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OUR UNIVERSE
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By prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ( Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός ) T.E. Institute of Larissa, Greece.


This article was announced to many universities around the world (July 2012).

Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can see our papers “Impact of Maxwell’s ... dipolic particles” and “Nuclear structure ... electromagnetism” solving the crisis of modern physics.( See in "User Kaliambos "  the above published papers allog with our additional pablished paper " Spin-spin interactions of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures").

WE REVEALED THE PROPER INTERACTIONS AND REACTIONS FOR THE CONSISTENT EVOLUTION OF UNIVERSE BY REVIVING THE NATURAL LAWS, WHILE THE ABANDONMENT OF LAWS LED TO WRONG THEORIES LIKE FIELDS, RELATIVITY, AND THE STARDAL MODEL, WHICH CANNOT LEAD TO OUR COHERENT NUCLEAR STRUCTURE BASED ON LAWS. 'CONSEQUENTLY THE WRONG THEORIES PROVIDE A CONFUSING EVOLUTION OF UNIVERSE.



ACCORDING TO NATURAL LAWS ALL FORCES ACT AT A DISTANCE, WHILE ENERGY CANNOT TURN INTO MASS. THUS, EXPERIMENTS INVALIDATE FIELDS, RELATIVITY, AND THE STANDARD MODEL. SUCH AN ETERNAL COSMOS OF THE CONSERVATION LAWS INCLUDES OUR UNIVERSE, WHICH STARTED OFF WITH HOT AND CHAOTIC NEUTRAL (dud) QUARK TRIADS GOVERNED BY THE LONG-RANGED GRAVITY AND THE SHORT-RANGED ELECTRIC REPULSIONS UNDER NON ORIENTED SPINS. BUT AT LOWER ENERGIES THE ORIENTED SPINS LED TO THE FORMATION OF NEUTRONS, ANTINEUTRINOS, PHOTONS, AND C'HARGED PARTICLES, CREATING VERY STRONG ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCES OF LONG RANGE, WHICH COULD OVERCOME THE GRAVITY. THEN, UNDER A SMALL PERTURBATION OF GRAVITY THEY LED TO AN ISOTROPIC INFLATION. ALSO THE CONFUSING HISTORY OF EARLY UNIVERSE BASED ON WRONG THEORIES IS NOW OVERCOME, SINCE WE REVEALED THE ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERACTIONS ON QUARKS AND THE IMPORTANT ROLE OF THE ANTINEUTRINO AND THE BOTTLENECK DEUTERIUM PROVIDING THE CONSISTENT EVOLUTION OF UNIVERSE. TODAY AN ASSUMED ACCELERATING UNIVERSE (1998) IS BASED ON A WRONG “DARK ENERGY” DUE TO EINSTEIN’S FALSE IDEAS, WHILE A NEW RESEARCH USING THE “DARK FLOW” (2008) SUGGESTS THAT IT IS AN ILLUSION.





OUR NON ETERNAL UNIVERSE IS GOVERNED BY NATURAL LAWS UNDER THE QUANTUM DYNAMICS Edit

According to the established conservation law of mass the unknown cosmos of eternal mass as a whole cannot be related to the history of our non eternal expanding universe. So the cosmos as a whole had no beginning and was truly infinite and eternal, because such an idea is consistent with the experiments of fundamental conservation laws of energy and mass, while Einstein’s mass-energy conservation is invalid. (See in Google our scientific article “WRONG AND CORRECT EINSTEIN  ’’).

Through the inception of the big bang theory, however, many scientists not only believe incorrectly that during the very early universe energy turned into mass, but also use the term “universe” to refer to everything, including the part of the universe beyond what we can see. So the eternal cosmos, was forced to take on the properties of a finite phenomenon, possessing a history and a beginning. It is indeed unfortunate that cosmologists use the wrong idea “Cosmos is similar to our Universe” which leads to complications. The Big Bang scenario simply assumes that energy already existed but it tells us nothing about the mass, which is eternal in an eternal and infinite cosmos. It is a common misconception that the unknown infinite cosmos as a whole begun from a point, though experiments proved that the mass and the energy of things in the infinite and eternal cosmos remain constant forever without any start.

Hawking in his early papers using the wrong idea that “Cosmos is similar to our Universe” believed that the initial time Ti = 0 for our universe is the same Ti = 0 for the infinite and eternal cosmos which leads to a creator in the beginning of an unknown cosmos. Historically, in 1970 Hawking and Penrose proposed the hypothesis of a gravitational singularity where the laws of physics cease to operate. In 1983 Hawking and Hartle proposed a new theory that our universe did not have a boundary and that there was no time before the Big Bang. Later Hawking accepted the role of a Creator in the whole cosmos and revised his position in A Brief History of Time (1988) where he stated “There was in fact no singularity at the beginning of the universe”. This revision followed from his new hypothesis that General Relativity cannot be used to show a singularity. Under this confusion physicists do not revive the natural laws but incorrectly hope that proposed theories of quantum gravitation. 

