This paper was announced to many universities around the world (September 2013).

By Prof.LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ( Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός ) T. E. Institute of Larissa. Greece

**NUCLEAR BINDING IS GOVERNED NOT BY THEORIES AND MODELS BUT BY THE WELL-ESTABLISHED LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM **

Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paper IMPACT OF MAXWELL’S EQUATION OF DISPLACEMENT CURRENT ON ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS AND COMPARISON OF THE MAXWELLIAN WAVES WITH OUR MODEL OF DIPOLIC PARTICLES presented at the International conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” ( Olympia,1993). The paper invalidates Maxwell’s fields moving through a fallacious ether. Especially Maxwell for developing his electromagnetic theory was based not on the well-

established laws of Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820) but on wrong postulations. For example in the Faraday induction law (1832) of relative motions of magnets and conductors he used not the Faraday magnetic resultant exhibited by an electric current . Though the experiment of Neumann (1845) showed that the induction of electric gurrent is due to the magnetic force of the Ampere law acting at a distance Maxwell for developing his electromagnetic theory introduced a hypothetical electric field which violates the principle of relativity. Also in the Ampere law of force acting at a distance Maxwell used not the real current but a hypothetical “Displacement Current” between the plates of a capacitor. Note that according to the experiment of the two American physicists French and Tessman (1963) the hypothetical displacement current involves misconceptions. Moreover since such wrong fields do not carry mass, they did much to retard the progress of physics because Einstein’s massless quanta of Maxwell’s fields violate the two conservation laws of mass and energy..Although the famous experiment of the two American physicists Michelson and Morley (1887) rejected the ether in favor of Newton’s particles of light having mass, Einstein using the Lorentz math of the ether theory develop his invalid theories of special and general relativity by using massless quanta of fields, which violate not only the two conservation laws of mass and energy but also the Galilean principle of relativity of the well-established laws of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere. Note that Einstein influenced by Maxwell’s wrong self-propagating fields transmitting energy with no mass in his explanation of the photoelectric effect used only the energy of his quanta of fields, while Newton in hiss Opticks (1704) proposed particles of light having mass. So Newton predicted the bending of light near the sun confirmed by Soldner in 1801. Also the American scientist Lewis in 1926 gave the term Photon based on the experiment of the American physicist Compton who in 1923 showed that light consists of particles having a momentum p =hν/c and behaving like billiard balls..

It is fortunate that all the detailed experiments of the Quantum Entanglement (1935) confirmed accurately the fundamental forces of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere acting at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity, which reject the idea that forces are carried by fields or by virtual massless photons or hypothetical massless gluons. Under this condition I revived the well-established laws for revealing the nuclear structure and binding. Thus in nuclear phenomena the energy of generated photons is due not to the mass defect of nucleons but to the energy of electromagnetic forces, while the mass defect turns into the mass of photons. So one can also see my paper NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM presented

at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society (N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", 2002). Using the well-established laws which led to the enormous success of the Bohr model (1913) and the time- independent Schrodinger equations in three dimensions (1926) I prepared the above paper published in Ind. J. Th. Phys. (2003). The paper reveals the nuclear structure by reviving the electromagnetic forces of the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere.Therefore it invalidates both Einstein’s relativity and the theories of the Wrong Standard model developed after the abandonment of natural laws. It is unfortunate that the so-called Standard Model under the influence of Einstein’s quanta of fields proposed that photons are massless bosons able to carry the electromagnetic forces, though Gilbert N. Lewis who coined the name photon in 1926 (from Greek ΦΩTA or PHOTA “light bulbs”) considered that photons, in fact, are simple carriers of energy. (See in User Kaliambos the above papers along with my paper “ Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures” published in Ind.J.Th. Phys. in 2008).

Prior to my papers it was assumed that nuclear phenomena are governed by the fallacious strong and weak interactions regarded as two separate, unrelated phenomena. The so-called strong and weak interactions were still shrouded in mystery, because the forces could not be couched in a simple formalism, nor could they be expressed in a closed analytic form. Hence in the description of nuclear properties one could rely on various wrong and contradicting theories and models. In fact both strong and weak interactions are fallacious forces because all nuclear phenomena are interpreted by the detailed applications of the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere.

