PHOTONS INTERACT WITH CHARGES AND MASSES

By prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ( Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) T. E. Institute of Larissa - Greece

**( PHOTON - MATTER TRANSFORMATION )**

This article was announced to many universities around the world (**May 2011**). Writing in Google Scholar "Kaliambos" one can see the paper "Impact of Maxwell's...dipolic particles" presented at the international conference "Frontiers of fundamental physics" (Olympia,1993) which invalidates the Maxwell fields and Einstein's relativity. You can see also my paper " Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism" presented at the 12th symposium of the Hellenic Nuclear Physics Society ( N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", 2002 ) and published in Ind. J. Th. Phys. (2002) . The paper contains a large number of integral equations which revealed the structure and binding of nuclei. (See in "User Kaliambos " the above papers along with my additional published paper " Spin-spin interactions of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures").

PREFACE

According to our model of dipolic particles (Impact of Maxwell’s equations..) a photon has a mass m = hν/c^{2} with opposite charges. It is based not on Einstein's massless quanta of fields (1905) but on the rectangular particles of light of Newton who predicted the gravitational propeties of light confirmed by soldner in 1801. It is based also on the the photon of Lewis (1926).. Note that Lewis gave the name photon to the particles of light which behave like billiard balls after the Compton effect (1923). Therefore it may interact with bodies of mass or with charges and currents, while Planck (1900) and Einstein (1905) believed that photons are quanta of Maxwell's fallacious fields having only energy hν. In fact the photons in the photoelectric effect contribute not only to the increase of energy ΔΕ of the electron but to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ in accordance with the experiment of Kaufmann (1902) who interpreted his experiment by using the so-called "electromagnetic mass recognized by thomson in 1881. Using our dipolic photons we see that the at a distance electric force **F = Ey(-e)' and the magnetic force **

*f*

**acting again at a distance**f = Bz(-e)(dy/dt)**between the charges of the dipolic photon and an electron led to our discovery of**the'**photon- matter interaction**expressed in our formula

** hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c ^{2} **

In 1916 Einstein in his general relativity showed that photons interact with massive bodies, but under the influence of Maxwell’s wrong theory (see in Google Invalidity of Maxwell’s fields) he treated a photon as a pulse of light without a mass. In fact, the bending of light was predicted by Newton and confirmed by Soldner in 1801. When the velocity c of photon is perpendicular to the gravity the photon mass m is always constant and behaves like the constant inertial mass of a particle. In this case the application of Newton's second law produces an acceleration in perpendicular direction to c as **F = m(du/dt)** which invalidates the second postulation of special relativity.

However when the velocity c is parallel to gravity the application of the second law of Newton gives different results. In this case since the velocity of photon is constant Newton's second laws is written as **F = dmc/dt . **That is, the gravitational force F is not equal to the rate of change of velocity but to the rate of change of mass. In other words the acceleration along the direction of c approaches to zero under a length contraction and a time dilation. This situation changes also the energy and produces the phenomenon of gravitational redshift. Note that Einstein explained the same phenomenon by using the Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics. However under the dominant fallacious fields of Maxwell he tried to interpret the gravitational interactions at a distance in terms of gravitational fields or gravitational waves interacting with masses in an assumed curved spacetime which cannot be related to the enormous success of the time-independent Schrodinger equations in three dimensions. (1926). Furthermore at the beginning of the twentieth century, Einstein tried to unify the fallacious electric and magnetic fields by proposing that they are components of a single six-dimensional field that transforms according to the Lorentz transformation of his invalid special theory of relativity. (See in Google Invalidity of special relativity). Note that Weber in 1856 achieved to connect the electric and magnetic units with the speed of light c. In his later years Einstein sought to unify the electromagnetic and gravitational interactions, but without success.

