By prof. L. Kaliambos T.E. Institute of Larissa, Greece.
This article was announced to many universities around the world (June 2012). Writing in Google Scholars “Kaliambos” one can see our papers “Impact of Maxwell’s ... dipolic particles” which invalidates Maxwell's fields and relativity and “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” which solves the crisis of modern physics.(See in "User Kaliambos " the last published paper with a large number of integral equations which revealed the structure of nuclei).
I PRESENTED AT THE 12th SYMPOSIUM OF THE HALLENIC NUCLEAR PHYSICS SOCIETY ( N.C.S.R "Demokritos", 2002) A LARGE NUMBER OF INTEGRAL EQUATIONS BASED ON ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCES ACTING AT A DISTANCE. THEY INVALIDATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY AND REVEAL THE NUCLEAR STRUCTURE.
AFTER THE EXPERIMENTS WHICH INVALIDATED MAXWELL’S FIELDS AND RELATIVITY ALSO THE DISCOVERIES OF THE ASSUMED UNCHARGED NEUTRONS AND NEUTRINOS LED TO THE ABANDONMENT OF LAWS. SO IN THE ABSENCE OF LAWS WAS DEVELOPED THE INVALID STANDARD MODEL INCLUDING THE ELECTROWEAK AND THE GRAND UNIFIED THEORY. THEREFORE OUR OBSERVABLE UNIVERSE, AS A PART OF AN ETERNAL UNIVERSE CHARACTERIZED BY CONSERVATION LAWS OF MASS AND ENERGY, WAS GOVERNED NOT BY THE MATHEMATICS OF WRONG THEORIES BUT BY THE WELL- ESTABLISHED LAWS OF GRAVITY AND ELECTROMAGNETISM WITH FORCES ACTING AT A DISTANCE UNDER THE QUANTUM DYNAMICS SINCE THE FIRST (dud) QUARK TRIADS HAVE MASS WITH OPPOSITE CHARGES LIKE PHOTONS ,NEUTRONS, AND NEUTRINOS.
OUR OBSERVABLE UNIVERSEEdit
Under the ideas of the big bang theory we have asked ourselves how did our observable universe begin and how did matter come to exist. Of course under the conservation laws of mass and energy many scientists believe that the nature of universe as a whole cannot be related to the history of our observable universe. So the universe as a whole had no beginning and was truly infinite, because such an idea is consistent with the fundamental conservation laws of energy and mass. Several scientists use the term “universe” when they are referring to just the part we can see (“The observable universe”). String theories and inflationary models assume that the universe we live in is probably not unique, since Big Bangs may continually take place in other regions of space. String theories also have led to one bizarre scenario that the Big Bang could have triggered when our observable universe collided with a “parallel universe”. However string theories in general are considered to be speculative because they are based on a strange multi-dimensional extension.
Through the inception of the big bang theory, however, scientists use the term “universe” to refer to everything, including the part of the universe beyond what we can see. So the whole universe, despite the basic conservation laws of mass and energy, was forced to take on the properties of a finite phenomenon, possessing a history and a beginning. In cosmology the most fundamental question we can ask is: Does our observable universe have regularities that we can understand? This question must be based not on wrong theories but on the natural laws of Newton and electromagnetism. The Big Bang scenario simply assumes that space, time, and energy already existed but it tells us nothing about where they come from, or why the whole universe was born hot and dense to begin with. It is a common misconception that the unknown infinite universe as a whole begun from a point, though the mass or the energy of things in the universe remains constant for ever without any start. It is a general truth according to the discovery of conservation laws of mass and energy developed by the Greek philosophers Anaximander and Heraclitus. You can see in Google “NEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS " (From Greek philosophy to the crisis of modern physics” ).
THE FIRST MOMENT IN OUR OBSERVABLE UNIVERSEEdit
Historically, in 1970 Hawking and Penrose based on wrong assumptions of General Relativity (see my paper “WRONG AND CORRECT EINSTEIN ”) proposed the hypothesis of a gravitational singularity where the laws of physics cease to operate. In 1983 Hawking and Hartle proposed a new theory that the universe as a whole did not have a boundary and that there was no time before the Big Bang. Later Hawking accepted the role of a Creator in the whole universe and revised his position in A Brief History of Time (1988) where he stated “There was in fact no singularity at the beginning of the universe” (p. 50). This revision followed from his new hypothesis that General Relativity cannot be used to show a singularity. In 2006 Hawking and Hertog proposed a “top-down” approach to cosmic history, according to which many universes existed each with their own histories and they somehow contributed to the beginning of our observable universe. It is of interest to notice that the “top-down” approach, is consistent with the conservation laws of mass and energy. Nevertheless, one of the main conclusions of his book The Grand Design (2010) is: “Because there is a law of gravity the universe can and will create itself from nothing”. However it is well-known that this idea violates the conservation laws of mass and energy since they cannot provide any mechanism by which universe could be spontaneously created from nothing. Then in the same book Hawking changed the previous ideas by saying that modern physics left no room for a Creator because there is a law such as gravity. Also in his new book Hawking claims that the reason the universe needs no creator is due to a new theory called M-Theory which is not single but unifies five string theories supporting the hypothesis of multiple parallel universes. Hawking originally believed that M-Theory may be the ultimate theory of universe but later suggested that the search for understanding of mathematics and physics will never be complete. So in the Grand Design he takes a philosophical position to support a view of the universe as a multiverse. (An hypothetical set of multiple universes including our observable universe).