In fact, according to the accelerator experiments which have probed energies to reveal the quark plasma and using  the  fundamental laws of Coulomb and Ampere one may conclude that during the Big Bang the universe under an attractive gravity have begun with neutral (dud) quark triads of very large density, because the gravity of long range becomes very powerful only on neutral particles of opposite charges like the gravity in neutron stars. So the quantum effects were very important. Nevertheless the weak attractive gravity of long range overcomes the electric repulsions of short range between the neutral (dud) quark triads of opposite charges at extremely small distances ( much more smaller than the size of nucleons) and gives a powerful gravity. In such a very hot and chaotic universe the magnetic forces could not operate under the quantum dynamics of non oriented spins of quarks.

However, under the wrong ideas of special relativity in the most common models the universe during the Big Bang (13.75 billion years ago) was filled with photons of high energy density converted into the mass of various subatomic particles. In fact according to natural laws which govern the atomic and nuclear physics the photon- photon interaction cannot occur in vacuum. Therefore, the universe started off with matter having eternal mass (M) which is always the same. For example the mass defect (Md) of the gravitational binding in the very early universe was equal to the thermal mass Mt given by

M – Md + Mt = M

During the Big Bang however under a powerful gravity at very short distances the total mass of quarks became a total thermal mass, like the mass of an electron and a positron which turns into the mass of two photons under a great attractive energy of charge-charge interaction at short distances. As a result in the early universe the eternal mass of (dud) quark triads turns into the masses of neutrons, protons, electrons, antineutrinos, and photons. Note that during the formation of long-lived photons the electrons and positrons disappeared, while many physicists believe that a hypothetical photon-photon interaction gives the masses of particles and antiparticles, in a wrong photon-matter equilibrium, though the photon-photon interaction cannot occur. In fact, the photons were generated as long-lived particles, while the electrons became permanent particles under the decay of neutron when the energy of energetic antineutrinos dropped to lower energies less than 1.8 MeV. In the same way the gravitational binding energy in very early universe was replaced by the thermal energy.

Unfortunately , cosmologists following Einstein’s wrong energy-mass conservation incorrectly believe that the universe started off with the energy of photons transformed into the masses of particles and anti particles, though all experiments showed that the energy cannot be transformed into mass. Of course, such fallacious ideas led to the development of many wrong theories which retarded the progress of physics. Experiments also showed that photons have mass of opposite charges, because electromagnetic energy without mass cannot exist. Note that in the pair production, the photons interact with nuclei, which could not exist in epochs before the nucleosynthesis. In a similar way antiprotons ( p- ) are produced in collisions of protons with nuclei (A) in accelerators or in the interstellar medium via the reaction

p + A = p + p- + p + A

It is well-known that the accelerator experiments provided the behavior of the quark plasma in the very early epoch of quarks. So according to Newton’s gravity and the quantum dynamics a gravitational collapse occurred in neutral particles like the (dud) neutral quark triads.

According to the fundamental laws and the nuclear experiments when the universe cooled the (dud) quark triads under the quantum dynamics of oriented spins formed short-lived neutrons, and charged protons, via energetic antineutrinos, and also electrons and positrons, which created long-lived photons. Therefore the universe was dominated by long-lived photons formed under the short-lived Neutron- Proton equilibrium due to the energetic antineutrinos. This situation cannot be related to the following epoch of Photon - Deuterium equilibrium of the unstable deuterium giving short-lived photons. It is surprising that the creation of charged particles led to an isotropic inflation, since the electromagnetic forces of long range could overcome the weak attractive gravity. Also when the antineutrinos became non energetic, the formation of permanent charged protons, electrons, and alpha particles led to a long isotropic inflation with antineutrino fluctuations, during the following period of 377,000 years. Then, neutral atoms under a new long-ranged gravity (which could overcome short-ranged electromagnetic repulsions) formed stars and galaxies.

This situation of collapsing and expanding materials is somewhat similar to the materials for the formation of stars. The detailed analysis of the evolution of stars showed that the collapsing neutral materials of ancient stars released heat causing thermal expansion with photons, neutrinos etc. Hence they provided the building blocks for a new generation of stars in different regions. In the same way one may conclude that the collapsing (dud) neutral quark triads released gravitational potential energy as heat causing thermal expansion in a region of an eternal cosmos.

SPECULATIVE THEORIES DUE TO THE ABANDONMENT OF LAWS LEAD TO A CONFUSING EVOLUTION OF OUR UNIVERSEEdit

According to the great work of Newton a new idea is correct when it leads to applications of laws. However it is indeed unfortunate that all theories for the evolution of universe were developed dramatically after the wrong relativity and the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron, which led to the abandonment of electromagnetic laws. Therefore, they are speculative, since they are based on fallacious fields, on wrong relativity, and on false strong and weak interactions of the so-called standard model.

Historically, after the abandonment of electromagnetic laws the developed nuclear theories and also several string theories failed to explain the nuclear structure, because it is due not to wrong force carriers, (like mesons or gluons), but to the charge distributions of spinning nucleons under the applications of electromagnetic laws. (See in Google my article “NEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS ").

Under this condition and after the wrong ideas of special relativity Gell-Mann, who discovered the quarks in 1964, tried to find the structure of nucleons by developing the fallacious theory of quantum chromodynamics (1973) based on wrong hypothetical gluons, which could not lead to any nuclear structure and binding.