It is indeed unfortunate that theoretical physicists of the twentieth century under the influence of Maxwell’s wrong theory abandoned the action at a distance of the natural laws and tried to interpret the microscopic phenomena with unknown different kinds of the same force, which should be unified in one fundamental law. In fact the long-ranged electric forces in atoms and the short-ranged electromagnetic forces in nuclei are different kinds of force of the same laws of electromagnetism due to the geometry or to the distributions of charges, which give resultant forces of short range. In atoms and molecules exist also forces of short range for the two-electron coupling in electron orbitals. Moreover the inertial mass of electrons gives the centrifugal force, which is a considerable inertia reaction to the attractive electric force. On the other hand we discovered that the nuclear force between the charge distributions of spinning nucleons is a resultant strong electromagnetic force of short range, while in hydrogen atom the force acts as a simple electric force of long range between point charges. Under this unknown situation physicists have proposed several variants of a theory that would unify the so-called strong forces of interacting nucleons or quarks with the real electromagnetic forces and gravitational forces of the well-established laws of Coulomb , Biot-Savart, and Newton. They believed that a common feature of the so-called grand unified theories is that the virtual gluons and gravitons exist as hypothetical massless mediators of forces, which have never been observed, because in nature massless particles cannot exist. Following the wrong assumptions of special relativity they believed that the unification of all kinds of force required that gravity be formulated within the context of relativistic quantum theory. However all attempts to construct a quantum theory of gravity failed dismally, because the experimental wave properties of the electron orbitals in the Schroedinger equation differ fundamentally from the orbits of planets. Then, several theorists resurrected the idea of a multidimensional manifold that had lain dormant for half a century. In superstring theory, quantum gravity, electromagnetism and the short-ranged nuclear forces appear as components of a ten-dimensional field. On the other hand the Standard model of particle physics is invalid, because it is based on fallacious mediators of the so –called strong nuclear forces, which cannot lead to the nuclear binding and to the structure of nuclei.

## EINSTEIN USED WRONG FIELDS AS MEDIATORS IN G. RELATIVITYEdit

Einstein in his special relativity (1905) using the fallacious self propagating fields of Maxwell focused on the central arguments of wrong conclusions that the increase of mass of moving bodies is due to the uniform relative velocities of inertial frames. In fact, this is not a kinematic but a dynamical situation and occurs only during the absorption of photons in non conservative systems. On this basis we discovered the “**photon- matter transformation**”

**hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c ^{2}**

according to which the absorbed energy hν and mass m of photon are transformed into the energy ΔΕ and mass ΔΜ of the particle under a time dilation.
Then in 1916 Einstein following again the wrong fields of Maxwell developed the general theory of relativity for gravity, because he believed that Newton’s flaw in the theory of gravitation was the presumption of action at a distance. In short, Einstein thought that the general relativity does for gravity what Maxwell’s theory described for electricity. In analogy to electromagnetic fields of Maxwell the gravitational force F = m(GM/r^{2}) could be mediated by the gravitational field GM/r^{2}. However according to the definition in the field formulation the field GM/r^{2} is again the gravitational force F when m = 1. That is, according to Einstein wrong idea the gravitational force F should be transmitted via the same gravitational force (when m=1) at the speed of light like the Maxwellian fallacious fields. Moreover like the wrong fields of Faraday which seemed to be properties of vacuum, Einstein in G. Relativity proposed that a massive body like the sun causes the space-time around it to curve, and this curvature in turn affects the motion of the planets , causing them to orbit around the sun. Under this condition Einstein in general relativity re-introduced the ether which is against the relativity.

## THE TWO PROPERTIES OF MASS. (GRAVITATIONAL AND INERTIAL FORCE)Edit

For the modification of special relativity we discovered that in the hydrogen atom the potential energy K(+e)(-e)/r = 27.2 eV of the proton- electron system is transformed into the kinetic energy KE = 27.2 eV where the rest mass of electron Mo remains constant under Newton’s absolute space and time. Then according to the symmetrical principle matter –photon transformation after a deceleration the half energy (KE/2 = 13.6 eV ) gives the energy of orbit with a mass defect ΔΜ which is transformed into the mass m of photon, while the other half energy (KE/2) is transformed into the energy hν = 13.6 eV of photon. In both cases of gravity and electricity the Euclidian straight line is the distance r between the bodies of interaction and the straight line of the vector of force. Note that the Euclidian description is dominant in the first Newton’s law of motion according to which a body in motion continues in motion at a constant speed in a straight line. Also in the second law of motion according to which the rate of change of motion of a body is proportional to the applied force of course it takes place in the straight line as the acceleration is experienced by a freely falling body on the earth. On the other hand the third law of Newton, which describes the inertia reaction, always applies to curvilinear motion in which the centrifugal force is the inertia reaction to long-ranged gravitational forces and electric attractions. Of course in the curve of orbit the shortest path between two points is the so-called geodesis, which can be rephrased in terms of a geometry of space-time that departs from the familiar Euclidian description. Also in both cases the inertial force, as is the centrifugal force, just equals the requisite centripetal force of gravity or electricity to maintain the orbital motion. In the first case of gravity Einstein revived an observation dating to Galileo, who first noted that the period of a pendulum is independent of the mass of its bob. From this it follows that the gravitational and inertial masses of the bob must be equal. This equality of gravitational and inertial masses means that there is no possible way to distinguish, between gravitational and inertial forces. This conclusion was called by Einstein the well-known principle of equivalence F/α = m (constant inertia) But this siruation invalidates the special relativity according to which the F/α gives the invalid relativistic mass.

