NEW STRUCTURE OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS** **

**(NUCLEAR CRISIS AND REVOLUTION IN PROTONS AND NEUTRONS) **

By prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) T.E. Institute of Larissa, Greece.

This scientific article was announced to many universities around the world (Nov. 2012)

Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can find our paper " Impact of Maxwell's... dipolic

particles " presented at the international conference "Frontiers of fundamental physics" ( Olympia, 1993) which invalidates Maxwell’s self propagating fields and Einstein’s relativity. After the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) who showed the fallacy of Maxwell's fields I presented my dipolic particles of mass which invalidate Einstein's massless quanta of Maxwell's wrong fields. Note that Einstein's massless quanta of fields led to his invalid relativity which violates the conservation law of mass developed by Democritus.

**THE STRUCTURE OF PROTON AND NEUTRON AS WRITTEN IN WIKIPEDIA IS FALLACIOUS AND CONFUSING BASED ON THE FALSE MESON THEORY (YUKAWA, 1935) AND THE WRONG QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS (GELL-MANN, 1973) DEVELOPED AFTER THE ABANDONMENT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS, DUE TO THE ASSUMED UNCHARGED NEUTRON. SUCH THEORIES LED TO VARIOUS MODELS, LIKE THE STRING THEORY OF GLUONS, THE BAG MODEL, THE VALENCE QUARK MODEL etc. THE THEORIES ABANDONED THE FUNDAMENTAL ACTION AT A DISTANCE OF THE CHARGE-CHARGE INTERACTIONS AND INTRODUCED WRONG FORCE CARRIERS LIKE MESONS AND GLUONS WITH STRANGE COLOR FORCES. UNDER THIS CONFUSION IN 2002 WE ANALYSED CAREFULLY THE DETAILED EXPERIMENTS OF THE MAGNETIC MOMENTS AND THE DEEP INELASTIC SCATTERING ACCORDING TO WHICH PROTONS AND NEUTRONS HAVE NOT A SMALL CHARGE DISTIBUTION GIVEN BY THE SIMPLE QUARK MODEL BUT 9 AND 12 EXTRA CHARGED QUARKS RESPECTIVELY DISTRIBUTED AMONG NEUTRAL QUARK TRIADS OF 288 SPINNING QUARKS IN EACH NUCLEON. NOTE THAT THE CHARGES OF EXTRA QUARKS INTERACT AT A DISTANCE AND LEAD TO A COHERENT NUCLEAR STRUCTURE BY REVIVING THE BASIC LAWS OF COULOMB AND BIOT-SAVART, WHILE SEVERAL CONTRADICTING MODELS AND THEORIES AS WRITTEN IN WIKIPEDIA CANNOT LEAD TO A COHERENT NUCLEAR STRUCTURE.'**

After the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron (1932) Heisenberg in the same year tried to explain the nuclear force by introducing the wrong hypothesis of exchanging forces between electrons without any success. In the same way Yukawa (1935) introduced the theory of mesons, because he believed that the proton and the neutron are attracted by an unknown strong force of short range mediated by mesons like the electromagnetic forces of long range, which were thought to be mediated by the fallacious self propagating fields. Note that this idea retarded the progress of physics. For example after the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) who showed experimentally that Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory (displacement current) involves misconceptions the electric field E = F_{e}/q (defined as a force per unit charge) cannot be the force carrier of the same electric force, since the well-established laws of gravity and electromagnetism involve forces acting at a distance.

Nevertheless, Feynman (1950) in his theory of Quantum Electrodynamics under Einstein’s wrong idea that a photon is a massless particle suggested incorrectly that the electromagnetic forces are mediated by the quantum of electromagnetic fields (photon). In general all experiments of orbiting electrons in atoms showed that a photon is generated as a mass carrier after the charge-charge interaction of an electron with the nucleus. Similarly the gravitational field F_{g} /m of a gravitational force F_{g }cannot be the force carrier of the same force. Consequently the hypothetical gravitons of the standard model and Einstein’s gravitational waves have not been discovered at CERN, since they are based on false concepts, which violate the fundamental laws of interaction. (See my article “CONFUSING CERN RESULTS AND IDEAS ”).

On the other hand in 1964 Gell-Mann after a taxonomy of particles suggested that both protons (p) and neutrons (n) consist of (uud) quarks and (dud) quarks respectively having fractional charges as

u = +2e/3 and d = -e/3. That is, uud = +e and dud = 0.

Of course such structures imply small charge distributions as

p = (+Q= +4e/3, –q = -e/3) and n = (+Q = +2e/3, –Q = -2e/3)

which cannot lead to the nuclear structure. Actually, if we apply the fundamental charge-charge interaction of the well-established laws of electromagnetism on such small charge distributions, it would be impossible for us to get the simplest p-n structure of deuterium (D).

