great influence of Einstein’s confusing relativity it is also believed that the photon is strictly massless, though the photon mass is responsible for the increase of the electron mass.(See in my New revolution in physics “From Greek philosophy to the crisis of modern physics”).

**DIPOLAR NATURE OF PHOTNS HAVING MASS**

Under the great influence of Maxwell's wrong fields moving through a fallacious ether and Einstein's invalid special relativity based on the Lorentz math formulated under the false ether theory, physicists today believe that photons are massless particles ( quanta of Maxwell’s fields). Despite the famous Michelson – Morley experiment, which rejected the ether in favor of the Newtonian particles of light having mass, Lorentz and Einstein were both defenders of the existence of the ether. Einstein himself after his development of wrong and contradicting general relativity (see EINSTEIN by L. Kaliambos ) radically modified his previously provisional negative attitude. For example in 1924 he wrote: “According to special relativity the ether remains still absolute because its influence on the inertia of bodies... is independent of every kind of physical influence.” Moreover Einstein based on his fallacious rest energy of his invalid relativity derived the following incorrect formula

E^{2} = p^{2}c^{2 }+ m^{2}c^{4}

It is well-known that the above formula led to the invalid theory of quantum electrodynamics according to which the incorrect massless photons ( quanta of Maxwell’s fields) should be the fallacious force carriers of electric forces of long range. In 1950 Feynman influenced also by the wrong meson theory of Yukawa (1935), developed his wrong theory that the electromagnetic force of long range is due to the fallacious virtual and massless photons , since it was believed that the electromagnetic force is carried by the false Maxwell’s fields moving through the fallacious ether. However, in fact, an electric field cannot be the carrier of the electric force, because the electric field was defined as a force per unit charge unable to carry the same electric force.

Such incorrect ideas about the massless photons can be seen in the “Photon-WIKIPEDIA.” Especially in the chapter “Experimental checks on photon mass” one reads: “The photon is currently understood to be strictly massless, but this is an experimental question. If the photon is not a strictly massless particle, it would not move at the exact speed of light in vacuum, *c*. Its speed would be lower and depend on its frequency. Relativity would be unaffected by this; the so-called speed of light, *c*, would then not be the actual speed at which light moves, but a constant of nature which is the maximum speed that any object could theoretically attain in space-time.^{ } Thus, it would still be the speed of space-time ripples (gravitational waves and gravitons), but it would not be the speed of photons. A massive photon would have other effects as well. Coulomb's law would be modified and the electromagnetic field would have an extra physical degree of freedom.”

Also in the “Gamma ray –WIKIPEDIA” one reads: “**Gamma rays** were first thought to be particles with mass, like alpha and beta rays. However in 1910 British physicist William Henry Bragg demonstrated that gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation, **not massive particles**.”

In fact, after the important experiment of Kaufmann who showed that any kinetic energy of electrons is characterized by an increase of mass due to an electromagnetic mass of “fields” of Einstein’s photons, also the two American physicists Nichols and Hull in 1903 ( before the incomplete explanation of the photoelectric effect by Einstein) found experimentally that light consists of particles having energy (E) and momentum (p) given by E/p = c .

Since E = hν and p = mc one gets m = hν/c^{2 }

For this important experiment in the “Radiation pressure-WIKIPEDIA” one reads the following correct paragraph which contradicts the fallacious idea of massless photons: “ Although photons are considered to be zero-rest mass particles, they have the properties of energy and momentum,** thus exhibit the properties of mass as they travel at light speed**.” This fact is consistent with the gravitational properties of light predicted by Newton and confirmed by Soldner in 1801. Such a real mass of photons also explains accurately the Kaufmann experiment by the application of natural laws. Unfortunately Einstein in 1905 influenced by the wrong moving fields of Maxwell failed not only to explain the photoelectric effect but also did much to retard the progress of physics in the explanation of the Kaufmann experiment after the development of his invalid special relativity, which violates the two conservation laws of mass and energy. (See Wrong Einstein ). For example we discovered that in the nuclear binding the mass defect turns into the mass of generated photons. Also in the model of the hydrogen atom Bohr discovered that the energy hν of a generated photon is due not to the mass defect ΔΜ of the electron but to the energy ΔΕ of the charge-charge interaction between the electron and the proton . So Bohr rejects Einstein’s hypothesis of “Mass-energy equivalence” according to which mass should turn into energy. It is fortunate that in the “Binding energy-WIKIPEDIA” we see that the binding energy in the atomic level derives from electromagnetic interaction.