On the other hand, in string theories Nambu, Nielsen, and Susskind represented particles as vibrating one-dimensional strings, which are speculative, because the nuclear structure is due to charge distributions of nucleons interacting electromagnetically.

Since the string theories could not lead to any nuclear structure they abandoned such ideas and tried to study the early universe in terms of the fallacious gravitons of false fields. In 1974 Schwarz, Scherk, and Yoneya proposed that the string vibration has properties the same as those of hypothetical gravitons of wrong gravitational fields which have never been discovered. (See in Google my article “CONFUSING CERN RESULTS AND IDEAS ”).

Note that for revealing the fallacy of electromagnetic fields in
Olympia7

Olympia 1993 Why the dipolic photons replace Einstein's massless quanta of fields

Olympia (1993) we presented at the international conference "Frontiers of fundamental physics" the model of dipolic particles according to which photons have mass of opposite charges. Therefore they interact electromagnetically with charged particles. In the same way neutrinos and antineutrinos interact electromagnetically with particles because they have mass with opposite charges. For example we discovered that antineutrinos behave like neutrons, since they have mass with negative charge along the periphery and positive one in the center. Thus the idea of weak interaction of Fermi’s theory (1934) and the assumed electroweak interaction of Weinberg (1967) are fallacious ideas, because they do not lead to the applications of natural laws.

Nevertheless Michio Kaku, tried to unify the gravity (Fg) and the electromagnetism (Fem) with the false forces of the so-called weak and strong interactions. Especially Michio Kaku incorrectly assumed that small vibrating strings serve us the building blocks of all matter, and that their vibrations create the false weak forces( Fw ) and strong forces ( Fs ) which incorrectly should be unified with the real electromagnetic forces Fem and gravity Fg. (See in Google our article “OUR EARLY UNIVERSE ”).

Also Peter Higgs in 1964 under the fallacious ideas that energy is transformed into mass developed the wrong idea that particles were massless in the very early universe. So, he postulated that his field permeates the space giving all elementary particles their masses under a mechanism of a spontaneous symmetry breaking. The Higgs field has been proposed as the energy of the vacuum, though natural laws cannot predict such strange vacuum energies. It is of interest to note that he sent for publication his paper in Physical Letters at CERN but the paper was rejected of no obvious relevance to physics. Then, Peter Higgs wrote an extra paragraph and published the new paper in Physical Review Letters that his field implies one or more bosons of high energy without predicting their masses. Nevertheless, in the absence of such a fallacious field, on 13 December 2011, CERN reported “tantalizing hints” of the existence of the Higgs boson. Then on 4 July 2012 CERN reported the confirmed existence of an unknown particle believed to be the Higgs boson with a mass of about 125 GeV, though Peter Higgs did not predict the masses of his particles. Under this condition CERN announced that the results were labeled preliminary. Note that Glashow, Salam, and Weinberg using the wrong Higgs field developed the wrong electroweak theory which did much to retard the progress of physics, since it violates not only the natural laws with forces acting at a distance but also the conservation laws of mass and energy.

It is of interest to notice that after the experiments of French and Tessman (1963) the false fields of Maxwell cannot be the fallacious force carriers since the electric field E = Fe/q according to the Coulomb law is a force per unit charge. Under this condition the forces per unit charge cannot be the force carriers of the same forces. Nevertheless after the development of the photon theory physicists believed that photons as bosons are the force carriers of electromagnetism of long range, since it is believed that they represent the fields. In fact, photons have mass of opposite charges and give electric and magnetic forces when they interact with charges. On the other hand in the matter- photon transformation the photons are generated after the electromagnetic interaction of charged particles. Also photons give a gravitational force Fg when they interact with the masses of stars. Especially when the velocity c is parallel to the gravity we get

Fgds = dW = (dmc/dt)ds = dmc2

It is indeed unfortunate that under such wrong theories of fields and relativity, in 1980 Guth using a symmetry breaking, like the Higgs mechanism, developed the first inflationary theory for the interpretation of the homogeneity of universe observed in the Cosmic Microwave Background. Especially under the wrong antigravity of Einstein’s false static universe and the vacuum energy of Higgs he proposed that as the very early universe cooled it was trapped in a “false vacuum” with a high energy density like Einstein’s wrong antigravity. He also suggested a wrong field called “Inflaton” similar to the false Higgs field. Guth’s ideas were soon overcome by Linde who proposed a new inflation and an eternal inflation in a proposed infinite multiverse.

In fact, after the creation of charged particles the strong electromagnetic forces could overcome the weak gravity which is treated as a small perturbation. Under this condition until the epoch of neutral atoms an isotropic inflation with antineutrino fluctuations took place in a consistent evolution of our universe.

In 2006 Hawking and Hertog proposed a “top-down” approach to cosmic history, according to which many universes existed each with their own histories and they somehow contributed to the beginning of our observable universe. One of the main conclusions of Hawking in his book The Grand Design (2010) is: “Because there is a law of gravity the universe can and will create itself from nothing”. However it is well-known that this idea violates the conservation laws of mass and energy, since they cannot provide any mechanism by which universe could be spontaneously created from nothing. Then in the same book Hawking changed the previous ideas by saying that modern physics left no room for a Creator because there is a law such as gravity. Also in his new book Hawking claims that the reason the universe needs no creator is due to a new theory called M-Theory which is not single but unifies five string theories supporting the hypothesis of multiple parallel universes. Hawking originally believed that M-Theory may be the ultimate theory of universe but later suggested that the search for understanding of mathematics and physics will never be complete. So in the Grand Design he takes a philosophical position to support a view of the universe as a multiverse.

