**NEW IDEAS IN QUANTUM AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS **
New ideas about the nature of photons, the nuclear structure and the energies of many-electron atoms and molecules

By prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός T.E. Institute of Larissa , Greece.

This article was announced to many universities around the world (Oct. 2010).

**Kaliambos**" one can see the paper "Impact of Maxwell's...dipolic particles" presented at the international conference "Frontiers of fundamental physics" (Olympia ,1993) which invalidates both the Self propagating fields of Maxwell and Einstein's relativity. Especially our dipolic photon is based on the Farady experiment (1845) and on the Kaufmann experiment (1902) according to which the absorption of photons in the photoelectric effect (1905) contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy but also to the increase of the electron mass, while Einstein's massless quanta of fields led to the invalid relativity which violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass. Also one can see my paper " Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism" presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic nuclear society (NCSR "Demokritos" 2002 ) ad published in Ind.J. Th.Phys. (2003) with a large number of integral equations and figures which revealed the structure and binding of nuclei. (See in User Kaliambos the above published papers alog with his additional published paper " Spin-spin interactions of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures").

## THE DIPOLIC NATURE OF PHOTONS. Edit

According to the known Charge Conservation photons move at c as spinning dipolic particles able to give local time-varying E/B = c. In 1963 the American physicists French and Tessman showed experimentally that Maxwell's basic hypothesis of displacement current involves misconceptions (Am. J. Phys. 31,201, 1963). Under the quantum theory of Planck and Einstein (photons) and the fact that the troublesome hypothesis of self-propagating fields is based on wrong postulations it was developed the model of dipolic particles in order to explain the electromagnetic properties of photons. (See in Google L. Kaliambos ) who in 1993 presented the model at an International Conference. The model is based on Faraday’s experiment who in 1846 discovered that the magnrtic field changes the plane of polarization of light. It is well-known that a magnetic field exerts opposite magnetic forces on the unlike charges of moving dipoles. So the magnetic field exerts a torque on a photon which must move as dipolic particle. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984ffp..conf..415K.

## ΤHE SO-CALLED STRONG INTERACTION IS DUE TO THE NUCLEAR DIPOLIC FORCE OF THE PROTON-NEUTRON BONDS. Edit

The magnetic moments of nucleons imply considerable charge distributions which give strong proton-neutron bonds of short- ranged nuclear dipolic force. It is well-known that after the abandonment of electromagnetic laws the two very different theories of Meson hypothesis and the Quantum Chromodynamics try to intepret qualitatively the nuclear force with an “exchange” of vertiual particles but they cannot lead to a nuclear structure. Under these dificulties it was analysed cairfully the experimental magnetic moments of proton ( g = 2.793) and of neutron ( g = -1.913 ) which give for the proton +e = (-5e/3, +8e/3) and for the neutron (+8e/3, -8e/3) = 0 distributed at the centers and along the peripheries respectively. That is, the proton (p) and the neutron (n) contain distributed charges as multiples of the charges of quarks, which were proposed by Gell-man in 1964. (L. Kaliambos, 2003).

Here we presented a large number of integral equations which reveal the structure of nuclei.(12th symposium of thr Hellenic Nuclear Physics Society, May 2002 )

According to the electromagnetic laws the proton and the neutron in the simplest nuclear structure (p-n system of deuteron) are coupled along the radial direction with parallel spin (S=1) because of the unlike charges +8e/3 of proton and –8e/3 of neutron along the peripheries. Of course this couple cannot obey the Paulli Principle according to which two electrons or two identical nucleons with like charges along the peripheries give opposite spin (S=0). However in this case the charge distributions cannot favor the coupling of the simple p-p and n-n systems. By contrast the simple p-n system of S=1 has a strong binding energy E = -2.2246 MeV since the compination of charges gives a total nuclear dipolic force as a result of attracive electric and magnetic forces of the unlike charges and repulsive forces of like charges. Note that the attractive electric force between the point charges –5e/3 of p and +8e/3 of n in the centers of the p-n system at the shorterst separation of 1.626 fermis under the application of the simple Coulomb potential gives a binding energy of 3.936 Mev which is greater than that of deuteron. Moreover for the structure of the very stable helium nucleus applications of electromagnetic laws favor a coupling of the two deuterons along the spin axis with very strong binding energy. That is, the same charge distributions give very strong nuclear dipolic forces along the spin axis.

## NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS DUE TO THE p-n BONDS WHEN THEY EXCEED THE p-p AND n-n REPULSIONS.Edit

The p-n bonds of the nuclear dipolic forces exceed the p-p and n-n dipolic repulsions since a close packing of nucleons brings the p-n bonds closer together. In the absence of a real force the most important structure models like the Fermi Gas, the Nuclear Shell and the Collective model, based on the Pauli principle, lead to complications, since the simplest nuclear structure of deuteron cannot obey that principle. As a result they cannot lead to a nuclear structure. All these difficulties were resolved with the discovery of the charge distributions. Applications of electromagnetic laws along the radial and axial directions of the spin of nucleons lead to the p-n bonds, which exceed the weak p-p and n-n repulsions along the diagonals and form symmetrical shapes with no more than 6 bonds per nucleon. In heavy nuclei a type of shell structure forms blank positions for receiving the extra neutrons, which make extra bonds with two or three protons since the great number of p-p repulsions of long range forces at great distances try to overcome the short-ranged p-n bonds. Here you see some diagrams of Helium, Beryllium, Oxygen and Lead(Pb). For example the pp repulsion of the very stable Helium (α particle ) is not very strong, because along the diagonal x the antiparallel spin gives magnetic attraction weaker than the electric repulsion. However two α particles cannot form the Beryllium because the pp repulsion along the diagonal of the square is very strong due to the parallel spin of protons. On the other hand the shor-ranged pn bonds of the extra neutrons of the stable Lead overcome the long-ranged pp repulsions. In the absence of extra neutrons the structure would be unstable.

## THE SPIN – SPIN ATTRACTIVE FORCES BETWEEN ELECTRONS WITH S=0 IN ATOMS AND MOLECULES LEAD TO A COUPLE OF TWO ELECTRONS WITH AN ADDITIONAL VIBRATION ENERGY TO THE ENERGIES OF THE BOHR MODEL. Edit

Because of the qualitative descriptions of the spinning electrons (exchange symmetry) neither was able to provide satisfactory equations for explaining the pairing of two electrons and the energies in the 1s state of heliumlike atoms e.t.c. Under these difficulties detailed calculations of the two electrons of antiparallel spin ( S=0 ) showed that at a distance 100 times less than the atomic radius the attractive magnetic force becomes stronger than the repulsive electric force. In this case the electromagnetic force of the coupled electrons under the Faraday emf produces vibrations with a positive energy Ev. Notice that after a careful analysis of such energies in H-, He, Li+ e.t.c. we get : Ev = 16.95Z – 4.1, where Z is the number of protons. (L.Kaliambos, 2008). That is, in many-electron atoms the couple of two electrons gives a positive energy additional to the binding energy of the Bohr model. Furthermore in the simple molecule such a couple behaves like one particle and attracts the two protons under the quantum mechanical treatment like the one electron of the hydrogen molecule ion.