In general we found that under the applications of the well-established laws in all atomic and nuclear experiments the two conservation laws of energy and mass are valid. So in the so-called electron-positron annihilation the mass of the electron and positron 2Μ turns into the mass 2m = 2hν/c^{2} of the two generated photons, while the energy ΔΕ of the charge-charge interaction turns into the energy 2hν of the photons in accordance with our discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION or the MATTER-PHOTON TRANSFORMATION

ΔΕ/2Μ = 2hν/2m = c^{2}

In other words the photon is generated after a force of short time and moves uniformly with respect to the source of radiation along a straight line, because during the motion the net force is zero like Galileo’s ship of his relativity. (See RELATIVITY By L. Kaliambos ). In Galileo’s ship moving at a constant velocity u the gravity F_{g} which is perpendicular to the velocity u is equal to the upward contact force of electromagnetic forces F_{em}. In other words, F_{g } = F_{em}. In the same way the photon moves at c with respect to the source of radiation, because the attractive electric force F_{e} is equal to the repulsive magnetic force F_{m . }Note that in the Coulomb and the Ampere laws

F_{e} = (KQ/R^{2})q and F_{m} = (2kI/R) il where K/k = c^{2}

the electric and magnetic forces_{ }obey Newton’s _{ }third law. However when two point charges move in different directions their magnetic forces cannot obey Newton’s third law and only when two opposite charges move at the velocity c and form a moving dipole with +q and – q one observes that the attractive electric force F_{e} is equal to the repulsive magnetic force F_{m} .

That is, according to the well-established electromagnetic laws under the conservation law of charge a photon with mass m behaves like a moving dipole which can operate only at the speed of light c. After a detailed analysis of all experiments in quantum and nuclear physics I discovered also that all neutral particles like neutrons, neutrinos, antineutrinos, and photons have mass of opposite charges which cannot be separated. Surprisingly in the hydrogen atom the orbiting electron has the same charge (-e ) though its mass is smaller than that of the free electron. Whereas the mass defect appears as a photon mass with opposite charges to form electric dipoles which are their own antiparticles. However we discovered that neutrinos and antineutrinos are not identical particles because the neutrino has negative charge at the center and positive charge along the periphery, while the antineutrino has positive charge at the center and negative one along the periphery. (See my Quarks, neutrinos, nucleons, and nuclei ). To describe the behavior of a photon as a spinning dipole for simplicity we study it when the separation R of charges is perpendicular to the velocity u of the dipole. So according to the laws of Coulomb and Ampere we write

F_{e} = Kq^{2}/R^{2} and F_{m} = kq^{2}u^{2}/R^{2}

Since Weber in 1856 found that K/k = c^{2} we get F_{e}/F_{m } = c^{2}/u^{2}.

That is, according to Galileo’s relativity we observe that F_{e} = F_{m } when u = c.

In case in which the charges of the dipole (photon) interact with a charged particle we may use not the Faraday wrong concept of fields but the electric and magnetic intensities E_{y} and B_{z }with forces acting at a distance. To simplify the problem we calculate the fields of action at a distance or intensities at the center of the dipole by using r = R/2. Thus the fields of action at a distance can be written as

E_{y }= 2Kq/r^{2} and B_{z} = 2kqc/r^{2} Since K/k = c^{2} we get E_{y}/B_{z} = c

Note that Maxwell in his electromagnetic theory recognized that E/B = c and tried to justify it by using not the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere. However Maxwell his incorrect equations derived from his fallacious postulations. For example he believed that the Faraday EMF of the induction law is due to a fallacious electric field E = F_{e}/q, which violates the principle of relativity. In fact, since the experiments showed that the induction law is consistent with the magnetic force F_{m} of the Ampere law one concludes that the Faraday EMF is due not to E but to F_{m}/q . Thus the fallacious equation of Maxwell’s self-propagating fields