In fact, according to the accelerator experiments and the detailed analysis of nuclear physics, Hubble’s expanding universe started off with neutral (dud) quark triads as an ephemeral bubble in a small part of an infinite and eternal cosmos (Apeiron of Anaximander) confirmed by the conservation law of mass. (See in Google my article “NEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS ”).

CONSISTENT CHRONOLOGY OF EARLY UNIVERSE ACCORDING TO NEW ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND TO THE GRAVITY UNDER THE QUANTUM DYNAMICSEdit

It is indeed unfortunate that the chronology of the universe written in WIKIPEDIA provides a confusing evolution of the early universe, because it is based on wrong theories of the so-called Standard Model. Especially it is based on the wrong energy-mass conservation of the invalid Special Relativity and on the false strong and weak interactions developed by the wrong quantum chromodynamics and the false electroweak theory. Also it is based on the wrong photon-photon interaction which could not be related to Neutron-Proton equilibrium due to energetic antineutrinos and to Photon- Deuterium equilibrium. Such a fallacious idea led to many complications providing a confusing evolution of early universe. Thus, to overcome this confusion, and for a consistent and coherent evolution of universe, we started with the modern accelerator experiments, which have probed sufficient magnitude to provide experimental insight into the behavior of a quark plasma between 1/1012 and 1/106 seconds after the big bang.

In our revolutionary published paper “ Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” we showed that the neutron-neutron repulsion is due to electric and magnetic forces of short range. So the gravity of long range can overcome the short-ranged repulsions for forming the neutron stars. In the same way our universe started off with a long-ranged primordial gravity on the neutral (dud) quark triads, since the experiments showed that photon-photon interactions and neutrino-neutrino interactions cannot occur in vacuum for giving particles and antiparticles. Nevertheless an energetic photon can interact with charged particles electromagnetically. For example the opposite charges of a photon can interact with a charged nucleus for giving an electron and a positron, like a neutron which can make a proton-neutron bond since the forces of electromagnetism of short range are due to the charge distributions in nucleons (extra charged quarks). In the same way an energetic photon with opposite charges can interact electromagnetically with a charged nucleus. But it is absorbed by it, since the opposite charges of a photon in terms of simple electromagnetic fields interact with the positive charge (+q) of a nucleus as

Ey(+q)dy = dw and Bz(+q)dy = Fmdt = dp

Since dp = dmc and Ey/Bz = c we get dw = dmc2

Here we see that gravity and electromagnetism can be related when the photon mass with the opposite charges interacts with a charged matter. (see in Google my paper “UNIFIED FORCES SOLVE THE CRISIS OF PHYSICS ”).

Indeed, experiments showed that the mass of an energetic photon is transformed into the masses of an electron (e) and a positron (e+) when the photon interacts with a nucleus as

γ + nucleus = e + e+ .

However in earlier epochs before the nucleosynthesis nuclei could not exist for providing such electromagnetic interactions. In a similar way antiprotons are produced in accelerators and in the interstellar medium when energetic protons interact with nuclei.

Under this condition and taking into account that in the nuclear structure the fundamental electromagnetic forces interact at a distance it is convenient to conclude that they do not change for making hypothetical strong and weak forces (out of natural laws) mediated by mesons, gluons, W and Z bosons, and gravitons. On the other hand, since the accelerators provided sufficient experimental insight into the behavior and existence of quark plasma, we may emphasize that the hot and chaotic very early universe was dominated by neutral (dud) quark triads, governed by a primordial long-ranged gravity which could overcome the short-ranged electric repulsions.

Following this epoch the evolution of our universe proceeded again in accordance with the tenets of high-energy physics and the detailed analysis of nuclear phenomena. This is when the first short-lived neutrons created short-lived charged particles which led to an isotropic inflation, since the electromagnetic forces of long range overcome the weak attractive gravity. Also the decay of neutrons led to a large number of energetic short-lived antineutrinos and to long-lived photons, produced by short-lived electrons and positrons. But when the energetic antineutrinos of an energy greater than 1.8 MeV became non energetic particles the formation of permanent charged particles led to a long inflation with antineutrino fluctuations for the following period of 377,000 years. Then, as the electrons get captured by the charged particles forming neutral atoms a new gravity led to the formation of stars and galaxies. Therefore, for describing this consistent and coherent evolution it is convenient to modify the traditional chronology providing a confusing evolution of early universe as written in WIKIPEDIA. So we divide the evolution of early universe into three periods. The first period of the primordial gravity, the second period of isotropic inflation, and the third period of new gravity on atoms.