Under this confusion between an "ephemeral" observable universe and an eternal unknown universe as a whole we use the title OUR EARLY UNIVERSE which means that our early universe was a part of the universe as a whole. This is a correct idea because it leads to the applications of natural laws including the conservation laws of mass and energy which characterize the properties of an unknown eternal cosmos. So we emphasize that in the first moment of Big Bang of our observable universe the attractive gravitational force of long range was very strong like the only electric repulsion of short range, since the magnetic force could not exist under the quantum dynamics of non oriented spins. Therefore a high kinetic energy was able to cause an expansion of our observable universe which seems to be like an ephemeral bubble in an eternal ocean without boundaries.
VERY EARLY UNIVERSE WAS GOVERNED NOT BY WRONG THEORIES BUT BY NATURAL LAWSEdit
The very early universe is still a poorly understood era from the view point of the fundamental physics. All ideas concerning the very early universe are speculative, since no accelerator experiments have jet probed energies to provide any experimental insight. According to the modern big bang cosmology the very early universe was a period (0 - 1/1012 sec) in which the temperature was high enough. On the other hand since the photon-photon interaction cannot occur in vacuum we emphasize that the hot universe was dominated by neutral dud quark triads governed by the laws under the quantum dynamics of non oriented spins.
According to the same electromagnetic laws the magnetic forces depend on the orientation of spins, which at high energies were not oriented giving zero magnetic attraction (Fm = 0). While the electric force (Fe) of short range (at very small distances) and the gravitational force (Fg ) of long range were dominant under the non oriented spins. It is of interest to note that this very early period ends at a critical energy changing the quantum dynamics of non oriented spins into the dynamics of partially oriented spins which gives magnetic attraction smaller than the electric force (Fm<Fe). This situation led to the formation of the quark soup at the beginning of the early universe. However under the fallacious theories of strong and weak interactions it was convenient to divide this very early period into three epochs based not on natural laws but on the math of three basic false concepts.
For example the first Planck epoch (0- 1/1043 sec) was based on the false theory of everything developed by Michio Kaku, who tried to unify the gravity (Fg) and the electromagnetism (Fem) with the false forces of the so-called weak and strong interactions. Note that the wrong weak force (Fw) was developed by Weinberg (1967) and the false strong force (Fs) by Gell-Mann (1973). Especially Michio Kaku assumed that small vibrating strings serve us the building blocks of all matter, and that their vibrations create the fallacious forces Fw and Fs which should be unified with the real forces Fem and Fg.
In fact, we discovered that the weak and strong interactions are fallacious ideas, because they are due to the fundamental laws of electromagnetism giving electric and magnetic forces of short range like the dipole-dipole interactions. We discovered also that gravity and electromagnetism are unified when photons interact electromagnetically with a charged particle and when gravity is parallel to the velocity c of photons, no matter what is the energy of photons. (See my “UNIFIED FORCES SOLVE THE CRISIS OF PHYSICS ”). However at very high temperatures of the very early universe Fm = 0.
The second epoch (1/1043- 1/1036 sec) called Grand unification epoch is based on the wrong Grand Unification Theory (GUT) which first appeared in the 1970s. The theory tried to unify only the false Fw and Fs with the real Fem. So cosmologists based not on natural laws but on mathematics of wrong theories believe that this epoch is a non-gravitational epoch. That is, in that period the fundamental law of gravity ceases to operate. Also in that epoch it is believed that there were large quantities of magnetic monopoles of hypothetical particles, which cannot be observed, because such strange magnetic monopoles violate the fundamental Ampere law. Nevertheless, it is believed that the lack of magnetic monopoles was one problem solved by the inflation model proposed by Guth (1980). In fact, with the formation of the charged protons, electrons, and alpha particles in early universe the very strong electric forces could overcome the gravity for producing a type of isotropic inflation for a period of 377,000 years. That is, applications of natural laws solve the problem of the isotropic inflation, while Alan Guth believed that a fallacious field was responsible for a rapid expansion.