## HOW A PHOTON OPERATES AND HOW IT INTERACTS WITH CHARGESEdit

After an important experiment of French and Tessman (1963) showing that Maxwell’s displacement current involves misconceptions a careful analysis of the induction law leads also to the conclusion that changing magnetic fields give only magnetic forces and magnetic energies. Under this condition the electric and magnetic energy densities are used also for formulating the wave equations of guided waves under the application of electromagnetic laws without regard to Maxwell’s fallacious ideas. The same laws are also used for the spinning photons treated as oscillating dipoles in motion for interpreting their electromagnetic properties, as shown in Faraday’s experiment about the rotation of the plane of polarized light in a magnetic field, which exerts a torque on a moving electric dipole (dipolic photon). According to the conservation law of charge photons consist of opposite charges since energetic photons yield electrons and positrons whenever pass through matter. On the basis of quantum theory such moving dipoles (dipolic photons) are produced by Planck’s oscillators due to emfs of accelerated charges. They operate exactly at c for giving the spin S = ђ with an energy hν and provide new rules for understanding all optical effects. Applications of the Coulomb and the Biot-Savart laws on oscillating dipoles in motion (dipolic photons) give a sinusoidal variation of electromagnetic force with transverse E and B in phase propagating in vacuum at c. In general, all wave equations describing the electromagnetic behavior of photons interpret not only the phenomena of atomic physics but also all effects in macroscopic scale. Ironically, Hertz who seemed to confirm Maxwell’s wave theory by creating radio waves was also the discoverer of the historical photoelectric effect for the development of photon theory. Moreover the inability of Maxwell’s deductive approach to predict the atomic physics phenomena implies that the underlying assumptions could be wrong.

French and Tessman showed that the application of Maxwell’s equation of the displacement current involves misconceptions, since the discharged plates during the motion of ions in an ionized air in the capacitor cannot produce magnetic fields. Under this evidence, the experiment of Faraday in his ‘Thoughts on Ray Vibrations’ along with Weber’s connection of c with electric and magnetic units and also the induction Law used in Maxwell’s theory should be reexamined, since Faraday’s experiment is interpreted by the photon theory although it was the causation for the development of Maxwell’s theory. Clearly, the rotation of the plane of polarized light in the presence of a magnetic field in Faraday’s experiment, might be understood on the basis of the magnetic force or torque on photons moving as oscillating electric dipoles. Also a careful analysis of the induction law shows that changing electric fields give only magnetic forces and stored magnetic energies equivalent to the kinetic energies of mechanical systems propagating waves.