Also my papers solved the crisis of atomic and nuclear physics due to Einstein’s invalid “mass-energy equivalence”. Despite the conservation laws of mass and energy developed by the Greek philosophers confirmed by experiments today physicists believe that the mass defect in atomic and nuclear bindings turns into the energy of Einstein’s massless photons. (See FROM GREEK PHILOSOPHY TO THE CRISIS OF MODERN PHYSICS in my NEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS ). In fact photons have real mass which is responsible for the increase of the electron mass in accelerators. Although Maxwell’s electromagnetic energy has no mass J.J. Thomson in 1981 recognized that the electromagnetic energy corresponds to a certain mass called electromagnetic mass which led me to reveal that photons have real mass. So all particles cannot move as fast as the speed of light when they absorb the real photon mass in accordance with the conservation law of mass.

**THEORIES LEAD TO CONFUSING IDEAS IN THE “NUCLEAR FORCE-WIKIPEDIA”**

It is well-known that the energy released in atomic binding is due to the charge – charge interaction of the well-established law of Coulomb, while the mass defect turns into the mass of the generated photon in accordance with the two conservation laws of energy and mass. This fact invalidates dramatically Einstein’s “mass-energy” conservation.” Under this condition and after my work of ten years I discovered that the nuclear binding is due to the application of the well-established laws of electromagnetism, which turns into the energy of generated photons. Nevertheless since physicists are influenced by the invalid "mass-energy equivalence" in the “Nuclear force-Wikipedia” we read the following wrong paragraph:

“The **nuclear force** (or **nucleon–nucleon interaction** or **residual strong force**) is the force between two or more nucleons. Its fundamental laws and constants are unknown unlike the Coulomb and Newton laws. It is responsible for binding protons and neutrons into atomic nuclei. The energy released by such binding causes the masses of nuclei to be less than the total mass of the protons and neutrons which form them; this is the energy used in nuclear power and nuclear weapons”

Then for the origin of the nuclear force we read the following confusing paragraphs based on the two contradicting theories of Yukawa’s mesons (1935) and the theory of the quantum chromodynamics (1973) using the strange color forces of the invalid massless gluons, though in nature massless particles cannot exist :

“To a large extent, the nuclear force can be understood in terms of the exchange of virtual light mesons, such as the virtual pions, rho mesons, and omega mesons. Sometimes the nuclear force is called the **residual strong force**, in contrast to the strong interactions which are now understood to arise from QCD. This phrasing arose during the 1970s when QCD was being established. Before that time, the *strong nuclear force* referred to the inter-nucleon potential. After the verification of the quark model, *strong interaction* has come to mean QCD.”

In fact nuclear binding is due to the charge distributions in nucleons which are able to create the nuclear structure with strong electromagnetic forces of short range.

**MODELS LEAD TO CONFUSING IDEAS IN THE “NUCLEAR PHYSICS-WIKIPEDIA”**

After the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron nuclear physicists abandoned the well-established laws of electromagnetism in favor of various invalid models. Thus in the Nuclear physics-Wikipedia” we read the following confusing and complicated paragraphs:

“ The liquid-drop model is able to reproduce many features of nuclei, including the general trend of binding energy with respect to mass number, as well as the phenomenon of nuclear fission. Superimposed on this classical picture, however, are quantum-mechanical effects, which can be described using the nuclear shell model, developed in large part by Maria Goeppert-Mayer. Nuclei with certain numbers of neutrons and protons (the magic numbers 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126, ...) are particularly stable, because their shells are filled. Other more complicated models for the nucleus have also been proposed, such as the interacting boson model, in which pairs of neutrons and protons interact as bosons, analogously to Cooper pairs of electrons.”

In fact, nuclear structure is due to the charge-charge interaction between the 9 extra charged quarks in protons and 12 one in neutrons.