The third epoch (1/1036- 1/1012 sec) called Electroweak epoch was based on the wrong Electroweak theory developed by Glashow in the 1960s who tried to unify the false Fw with the real Fem. This theory using the symmetry of mathematics of a gauge theory required the existence of massless particles but since the wrong weak interaction assumed massive force carriers of short range, Weinberg (1967) using the experiments of high energy accelerators described the predictions of massive particles under the hypothesis of a spontaneous symmetry braking of the fallacious Higgs field. (See my paper “CONFUSING CERN RESULTS AND IDEAS ”). In fact, under a critical temperature the non oriented spins which give Fm = 0 were changed into partially oriented spins which give Fm<Fe able for the formation of the quark soup.
Historically, despite the enormous success of the Bohr model and the Schroedinger equations due to the applications of the second law of Newton and the Coulomb interaction, physicists abandoned the well-established natural laws and developed wrong theories after the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutrons, neutrinos, and antineutrinos. So in the absence of natural laws, Heisenberg (1932), Fermi (1934), Yukawa (1935), Glashow and Weinberg in the 1960s, and Gell-Mann (1973) developed the wrong theories of weak and strong interactions (Quantum chromodynanics) using the fallacious concept of force carriers.
Especially after the failure of Heisenberg’s exchange forces, Yukawa using the uncertainty relation of Heisenberg formulated the following familiar formula
M = h/2πRc
by assuming that the nuclear force is not an interaction of fundamental electromagnetism but it is due to the exchange of massive particles with a mass M about 200 times greater than the mass Me of electrons since the range (distance R) is about 2 fm (nuclear distance). Thus when the muons of mass M =200 Me were discovered (1936) many physicists believed that muons were the Yukawa particles, but later the discovered pions (1947) of mass 273 Me were assumed to be the real particles of Yukawa, because they have an integer spin like photons. Of course in the above formula using M = 0 we get forces of long range if one assumes that the mediators are massless photons. However photons never have zero mass, because they have an energy hν which implies a variable mass able to be transformed into the mass of particles.
Like the interaction of a photon with an electron we observe also the absorption of an energetic antineutrino of negative magnetic moment (ν-) with mass m =1.8 MeV which interacts electromagnetically with the charged quark u according to the reaction
ν- + u = d + e+
So the conserved mass in MeV is written as
1.8 + 2.4 = 3.69 + 0.51
Note that such a reaction, which is similar to the photon-matter transformation, was incorrectly explained by Fermi, who in 1934 developed the hypothesis of weak interaction which led to the fallacious theories of Glashow and Weinberg.
WRONG CONCEPTS FOR DESCRIBING THE QUARK EPOCH OF THE EARLY UNIVERSEEdit
In a hypothetical symmetry braking at the end of the electroweak epoch all the fundamental particles are believed to acquire a mass via the fallacious Higgs field (medium). Also under the false gluons and color charges it is believed that at such high energies quarks cannot be bound strongly giving a quark - gluon plasma (QGP). For example CERN announced on 23 May 2011 that the Super Proton Synchrotron accelerator saw hints that a quark- gluon plasma (QGP) could be created and studied in the laboratory.
In fact, the interaction of (dud) neutal quark triads formed a quark soup, since at such a critical energy under the quantum dynamics of partially oriented spins of quarks the magnetic attraction was less than the electric force. So one can observe a quark soup without the fallacious gluons and color charges.
NEW IDEAS TO DESCRIBE THE HADRON EPOCH AND THE NUCLEOSYNTHESIS Edit
At that epoch the lower energies led to a new critical temperature to allow oriented spins of quarks in nucleons, which gave stronger magnetic attraction than the electric force, (Fm>Fe). We discovered that the peripheral velocities in spinning quarks are greater than the speed of light. So at low energies of the hadron epoch they were responsible for the formation of protons and neutrons with very strong binding energies of spinning quarks.