Meanwhile in 1933, Stern measured the magnetic moment of the proton to be 2.79 μ_{N} and in 1940 F. Bloch measured the neutron magnetic moment to be -1.91 μ_{N}._{ } Such results deviate significantly from the predictions of Dirac’s theory and invalidate both Yukawa’s model and the simple quark model because a careful analysis of them provides considerable charge distributions due to a large number of quarks able to give the nuclear binding and structure by applying the well-established and fundamental laws of charge-charge interactions involving forces acting at a distance. In 2002 we presented our paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” at the 12^{th} Symposium of the Hellenic Nuclear Physics Society. In that paper I describe the charge distributions of protons and neutrons respectively by a careful analysis of the magnetic moments of nucleons and the deep inelastic scattering experiments. For example for p the magnetic moment μ is given by

μ/S = 2.793e /M

where S is the spin of proton, e the net charge of proton and M the mass of proton. Here we see that the above experimental relation cannot be consistent with the simple quark model even in case in which the charge +Q = +4e/3 is along the periphery and the charge –q = -e/3 is in the center (deep inelastic scattering experiment). Clearly applying the electromagnetic laws for μ, and the laws of a rotating oblate spheroid (like the proton) we may write for μ and for the spin S (angular momentum) respectively as

μ = i πR^{2} = Qν πR^{2 } and S = t MωR^{2} = tM 2πνR^{2 }

where t is a factor between a rotating sphere and a disc. That is 0.4 < t < 0.5. Therefore μ /S = Q/2t = 2.793 e. That is for t = 0.47742 (oblate spheroid) we get for the proton along the periphery +Q = +8e/3 and in the center –q = -5e/3. In the same way for the neutron we get – Q =-8e/3 along the periphery, and +Q = +8e/3 in the center. Surprisingly applications of electromagnetic laws on such experimental charge distributions which give for proton extra (4u,5d) quarks and for the neutron extra (8d,4u) quarks lead exactly to the simplest nuclear binding (-2.2246 MeV) of the deuterium. Moreover such extra quark led to the discovery of 288 quarks in nucleons. As a result the proton has 93 (dud) neutral quark triads. Among them there are 4u charged quarks distributed along the periphery and 5d charged quarks limited in the center. Whereas the neutron has 92 (dud) neutral quark triads and among them are distributed 8d charged quarks along the periphery and 4u charged quarks limited in the center So, the structure of protons and neutrons is given by

**PROTON = [93(dud) + 4u +5d ]**. **NEUTRON = [92(dud) + 8d + 4u]**

After a careful analysis we found the masses of down (Md) and of up quark (Mu) as

**Md = 3.69348645 MeV ** and **Mu = 2.40016645 MeV**

which give not only the masses Mn = 939.565378 MeV and Mp = 938.272046 MeV of neutron and proton respectively but also the difference Mn - Mp = 1.293332 MeV which is exactly equal to Md-Mu. That is, Md - Mu = 3.69348645 - 2.40016645 = 1.293332 MeV. However in "Down quark- **WIKIPEDIA** and in "Up quark-**WIKIPEDIA**" one can see the confusing values as

Md = ( 4.1 - 5.7) = 4.9 MeV or a so-called precise value Md = 4.79 MeV.

Mu = (1.7 - 3.1) = 2.4 MeV or a so-called precise value Mu = 2.01 MeV**.**

**Of course these values are wrong because the difference Md - Mu = 4.79 - 2.01 = 2.78 MeV is greater than the correct value Mn - Mp = 1.293332 MeV. **

Ever since the quark model was proposed extensive searches have been made for evidence of the existence of quarks as free particles. As yet there has been no decisive evidence for the existence of free quarks. Under this condition the universe started off with a primordial gravity of long range on neutral quark triads (dud) exerting electric forces of short range. Thus at very short distances (shorter than the size of neutrons in neutron stars) the gravity during the Big Bang was very powerful for producing a very hot universe. (See in Google my article OUR EARLY UNIVERSE . On the other hand there have been many good agreements between the deductions of the quark model and various experimental data to strongly support the existence of quarks. Whereas the experiments showed that the mass of the proposed uud and dud quarks in each nucleon is only 1% of the total mass of the nucleon.

However despite the enormous success that the up (u) and down quark (d) have fractional charges of the well-established electromagnetic laws, Gell-Mann in 1973 like the wrong theories of Heisenberg (1932) Fermi (1934) Yukawa (1935), and Glashow (1968) abandoned the fundamental charges of basic laws and developed the wrong Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) by introducing incorrectly massless gluons as force carriers with strange color forces under the wrong mass-energy conservation of the invalid theory of special relativity.

Note that the hypothetical energy of gluons cannot give the mass of nucleons, since energy cannot turn into mass. Also massless particles cannot exist because energy without mass cannot exist. (See my WRONG AND CORRECT EINSTEIN ).

On the other hand despite the fact that the quarks have fractional charges able to interact by using not wrong postulations but by applying the fundamental laws of electromagnetism with forces of short range like the dipole-dipole interactions, Gell-Mann for explaining the short-ranged forces of quarks did not follow the wrong theories of Yukawa and Glashow but the wrong theory of Feynman (1950), who introduced (massless photons) for interpreting the long-range forces. Moreover following the wrong mass-energy conservation Gell-Mann believed that the energy of gluons is transformed into the mass of the proton since his quark triads have only 1 % of the total mass of a nucleon

Moreover according to our discovery of matter - photon interaction

ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c^{2}

The orbiting electrons in atoms invalidate dramatically the special relativity, since the moving electrons have a variable mass M less than the constant mass M_{o}. Also all photons have a mass m since the energy hν without mass cannot exist.

Nevertheless in “proton-**WIKIPEDIA**” one can see the confusing description of the proton based on two different models like the simple quark hypothesis with the uud quarks mediated by gluons and the valence quark model with the uud quarks characterized as valence quarks in a sea of virtual quark-antiquark pairs generated by the gluons. In “Gluon-**WIKIPEDIA**” one reads wrong experimental observations of gluons. In fact individual events in the TASSO experiments had nothing to do with the establishment of a gluon signal. [See in Google Letters (page 2) CERN Courier].