E2πr = (dB/dt)πr^{2 }

could be written correctly as

(F_{m}/q)2πr = (dB/dt) πr^{2}

It is also unfortunate that Maxwell in the Ampere law used not a real current I but a fallacious displacement current I_{d} = dQ/dt = dEε_{ο}(πr^{2})/dt . Thus he formulated the following wrong equations

E2πr = (dB/dt)πr^{2} and B2πr = I_{d }μ_{ο} = ( dQ/dt )μ_{ο} = ( dEe_{o}πr^{2}/dt )μ_{ο}

Under such false relations he found that EdE/BdB = E^{2}/B^{2} = 1/ε_{ο}μ_{ο} = c^{2 }or E/B = c

Today it is well-known that under the application of the well-established laws of electromagnetism in alternating-current circuits involving capacitance and inductance the stored electric energy density E^{2}ε_{ο}/2 in the capacitor is equal of the magnetic energy density B^{2}/2μ_{ο} in the inductor. .Such a situation is based not on Maxwell’s fallacious postulations of self-propagating fields but on real charges and currents of the well-established electromagnetic laws. Thus equating the energies we get

E^{2}/B^{2} = 1/ε_{ο}μ_{ο}_{ }= c^{2} or E/B = c

Although a real current is the result of real moving charges, today physicist believe that the displacement current is the result of a strange time-varying electric field which seem to be responsible for the generation of electromagnetic waves. In the “Displacement current-WIKIPEDIA” one reads: “ However it is not an electric current of moving charges but a time-varying field…The displacement current term is now seen as a crucial addition that completed Maxwell’s equations and is necessary to explain many phenomena most particularly the existence of electromagnetic waves.”

In fact, the fields are produced by the moving dipoles having real mass with opposite charges. In other words photons are their own antiparticles. However the neutral particles like neutrons and antineutrons are not identical particles. We discovered that neutrons have a positive charge (+8e/3) at the center and a negative charge (-8e/3) along the periphery. (See my New atomic and nuclear physics ). Thus the antineutrons have (-8e/3) at the center and (+8e/3) along the periphery. In the ‘Antiparticle-WIKIPEDIA” one reads the following correct paragraph: ‘Although particles and their antiparticles have opposite charges electrically, neutral particles need not be identical to their antiparticles…However other neutral particles are their own antiparticles, such as photons…”

**IN GRAVITATIONAL INTERACTIONS A PHOTON HAS A CONSTANT INERTIAL MASS WHEN THE VELOCITY OF LIGHT IS PERPENDICULAR TO GRAVITY**

Einstein’s explanation of the photoelectric effect was incomplete. In fact, the photon is not only a quantum of energy but also it has a real mass. So in the photon absorption the photon gives to the electron both the energy hν and the mass m. Moreover we revealed that such an interpretation of the photoelectric effect involving the two conservation laws of energy and mass opened the way for a detailed explanation of the Kaufmann experiment. According to Newton’s first law the electron in mechanical energies has not the fallacious rest mass of Einstein but a constant inertial mass M_{o}. So the potential energy turns into the kinetic energy under the constant inertial mass. In the same way when a photon with a constant inertial mass m_{o} moves along a perpendicular direction to gravity it accelerates in the direction of the gravity because the gravitational force cannot affect the constant velocity c of the photon, like Galileo’s projectile motion with initial horizontal velocity. (See my Newton invalidates Einstein ). Note that the observed motion of a projectile is the result of two separate motions, combined and followed simultaneously by the projectile for making a curved trajectory under the influence of gravity. It is unfortunate that such a trajectory of photons due to the application of the well-established laws led Einstein to suggest the strange idea of the “curvature of spacetime.”