The first period of primordial gravity is divided into the epoch of the (dud) quark triads, and the quark plasma (QP). The second period of inflation contains: The first epoch (A) of short-lived neutrons, protons, antineutrinos, electrons, and positrons, which created long-lived photons. The second epoch (B) of the permanent protons, antineutrinos and electrons with the formation of the deuterium-photon equilibrium. The third epoch (C) of the deutrium-photon equilibrium. Then for a longer period it is divited also into the epoch of nucleosynthesis with the creation of long-lived new photons , and the epoch of long inflation with antineutrino fluctuations. Finally the period of new gravity on neutral atoms is divided into the epoch of recombination and the epoch of dark ages, described in the chronology of universe (WIKIPEDIA).

PERIOD OF PRIMORDIAL GRAVITY ON QUARKS (UP TO 1/106 SECONDS AFTER THE BIG BANG)Edit

Epoch of (dud) quark triads (Up to 1/1012 seconds)Edit

In that very hot epoch under the quantum dynamics of non oriented spins the magnetic attraction was zero. So, the primordial gravity of long range could overcome the electric repulsions of short range between the neutral (dud) quark triads. Of course, in that epoch of a dominant gravity the fallacious epochs of Planck, GUT, and electroweak could not exist because they violate the fundamental laws of gravity and electromagnetism. Also Guth’s idea of very small inflationary epoch during the so-called very early universe based on wrong field and false vacuum energy could not exist under the dominant primordial gravity. In fact, later when the neutral particles became charged ones of long range, a surprising isotropic inflation took place under a small perturbation of gravity. The isotropic inflation occurred for a long period which can explain the high degree of homogeneity that is observed in the universe.



Epoch of quark plasma (1/1012 - 1/106 seconds)Edit

This is the epoch of primordial long-ranged gravity on the quark plasma which was unable to form nucleons under the quantum dynamics of partially oriented spins. It is well-known that at such high energies of partially oriented spins the accelerators produce a large number of unstable particles. It is also known that a quark plasma (which at lower energies form baryons, leptons, and photons), has been created in the lab by stamping nuclei together at extremely high speeds at Brookhaven RHIC. However under the wrong theory of quantum chromodynamics the physicists at CERN believe that the quark plasma is a quark –gluon plasma having the hypothetical massless gluons of energy, though energy without mass cannot exist. Note that despite the fact that energy cannot turn into mass, this epoch in WIKIPEDIA begins after the end of a false electroweak epoch in which all the fundamental particles acquire a mass from massless particles via the wrong Higgs field, though massless particles are the results of false theories, since energy without mass cannot exist.

PERIOD OF ISOTROPIC INFLATION (1/106 SECONDS - 377,000 YEARS AFTER THE BIG BANG)Edit

In this period the appearance of charged particles leads to an isotropic inflation, since the weak gravity is treated as small perturbation. Now including the first epoch of quark triads (dud) and the second epoch of quark plasma (QP) and to avoid confusion between the very early universe and the following three short epochs (A), (B) , and (C), we present the following scheme in terms of time (seconds) and of energy described in MeV respectively.

Sec : 0 (dud) 10-12 (QP) 10-6 ( A ) 0.1 ( B ) 13.8 ( C ) 180

MeV : .. (dud) .... ( QP) 103 ( A ) 2.6 ( B ) 0.25 ( C ) 0.1



Epoch (A) of short-lived neutrons, protons, antineutrinos, electrons, and positrons, which created long-lived photons (10-6 – 10-1 seconds )Edit

This epoch begins with an energy of about 103 MeV. At such a temperature the quarks should have acquired oriented spins according to which the very strong magnetic attractions formed the neutron (n). In 2002 using the nuclear experiments of the magnetic moments and the deep inelastic scattering we discovered 9 extra quarks in proton (p) and 12 ones in neutron which led to the discovery of 288 quarks. In this epoch we see that the 288 quarks in nucleons are able to give off the mass of short-lived neutrons, protons, and antineutrinos ( ν ). They gave also the masses of short-lived electrons (e) and positrons (e+), which were transformed into the masses of long-lived photons (2γ). That is, it is consistent with the fundamental conservation lawof mass, since the decrease of particle masses is due to the creation of photon masses.

Under this condition we write the rest masses in terms of MeV for the structure of neutron and proton as

Mn = [92(dud) + 4u +8d] = 939.57 MeV

Mp = [93(dud) +4u + 5d] = 938.26 MeV

Such structures of nucleons can explain not only the decay of neutron with 92 (dud) triads but also the nuclear binding after the electromagnetic interaction of the charges of extra quarks.

For the binding of spinning quarks the magnetic force between the neutral (dud) quarks is very important, since the peripheral velocity of the spinning quarks is greater than the speed of light. Under this condition in that epoch the formation of the energetic neutron (n ) is given by

288 quarks = 96(dud) triads = [92(dud) + 4u +8d] = n

As a result free neutrons with 92 (dud) quarks are unstable, because we discovered that d - u = 1.29 MeV. Whereas in the neutron-proton bonds, when the binding energy is greater than 1.29 MeV, the neutrons cannot decay to protons. So, the free neutrons immediately decay to protons with 93(dud) stable quark triads after the emission of electrons and antineutrinos as

n = p + e +ν

or [92(dud) +4u +8d] = [93(dud) +4u + 5d] + e + ν

Also in terms of quarks we write

d = u + e +ν

Note that the reverse reaction is written as

ν + p = n + e+ or ν + u = d + e+

Moreover for particles with rest mass under the conservation laws of energy or mass this reaction can be written in terms of MeV, because we calculated the detailed rest masses of up quarks (u = 2.4 MeV and down quarks (d = 3.69 MeV). Thus

1.8 + 2.4 = 3.69 + 0.51

Of course, all particles at the primordial time were very energetic with energetic mass greater than the rest mass, because of the great kinetic energies. Thus, an energetic antineutrino (ν) of mass or energy greater than 1.8 MeV is always absorbed by a proton to transform it into a neutron and a positron.