However according to the fallacious Quantum Chromodynamics there were protons or neutrons with false quark triads and fallacious gluons. Historically Gell-Mann suggested that the neutron consists of two down quarks (d) and one up (u) written in the scheme (dud) which gives zero charge ,while the experiments of the magnetic moment of neutron imply charge distributions. Moreover the proton was written with the scheme (uud) which gives smaller magnetic moment than that of experiments. Also the experiments showed that such triads have a mass about 1% of the mass of each nucleon. (We discovered that d =2.69 MeV and u =2.4 MeV). Under this condition in 1973 Gell-Mann in order to justify such an enormous mass defect used the wrong theory of relativity and developed his theory of the Quantum Chromodynamics. According to that theory the nucleons consist also of wrong massless gluons (g) like the following schemes
Mn = ( dud + g) = 939.57 MeV
Mp =(uud + g) = 938.28 MeV
Note that g represents an unknown number of massless gluons which could give the 99% of the mass of nucleons under Einstein’s false transformation of the hypothetical gluon energy into the mass of nucleons. Under such fallacious ideas in 1979 researchers at the electron-positron collider (PETRA) announced that they observed 3-jet (3 particles) events at high energy which could support the hypothesis of the (colored) gluons. Note that so far no one has discovered gluons or color charges.
Since the energy cannot be converted into mass, in 2002 we analyzed carefully the experiments of the magnetic moments of nucleons and the deep inelastic scattering experiments and discovered 9 extra quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron, which led to the discovery of 288 quarks in nucleons. (See my NEW STRUCTURE OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS ). Also the charges of extra quarks interact electromagnetically like the dipole-dipole interactions to give the nuclear binding and the nuclear structure. In fact, the so-called “strong interaction” of the nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. It is indeed unfortunate that Gell-Mann who discovered the fractional charges of spinning quarks (1964) did not use the detailed nuclear experiments of the magnetic moments of nucleons (1957) for finding the structure of protons and neutrons in terms of spinning quarks or charge distributions which lead to the nuclear structure under the applications of the basic electromagnetic laws. Under this condition we write the masses or energies in the structure of neutron and proton as
Mn = [92(dud) + 4u +8d] = 939.57 MeV
Mp = [93(dud) +4u + 5d] = 938.26 MeV
Such structures of nucleons can explain not only the decay of neutron with 92 (dud) triads but also the nuclear binding after the electromagnetic interaction of the charges of extra quarks.
For the familiar neutron decay
n = p + e + ν- or d = u + e + ν-
we can write in detail this reaction as
[92(dud) + 4u + 8d ] = [93(dud) + 4u +5d ] +e +ν-
It means that 3d of neutron are changed into a stable triad (dud) of proton with a mass defect
d-u = 3.69 – 2.4 = 1.29 MeV
Of course, the neutrons did not disappear because of the following inverse reaction which is the familiar antineutrino absorption equivalent to the photon absorption. In this case the energetic antineutrinos with a mass of 1.8 MeV interact as
ν- + [93(dud) +4u + 5d ] = [92(dud) +4u + 8d ] + e+ .
It means that ν- interacts with a stable (dud) triad of proton to give 3d quarks of neutron.
Surprisingly in these two very important reactions one can see not only the formation of nucleons but also the production of antineutrinos and energetic photons since
e + e+ = γ +γ.
In other words, when the universe had an energy greater than 1.8 MeV according to these reactions the neutrons, protons, electrons and antineitrinos were short-lived paricles, which produced long-lived photons, since photon-photon interaction cannot occur in vacuum. Note that neutrons become stable particles in the nucleosynthesis in certain cases in which the extra neutrons make two or three n-p bonds with a total binding energy stronger than the d-u = 1.29 MeV. Only for the formation of the simple deuteron (D) the proton and the neutron having charge distributions of the extra quarks interact electromagnetically to make a single p-n bond with a binding energy of 2.2246 MeV which is stronger than the energy of d-u = 1.29 MeV. In this interaction we also observe the production of photons according to the following relation.
p + n = D + γ
The neutrons also become stable particles in the formation of the very stable He. In this case the two deuterons are coupled in axial direction with very strong p-n bonds to form a rectangle, while the p-p and n-n repulsions are not strong along the diagonal directions.
MATTER DOMINATION (70,000 years after the Big Bang)Edit
At this epoch the non energetic antineutrinos under a long-ranged gravitational attraction which overcomes the antineutrino-antineutrino short-ranged repulsion is able for paving the way for gravitational collapse to amplify the tiny inhomogeneities. Note that antineutrinos have mass of negative charge along the periphery and positive one in the center. Thus they behave like the neutral atoms of hydrogen. In other words the gravity on antineutrinos is similar to gravity in neutral atoms of hydrogen.
RECOMBINATION (377,000 years after the Big Bang) Edit
Hydrogen and helium were at the beginning ionized. As the observable universe cools down the electrons get captured by the ions. In the case of helium the electrons are able to be coupled with opposite spin, because the attractive magnetic force between the electrons is greater than the electric repulsion. Note that the enormous peripheral velocity of electron spin (u>>c) is responsible for the spinning electrons to give Fm>Fe at short distances. In that stage the photons could travel freely and are the same photons that we see in the cosmic microwave background (CMB).