**IN THE QUANTUM DYNAMICS THE VARIABLE MASS OF PHOTONS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE EXPLANATION OF THE LENGTH CONTRACTION AND TIME DILATION **

When an electron absorbs photons, we observe that during the absorption the electron mass can increase under the application of Newton’s second law. In this case according to our discovery of the photon- matter interaction the increases of the electron mass ΔΜ is due not to the velocity of the electron (which violates the conservation law of mass) but to the absorption of the photon mass

hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

Note that in the Kauffman experiment the electron absorbs an energy which ,in fact, is due to the energy of photons of our sun (photosynthesis). Under this condition during the absorption of the energy the constant inertial mass M_{o} become a greater variable mass M given by

M/M_{o}= c/(c2-u^{2})^{0.5}

In this formula one sees that the electron cannot move as fast as the speed of light . Surprisingly it is due not to the invalid Einstein’s relativity but to the absorption of the photon mass m = hν/ c^{2} . Nevertheless, the photon of mass m is able to move at the speed of light because it behaves like a dipole with electric attraction F_{e} and magnetic repulsion F_{m} which are equal at the speed of light. Whereas according to the above formula the electron cannot move as fast as the speed c because it absorbs the real mass of photons . In case in which the photon had zero mass the above formula could not exist. Note that here M is not a fallacious relativistic mass but a variable mass due to the absorption of the photon mass. To conclude one sees that the photon mass behaves differently than the mass of a particle. For example when the velocity c of a photon is parallel to gravity the application of Newton’s second law leads to the formula F = cdm/dt under a length contraction and a time dilation which means that the photon mass m in this case is not a constant inertial mass but a variable mass due to gravity.

In this case the gravitational force cannot change the velocity along the direction of c, because any acceleration along the direction of c will increase the magnetic force. So the photon could not operate because the linear velocity is due to equal forces of F_{e} and F_{m}. That is, any acceleration approaches to zero under a length contraction and a time dilation. This situation allows us to conclude also that the absorption of photons by particles increases the mass of the particles under a length contraction and a time dilation.

The electromagnetic interaction of a the photon charges with the charge (-e) of an electron under the applications of the well-established laws is given by

E_{y}(-e)dy = dW and B_{z}(-e)dy/dt = F_{m} or B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m}dt = dp = cdm.

Since E_{y}/B_{z} = c we get dW = dmc^{2}

Here we see that F_{m} is due to dy/dt which occurs after the electric force producing this velocity. However according to Newton’s third law with instantaneous simultaneity the velocity dy/dt must approach to zero under a length contraction and a time dilation.

When a large number of photons interact with an electron they increase the mass in such a way that the electron cannot move as fast as the speed of light. Here M_{o} is not a fallacious rest mass because according to Newton’s first law all particles in the absence of a photon absorption are characterized by a constant inertial mass which is responsible for the transformation of the potential energy into a kinetic one. However according to Newton’s second law

F = d(Mu) dt

the above formula can be explained accurately by using not the invalid relativity of Einstein but by applying the well-established laws, because the absorption of the energy increases both the mass and the velocity. Indeed the differentiation of the above formula leads to our formula of the Photon –matter interaction.

**THE VARIABLE MASS OF PHOTONS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE UNIFICATION OF THE WELL-ESTABLISHED LAWS OF GRAVITY AND ELECTROMAGNETISM**

It is well-known that prior to 1820 electricity and magnetism were regarded as two separate, unrelated phenomena. That year Oersted demonstrated that an electric current gives a magnetic force. Later (1856) Weber discovered that the constants K and k of the Coulomb law and the Ampere law respectively are related by K/k = c^{2} . Note the at the beginning of the twentieth century Einstein influenced by Maxwell’s wrong field sought to unify the gravitational and electromagnetic interactions, but without success. Later after the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron which led to the abandonment of natural electromagnetic laws in favor of wrong nuclear theories physicists believed that all nuclear phenomena cannot be governed by the natural electric and magnetic forces of the well-established laws but by fallacious strong and weak interactions. Meanwhile Einstein intensely searched for unifying gravity with electromagnetism during the last decades of his life, but none of these attempts were successful because he believed incorrectly that photons are massless particles (quanta of the fallacious Maxwell’s fields).