It is surprising that these reactions at very high energies led to the short- lived neutrons and charged protons, whose the electric forces of long range could overcome the attractive gravity and led to an isotropic inflation. Also the formation of short-lived electrons and positrons led to the generation of long-lived photons. So the universe was dominated by long-lived photons, whose the masses could not be transformed into the masses of electrons and positrons, since they are neutral particles (without a net charge ). Therefore, they cannot interact to each other in vacuum.

For example at 0.01 second after the Big Bang the average energy was about 8.6 MeV with short- lived (p+n) nucleons. Consequently according to the Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions the minimum energy should be greater than the binding energy of deuterium with 2.2246 MeV. As a result all neutrons always decay to protons and also the protons are always transformed into neutrons in a neutron-proton equilibrium, since 8.6 MeV is greater than 1.8 MeV. Therefore at high energies under a neutron-proton equilibrium due to energetic antineutrinos, electrons and positrons are short-lived particles giving long-lived photons. Also, neutrons and protons are short-lived particles with the ratio n/p =1. Taking into account that at the lower energies of the epoch of nucleosynthesis the ratio n/p =1/7, one can conclude that for a very small volume of only 8 nucleons we get 4n/4p =1 . Or 4(p+n) = 8 = 100% with the equal abundances of 4n = 50% and 4p = 50%. Hence, at this mean energy of 8.6 MeV in the large width of the energy distributions the 8 short-lived nucleons or 4(p+n) =100% are distributed as

0.01 Second : 2(p+n) > 8.6 > 2(p+n)

Especially under the fundamental charge-charge interaction at such high energies the energetic mass of electrons and positrons was transformed into the mass of energetic photons according to the relation

e + e+ = γ + γ since ΔW/ΔM = hν/m = c2

Note that the hypothetical reverse reaction

γ + γ = e + e+

cannot occur in vacuum, because photons are neutral particles having mass with opposite charges.

However many physicists believe that this hypothetical reaction always occurs leading to many false ideas which did much to retard the progress of physics. In that case of energetic particles we see that the mass of electrons and positrons ΔΜ was transformed into the mass m of photons. As a result the universe begun to be dominated by energetic long-lived photons, while the masses of the short- lived neutrons, protons, and antineutrinos were decreased. However under the wrong relativity many physicists believe that electrons and positrons or protons and antiprotons were in equilibrium with photons, under the false idea of mass-energy conservation. In fact, not only the photon-photon interaction cannot occur, but also mass cannot turn into energy.

They also believe that neutrinos (ν+) were combining with neutrons to form protons and electrons, though the neutrino was absent in the evolution of early universe. Here, the neutrino is written as (ν+), because we revealed that it has a positive charge along the periphery and a negative one in the center. Also it has a positive magnetic moment (+μ) like the positron (e+). It is well-known that the neutrino emission can occur only in nuclei and inside the stars because of the Coulomb energy gained in the replacement of a proton by a neutron . It can also occur in orbital electron capture.

Of course, at the end of that epoch (0.1 second) when the average energy has dropped at the average energy of 2.6 MeV the minimum energy of the energy distribution was smaller than the 1.8 MeV . So the following reaction did not occur

ν + p = n + e+ .

While n = p + e +ν occurred for giving permanent particles without photons. That is, at lower energies than 1.8 MeV the decay of neutrons led to permanent protons, electrons, and antineutrinos. Unfortunately many physicists believe that the increase of photons took place after this epoch by using the wrong photon-photon interaction or the photon-matter equilibrium, which leads to complications providing a confusing history of early universe. ( See in WIKIPEDIA “Chronology of the universe”).

Epoch (B) of permanent protons, electrons, and antineutrinos with the formation of deuterium-photon equilibrium ( 0.1 - 13.8 seconds ) Edit

This epoch begins with an average energy of 2.6 MeV. According to the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in a very small volume of 8 nucleons, four nucleons have energy greater than 2.6 MeV, while the rest of nucleons have energy less than 2.6 MeV. Here there are 2(p+n) short-lived nucleons of maximum energy which have energies not only greater than 1.8 MeV but also greater than the 2.2 MeV of the binding energy of deuterium. Whereas two of the rest four nucleons with energies less than 2.6 MeV give a short-lived pn system (unstable deuterium) under a great tendency to form a very stable He-4 between the 2.2 MeV and 1.8 MeV . Under this great tendency the neutron cannot decay to proton. Also the energetic antineutrino cannot interact with the short–lived pn. Instead, the new pn is unstable or a short-lived system called bottleneck deuterium because of the reactions

p + n = pn + γ and γ + pn = p +n

These two reactions tell us that the formation of an unstable deuterium led to the generation of new but short-lived photons. That is, the role of the antineutrinos in the earlier neutron –proton equilibrium of short-lived particles now was replaced by short-lived photons in the photon - deuterium equilibrium.

