By prof. L. Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) Τ. Ε. Institute of Larissa Greece ( March 2014 )

Ironically, in 1887 the first facts leading to the photoelectric effect, and through that eventually to the recognition that Maxwell’s theory of fields moving through a fallacious ether (1865) had to be fundamentally revised, were by- products of the very same research that seemed at the time to furnish the proof for Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory-namely, Hertz’s experiments on the propagation of Maxwell’s waves.

In fact, after the confirmation of Soldner (1801) that Newton’s particles with mass have gravitational properties, the experiment of the two American physicists Michelson and Morley (1887) who rejected the Maxwellian ether in favor of Newton’s corpuscles, the experiment of Kaufmann (1902) who showed that the increase of the electron mass is due to an “electromagnetic mass” recognized by J. J. Thomson (1881), the Compton effect (1923) according to which light consists of particles having momentum p = hν/c or mass m =hν/c^{2}, the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement (1935), confirming accurately Newton’s action at a distance, and the experiment of the two American physicists French and Tessman (1963) who showed the fallacy of Maxwell’s fields, I presented in 1993 at the international conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics “ my paper ‘Impact of Maxwell’s equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles ”. In that paper taking into account the Faraday effect (1845) according to which Newton’s corpuscles have not only gravitational properties but also electromagnetic ones, I presented my DISCOVERY OF DIPOLE PHOTON according to which LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS INVALIDATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY .

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**EINSTEIN’S WRONG EXPLANATION OF THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT UNDER HIS FALLACIOUS MASSLESS QUANTA OF FIELDS**

Unfortunately today physicists believe that a complete resolution of this problem came in the first paper of Einstein (1905) entitled simply “ On a heuristic point of view concerning the generation and transformation of light.” Although the photoelectric effect along with the experiments of Michelson and Morley confirm Newton’s particles of light, Einstein influenced by Maxwell’s wrong fields moving through a fallacious ether in his explanation of the photoelectric effect begins by paying tribute to Maxwell’s theory; it “has proved itself excellently suited for the description of purely optical phenomena [reflection, refraction, interference, polarization, etc.] and will probably never be replaced by another theory.”

In fact, Newton concluded correctly that light might have to be somehow assigned also periodic properties in order to account for the phenomena of colors. Moreover Newton concluded that the polarization could be explained only by assuming that the ray of light has “sides” so that its properties depend on its orientation with respect to the axis (direction of propagation ) of the ray. This could be easy enough to understand if the ray is a stream of rectangular particles, (which led to my model of dipolic photons), but rather more difficult if light is a wave disturbance in a medium. Of course Newton’s useful ideas compared with the Faraday effect (1845) led to my DISCOVERY OF PHOTON MASS under my discovery of dipole photon which rejects Einstein’s massless quanta of fields.

Einstein under the strong influence of wrong Maxwell’s fields and following the Planck work (1900) according to which the energy E of light is equal to hν, proposed that the energy (E = hν) of light during the interaction with electrons is not distributed evenly over the whole wave front, but rather is concentrated in discrete small regions like the wave of water giving the cork energy only at certain spots along the wave front. Under this idea the Maxwellian picture of expanding electromagnetic waves with evenly and continuously distributed energy without mass remained effective. Roughly speaking according to Einstein’s massless quanta of fields, Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory remained completely dominant and led to the invalid relativity which violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass.

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**THE ABSORPTION OF LIGHT IN THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT CONTRIBUTES NOT ONLY TO THE INCREASE OF THE ELECTRON ENERGY BUT ALSO TO THE INCREASE OF THE ELECTRON MASS UNDER A LENGTH CONTRACTION AND A TIME DILATION**

According to the experiments of Kaufmann the absorption of light in the photoelectric effect contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ in accordance with the two conservation laws of energy and mass. Whereas Einstein under his fallacious massless quanta of fields believed that the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ is due not to the absorption of light but to the relative motion of the electron with respect to a randomly moving observer. Under this physics crisis Einstein made the biggest error in the history of physics by developing his invalid relativity, which violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass developed by the Greek philosophers. ( See my GREEK PHILOSOPHERS REJECT EINSTEIN ). Note that in 1872, the German chemist Lothar Meyer suggested that the rearrangement of atoms during chemical reactions might be accompanied by the absorption or emission of particles of light. So the mass of the system could change by a very small amount, depending on the mass of these particles and how many entered or left.

In my discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION the opposite charges of the dipole photon in the photoelectric effect interact with the charge (-e ) of an electron as

E_{y}(-e)dy = dW

and B_{z}(-e) (dy/dt) = F_{m} or B_{z}(-e)dy =F_{m}dt = dp = dmc

Since the experiments of Weber showed that E_{y}/B_{z} = c we get dW/dm = c^{2}

Of course this situation of quantum dynamics differs from the Newtonian mechanics because the increase of the electron mass occurs under a basic length contraction and time dilation. According to the well-established electromagnetic laws I discovered that a dipole photon behaves like an electric dipole moving at u =c with respect to its source of light having equal electric attraction and magnetic repulsion at the same time. However during the interaction of the photon charges with the charge (-e) of the electron the magnetic force F_{m} occurs after the electric force F_{e} = E_{y}(-e) because of the velocity dy/dt. To avoid this well-known situation which violates Newton’s third law of instantaneous simultaneity the velocity dy/dt always must approach to zero under a length contraction dy and time dilation dt. Under this condition of length contraction and time dilation and using the two conservation laws of energy and mass we write

hν /m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2 }

Indeed, in the Bohr model (1913) and in the Schrodinger equation (1926) the energy ΔΕ of the charge-charge interaction turns into the energy hν of the generated photon ,while the mass defect ΔΜ turns into the mass m = hν/c^{2} of photon (matter-photon transformation). This is the reverse process of the Photon-Matter Transformation. (See my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN ).

Therefore according to the experiments of Kaufmann in the photoelectric effect the absorption of dipole photon contributes not only to the increase of the electron kinetic energy but also to the increase of the electron mass. Thus under the absorption of dipolar photons at a velocity u Newton’s inertial mass M_{o} of the electron becomes a variable mass M as

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} = c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})

Indeed differentiating the above equation under Newton’s second law one gets

hν/m = ΔE/ΔM = c^{2}

This situation tells us that the photoelectric effect is based on the two conservation laws of energy and mass because the dipole photons have both energy hν and mass m , while Einstein under his massless quanta of fields developed his invalid relativity, according to which the increase of the electron mass is due not to the absorption of the photon mass m = hν/c^{2 }but to the relative motion of the electron with respect to a randomly moving observer. Such fallacious ideas did much to retard the progress of atomic and nuclear physics, because Einstein believed incorrectly that the mass defect in atomic and nuclear structures turns into the energy of photons.

Under such confusing ideas I presented at the 12th symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” (NCSR “Demokritos” 2002). In that paper published in Ind. J. Th. Phys (2003) I presented my DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE . For example in the simplest case of the DEUTERON STRUCTURE AND BINDING the energy ΔΕ of the charge-charge interaction of the extra charged quarks between the nucleons turns into the energy hν of photons, while the mass defect ΔΜ = 2.2246 MeV turns into the mass m = hν/c^{2} = 2.2246 MeV of the generated photon.