Under this crisis of fields end relativity a new crisis of nuclear physics occurred, because the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron led to the abandonment of the well-established laws of nature. So in a confusion of fallacious strong and weak interactions in1968 Glashow, Salam, and Weinberg tried to unify the fallacious weak interaction with the real forces of electromagnetism of the well-established laws by suggesting a new wrong theory called electroweak theory. Later physicists under the same nuclear crisis tried to unify the fallacious strong and weak interactions with the real electromagnetic forces by introducing new hypotheses called Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) because it was believed that the invalid massless photons as mediators of electromagnetism and the hypothetical massless gluons as mediators of the fallacious strong interaction appear as components of a single multicomponent field.

Since GUT did not include gravity and following the work of Dirac it was incorrectly believed that the fallacious strong and weak interactions along with the electromagnetism and gravity required that gravity could be reformulated with the context of a false relativistic quantum theory. As a result all attempts to construct a quantum theory of gravity failed dismally. Then in the so called superstring theory it was assumed that all forces along with the fallacious strong and weak interactions appear as components of a strange ten-dimensional field.

Finally a Theory of Everything (ToE) was proposed in order to reconcile the invalid general relativity and the unsuccessful quantum field theory but without success. So in the “(ToE)-WIKIPEDIA” one reads: “Thus the central issue is how to combine general relativity and quantum mechanics. This is one of the unsolved problems in physics.”

Under this confusion of theories and taking into account that the Bohr model (1913) and the Schrodinger equations (1926) reject Einstein's ideas (see my Bohr and Schrodinger reject Einstein), I found that the experiments of atomic and nuclear physics reject Einstein’s fields and his ether structure in favor of the particle nature of light. For example Compton (1923), discovered that a beam high frequency consists of particles of light able to collide with electrons. The discovery of the electron spin (1925) rejected Einstein’s ideas because the peripheral velocity of the electron spin is faster than the speed of light. It is also fortunate that the experiments of the mass defect in atomic and nuclear bindings along with the experiments of the magnetic moments of nucleons led me to discover the nuclear binding due not to the mass defect but to the electromagnetic forces between 9 extra charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron existing among 288 quarks in nucleons. On the other hand the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement confirming accurately the action at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity along with the experiment of French and Tessman who showed the fallacy of Maxwell's fields opened the way for reviving the well-established laws which interpret accurately all experiments of atomic and nuclear physics. It is surprising that the majority of experiments rejecting the fields moving through a fallacious ether and supporting particles of light were performed by 7 American physicists like Michelson, Morley, Nichols, Hull, Compton, French, and Tessman.

Under such important experiments I presented in 1993 the model of dipolic photons according to which a photon at the speed of light behaves like a spinning dipole having a mass of opposite charges. Note that according to the laws of Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820) the charges of the dipole interact at a distance and at the speed of light with respect to the source of radiation they give equal electric attractions and magnetic repulsions like Galileo’s ship of his relativity.

When I revealed that the mass defect of the Bohr model is transformed into the mass of a photon of electromagnetic properties I was able to see what happens with other very small particles assumed to be neutral particles. Surprisingly after a careful analysis of all experiments I found that the neutrino behaves like an oblate spheroid and has a mass with negative charge at the center and positive charge along the periphery, while the antineutrino has positive charge at the center and negative one along the periphery. So these two particles are not identical. However since the photons are their own antiparticles they cannot behave like spinning oblate spheroids but like spinning dipole in which we cannot distinguish between a particle and an antiparticle. Under this condition a photon as a dipole interacts with the charge (-e) of an electron as

E_{y}(-e)dy = dW and B_{z}(-e)dy/dt = F_{m} or B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m}dt =dp =dmc

Since E_{y}/B_{z} = c we get dW = dmc^{2}

Surprisingly when the mass of the photon interacts with the mass of a star we get the same results which means that the variable mass of photon is able to unify the natural laws of gravity and electromagnetism, while Einstein under his massless photons using them as quanta of the fallacious Maxwell’s fields led to complications. (See my Unified forces solve the crisis of physics ). Indeed, in case in which the velocity c is parallel to the gravitational force F_{g} under the application of Newton’s second law we get

F_{g}ds = dW = (cdm/dt)ds = dmc^{2}.

To conclude we see that the electromagnetic laws are unified with the gravity under the real mass of photons m = hν/c^{2}