As a result antineutrinos decouple and begin traveling freely through space, while the first long-lived photons begum to interact frequently with the charged particles and continued to do so for the next 377,000 years.

In this epoch the rest of neutrons at energy lower than 1.8 MeV decay to 2 permanent protons. In other words at this mean energy of 2.6 MeV in the large width of the energy distribution expressed in MeV the 8 nucleons in the small volume are distributed as

0.1 second: 2(p+n)> 2.6 > 2.2 > pn > 1.8 > 2p

Here we see that n/p = 3/5. We also see that two (p+n) continue to be short-lived particles giving long-lived photons.

Finally, as the universe expanded at the time of 13.8 seconds the energy has dropped to an average energy of 0.25 MeV with the following distribution

13.8 seconds: 2.2 > pn >1.8 >2p > 0.25 > 4 p

That is, six protons, electrons and antineutrinos became permanent particles without producing long-lived photons. Whereas the formation of an unstable deuterium leads to a new short-lived photon. Here we see that n/p =1/7. It also means that the neutrons do not continue to decay, while the short-lived deuterium still exists until the energy is dropped at 0.1 MeV, three minutes after the Big Bang where the bottleneck is broken for the formations of the stable deuterium and very stable He-4. Unfortunately this epoch in WIKIPEDIA is written as a Lepton epoch in which arbitrarily and under a confusing history appear hadrons and anti- hadrons which annihilate each other leaving leptons and anti-leptons dominating the mass of the universe.

Epoch ( C ) of the deuterium- photon equilibrium (13.8 seconds - 3 minutes after the Big Bang)Edit

In our paper “Nuclear structure….electromagnetism” which led to the discovery of 288 quarks, a proton and a neutron interact electromagnetically to form a stable deuterium when the kinetic energy is less than 2.2246 MeV. But we discovered that in the nuclear structure the neutrons cannot decay to protons when the neutron-proton bonds have a binding energy greater than 1.29 MeV, since d - u = 1.29 MeV. This epoch begins with the average energy of 0.25 MeV. However this situation proceeds until the average energy drops to 0.1 MeV at 3 minutes after the Big Bang.This surprising difference is due to the photons which greatly outnumber baryons. Note that all the long-lived photons are a billion times more numerous than protons and the nuclear reaction for the stable formation of deuterium proceeds at lower energies. Hence, the short-lived pn systems become stable structures of deuterium able to form the very stable He-4. Moreover under the formation of the stable deuterium we observe a generation of new long-lived photons. That is, we may add to the earlier long-lived photons the generation of the new long-lived photons produced in the formation of the stable deuterium.

Unfortunately this epoch of the very important role of the bottleneck deuterium is not described in the Chronology of universe (WIKIPEDIA). Instead, we see the confusing hypothesis that the universe is dominated by photons produced by electrons and hypothetical positrons. In fact, positrons were produced only when the antineutrinos had an energy greater than 1.8 MeV. In general, all this early period from the very early universe until the epoch of nucleosynthesis (WIKIPEDIA), is a confusing history based on wrong theories.

Epoch ( D ) of nucleosynthesis with the creation of long-lived new photons (3-20 minutes)Edit

At the beginning of this epoch with the formation of stable deuterium there was a sudden burst for the formation of th very stable He-4. During the nucleosynthesis the deuterium-photon equilibrium is over and new long-lived photons together with the earlier long-lived photons are dominant in the early universe. In our revolutionary paper "Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism" we discovered that the Helium nucleus (pnpn) is a very stable rectangle with the n-n and p-p repulsions along the diagonals. In that paper we calculated that the Coulomb barrier of the p-p repulsions is 0.692 MeV, which is easily penetrated by the quantum tunneling allowing the process to proceed at lower mean energies than the average energy of 0.1 MeV. It is surprising that the two alpha particles cannot combine to form the Be-8. In our paper we explained why the electromagnetic forces of spinning nucleons lead to the unstable Be-8 which is the first symmetrical parallelepiped of nuclei. Of course these two cases confirm that the nuclear structure is governed by electromagnetic forces under the quantum dynamics of spinning nucleons. Also they invalidate dramatically all nuclear theories and models based on the fallacious strong interactions using wrong force carriers. In addition to this very stable rectangle of He-4 some light stable nuclei like Lithium and Berillium-7 are also produced. However at twenty minutes after the Big Bang the universe became too cool for any further nuclear fusion.

Epoch ( E ) of long isotropic inflation with antineutrino fluctuations (20 minutes – 377,000 years)Edit

During this long period the universe is filled with antineutrinos and photons. Note that photons interact always with the charged particles like protons electrons and alpha particles. As a result the particles are always ionized. So there are no atoms yet because the temperature is too high for the positively charged particles and electrons to bind together. Under this condition there is a peculiar plasma with electromagnetic forces of long range which always overcome the weak gravity of long range. As long as this cosmic matter is fully ionized by photons the very weak gravity is treated as small perturbation, which leads to an isotropic inflation for the long period of 377,000 years. However since the antineutrinos have mass with opposite charges, the weak gravity of long range overcomes the electromagnetic repulsions of short range. As a result in a large number of regions the gravity leads to fluctuations which are the seeds that eventually lead to the formation of stars.