Of course, the non deflection of electromagnetic radiation in electric and magnetic fields and the experimental verification of photon theory by Millikan including the best early determination of ђ , support the idea that Planck’s oscillators emit oscillating dipoles (photons) producing waves without regard to a transmitting medium. On the other hand, in radio waves, the chosen local source converting the out of phase fields in local time-varying fields without charges in terms of an induced electric field E and Maxwell’s concept of displacement current is unreal, since the waves are due to photons moving as oscillating dipoles for propagating local electric and magnetic fields. According to quantum theory such vibrating electric dipoles are produced by Planck’s oscillators due to emfs of accelerated charges in the wire. Note that the photons are generated during the deceleration of charges because the acceleration of charges is due to the applied energy, which is transformed into the energy of photons. Moreover, for a free photon moving in space as an oscillating dipole, applications of the Coulomb and Biot–Savart laws on the two interacting charges give a sinusoidal variation of their electromagnetic force, when the dipole moves exactly at the speed of light with respect to the light source. This fact which implies harmonic oscillations as a wave propagation in vacuum at the speed of light, follows from Weber’s connection of c with the electric and magnetic unites. Also, applications of the same laws on the whole system give Ey and Bz transverse to the x direction of the moving dipole, when its spin S is parallel to z. Consequently, the polarization effect depends on the plane of rotation confining the oscillation in xy plane. Because of their localized energies in discrete small regions they invalidate Maxwell’s idea of transverse fields moving without charges through an ether, which led to the experiment of Michelson and Morley responsible for the development of special relativity. In the radio range the oscillating dipoles exhibit a coherent plane-polarized wave generated by the surging of charge up and down periodically. Take into consideration that photons of a typical light source acting as independent moving dipoles are unpolarized and also unable to cooperate for creating a coherent beam. Only after a diffraction through a very small pinhole, as in Young’s double slit experiment, the oscillating dipoles crowd together and at very short separations are forced to interact for giving coherent waves. In a dielectric medium such dipoles (dipolic photons) cause in matter some distortion of the atomic orbital electrons. So the mutual electric force Fe in a dipole (photon) is reduced, while the magnetic force requires a velocity υ<c for the harmonic operation of the system. Note that the wave equations are the same as those derived from the energy densities of electric and magnetic fields due to the charges of conductors in transmission lines, while Maxwell’s wave equations are based on wrong assumptions implying moving fields through a medium (ether) without charges.

## THE GRAVITATIONAL RED SHIFT IS NOT RELATED WITH S. RELATIVITYEdit

Einstein believed that the most direct prediction of the principle of equivalence is the gravitational red shift, when a photon is emitted from a massive object like the sun. In fact, when the velocity c is parallel to gravity we showed that the principle of equivalence is invalidated since the photon mass is not constant because of the constant c. In this case application of the second law of Newton gives **Fds = (dmc/dt)ds = (dmc)c = hdν ** Note that the same result found Einstein by using not the relativistic Doppler effect but the Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics.. Suppose a photon at a moment is at a height H from the surface of the earth moving toward the surface of the earth. The time required for photon to traverse the distance to the surface is t = H/c. Since photon has a mass we would write υ = gt = gH/c. But υ cannot be the velocity of photon, which operates at the velocity c. So this phenomenon is equivalent to the motion of an observer at the surface who can use the non relativistic Doppler effect, when he moves upward with a velocity υ. Since his motion is antiparallel to the motion of photon we can write δν/ν = υ/c = gH/c^{2} Indeed, if we use the photon mass m = hν/c^{2} we see that the potential energy of photon for the height H is (hν/c^{2})gH which gives on the surface the energy δνh. That is (hν/c^{2})gH = δνh which leads to δν/ν = gH/c^{2}. The product gH is just the difference in gravitational potential. Even for an elevation difference of 8000 m the fractional shift is less than 10^{-12}. However as in the case of the photon-mater transformation we must observe a change of space and time because the frequency of light changes. Note that in most cases, the results of these interactions are experimentally indistinguishable from Newton’s theory. In several instances where measurements are possible, such as the bending of light rays in the gravitational field of the sun, the results favor the gravitational force of photons based on forces acting at a distance. One of the most spectacular predictions of red shift is that a dying star of sufficient mass and its gravitational weight into an object is so compressed that no photon can escape its pull. These objects are known as black holes.

## CONCLUSIONSEdit

According to our model of dipolic particles a photon has a mass **m = hν/c ^{2} **with opposite charges making it operate at the speed c of light. Under this condition the mass and the opposite charges of a photon interact at a distance with masses and charges. The interaction of the charges of photon with a charged particle leads to the

**photon-matter transformation under a length contraction and a time dilation**which invalidates Einstein’s special relativity. When a photon passes through a dielectric medium its velocity becomes smaller than c,. Note that when a photon mass interacts with the mass of sun we observe two different interasctions. In case in which the velocity c is perpendicular to gravity the application of Newton's second law of the photon mass gives an acceleration which invalidates the second postulation of special relativity. In case in which the velocity c is parallel to gravity the application of the second law of Newton gives a gravitational force which is equal not to the rate of change of velocity but to the rate of change of mass under a length contraction and a time dilation which interprets the phenomenon of gravitational redshift. This situation invalidates Einstein's principle of equivalence because the photon mass is not constant. The same redshift measures also an observer by using the non relativistic Doppler effect when he moves upward with the velocity υ = gH/c toward the light source.