WRONG DARK ENERGY DUE TO EINSTEIN’S FALSE IDEAS Edit

Cosmologists under the influence of Einstein’s false mass-energy conservation proposed that the assumed accelerated expansion of our universe (1998) is due to a dark energy caused by vacuum or fallacious fields. Also the standard model suggests that “empty” space is not empty, because it is filled by the wrong Higgs field (medium like the fallacious Aristotelian ether) which should give from vacuum (nothing) the mass of quarks and leptons. (See in Google my paper “OUR EARLY UNIVERSE”).

Einstein in his general relativity (1916) underestimating Newton’s laws introduced the principle of equivalence according to which a gravitational force is opposite and equivalent to a force of an accelerating or a rotating system. It is well-known that the force of a rotating object is Newton’s centrifugal force, which is an inertial force as a reaction to a centripetal force. Newton recognized the gravity and the inertia which are the two basic properties of mass. So the inertial force is not present in a stationary or inertial frame. In 1917 Einstein using the strange idea that the universe is finite but unbounded, proposed not an accelerating or a rotating observable universe but a “stationary” one as a whole.

So in the absence of Newton’s inertial forces, as a modification of his original theory, Einstein proposed arbitrarily (without using natural laws) a positive cosmological constant Λ (anti-gravity effect as a property of vacuum) in his equations of general relativity to contract the attractive effects of gravity. That static universe evaporated after the discovery by Hubble (1929) that the observable universe is in fact not static, but expanding. So the wrong Λ was abandoned with Einstein calling it the “biggest blunder”.

In 1950 Einstein’s friend, Kurt Godel, presented at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Cambridge his paper “ Rotating Universe in General Relativity” for demonstrating the existence of paradoxical solutions to Einstein’s field equations by using an hypothetical “rotating universe”. His solutions are known as the “Godel metric”.

Nevertheless, in 1998 the astrophysicist Perlmutter at the Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, who proposed the accelerating expansion of universe, announced that it confirms Einstein’s cosmological constant as a property of vacuum. Especially in 1998, published observations of supernovae by the High-z Supernova Search Team followed in 1999 by the Supernova Cosmology Project suggested that the expansion of our universe is accelerating. So, despite Einstein’s abandonment of the cosmological constant, Turner in 1998 revived Einstein’s the constant Λ, which remained as a mysterious repulsive force called “dark energy” incorrectly caused by vacuum , or wrong fields.



A NEW RESEARCH OF “DARK FLOW” (2008) LEADS TO THE IDEA THAT THE ASSUMED ACCELERATED UNIVERSE IS AN ILLUSIONEdit

In 2008 Kashlinsky published in Astroph. J. his paper of “Dark Flow”. Especially a NASA team led by Kashlinsky discovered that a huge region of our universe of about 2.5 billion light years across, is moving relative to the rest of our universe. For the explanation of "dark flow" Kaslinsky suggested that the motion could be a remnant of influence of no visible regions where the world is very different than that we see locally.

Under these two different observations of “Accelerating universe” and “Dark flow” in 2010 the cosmologist Tsagas published his hypothesis in the Physical Review that the accelerated expansion observed in 1998 is an illusion, because we are observers in the Kashlinsy’s flow.

MORE RESEARCHES ON A PROPOSED SPINNING UNIVERSE SHOULD EXPLAIN THE “DARK FLOW” BY APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON’S INERTIAL FORCESEdit

In 2011 Michael Longo of the Michigan Physics Department and his team used data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to study the rotation direction of spiral galaxies. He published his research in Physics Letters B by suggesting that our universe has a spin. Especially his team analyzed the data from 15,000 galaxies which led to evidence that our universe has an axis of rotation. Such an analysis could also be circumstantial evidence that what we see is merely part of a much larger and more homogeneous universe that extends far beyond our visible event horizon of our localized “spinning” and expanding universe.

If our universe was born rotating the applications of Newton’s inertial forces are able to explain the dark flow and the accelerated expansion as an illusion of the relative motions depending of the amount of spin. For example our Earth has one rotation per 24 hours. However for one rotation per 1.41 hours an object at the equator should be weightless since the gravitation attraction Fg is equal to the centrifugal force Fc . That is Fc = Fg . However for the molecules in the atmosphere above the equator we have Fc > Fg because in this region the radius R is greater than the radius r of the Earth. Note that for an object with mass m having an angular velocity ω we get

(Fc = mω2R) > ( Fc = mω2r)

Under this condition all molecules in the atmosphere above the equator will flow to the opposite direction of the gravitational field while the molecules of the ocean will have a weight because Fg > Fc . This example is able to explain the so called “dark flow” under the condition of a large spin of our universe. So the dark flow should be a centrifugal flow with centrifugal and Coriolis forces for a region where Fc > Fg. This also suggests that our universe was rotating from the very beginning and retained an overwhelming strong angular momentum. This could imply that the primeval Big Bang universe had rotation energy on a vast scale.