By Prof. L. Kaliambos (Natural Philosopher in New Energy)

16 February 2019

Historically after the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron by Chadwick (1932), which led to the abandonment of electromagnetic laws, physicists influenced by the invalid fields (INVALID MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS) and the invalid relativity (EXPERIMENTS REJECTING EINSTEIN) for understanding the structure of nuclei and of nucleons developed wrong theories which cannot lead to the nuclear structure. Under this physics crisis I was based on the quarks discovered by Gell-Mann and Zweig for publication of my paper "Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism" (2003), which led to my discovery of the new structure of protons and neutrons given by

proton = [93(dud) + 5d + 4u ] = 288 quarks = mass of 1836.15 electrons

neutron = [92(dud) + 4u + 8d ] = 288 quarks = mass of 1838,68 electrons

Note that my discovery of nuclear force and structure due to the new structure of nucleons was also presented at a nuclear conference held at NCSR "Demokritos" (2002), where the eminent physicist Dr Th. Kalogeropoulos came from Princeton University to present work at the conference. (See in photo with his walking stick next to me). Dr Kalogeropoulos as an Einstein student under the influence of the contradicting relativity theories initially criticised my discovery of the **law of energy and mass** which rejects the invalid mass-energy conservation used incorrectly in nuclear physics, because it violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass.

Despite the enormous success of the Bohr model (1913) and the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions (1926) based on the well-established laws of electromagnetism under the abandonment of electromagnetic laws neither was able to reveal the simplest structures of deuteron and of helium-4. For example the great physicists Heisenberg (1932), and Yukawa (1935) under the invalid relativity and the assumptions of the uncharged neutron developed wrong theories of the so-called strong interaction, which cannot lead to the nuclear structures. On the other hand in the absence of the fundamental charge-charge interaction of natural laws in order to interpret the very strong attractive nuclear force at very short distances of about 1.5/10^{15} m the nuclear physicists hypothesised that an unknown attractive force in the systems proton-neutron, proton-proton and neutron-neutron occurs under the fallacious Charge Independence Hypothesis. Later the experiments showed that there exist charge distributions in nucleons able to give forces of fundamental charge-charge interactions. Nevertheless under the influence of wrong nuclear theories and models physicists did not revive the natural laws of charge-charge interactions.

Moreover after the discovery of the charged quarks (1964) Gell-Mann in 1973 under the false theories of relativity (1905) and of Yukawa mesons (1935) did not use the well-established charge-charge interaction of the charge distributions in nucleons due to the discovered charged quarks. Instead he tried to interpret the wrong strong interaction by developing his theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Note that he postulated the strange “color forces” between hypothetical massless gluons which cannot exist. (Invalid quantum chromodynamics). In other words after my discovery of photon mass (DISCOVERY OF PHOTON MASS ) in nature particles without mass cannot exist. Under this physics crisis I analysed carefully the magnetic moments of nucleons and I discovered 9 charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron able to give the simplest nuclear structure of the deuterium by reviving the well-established laws of electromagnetism .

It is of interest to note that in my paper of 2003 I showed that a proton-neutron system provides attractive electromagnetic forces of short range, while two neutrons and two protons at very short distances exert repulsive electromagnetic forces of the same short range. I discovered also that in symmetrical cases the very strong attractive electromagnetic forces of the proton-neutron interactions overcome such repulsive forces and lead to the nuclear structure. However in heavy nuclei the proton-proton electric repulsions of long range overcome the proton-neutron attractions of short range and lead to the decay.

**DISCOVERY OF 9 CHARGED QUARKS IN PROTON EXISTING AMONG 288 QUARKS**

Although in my published paper of 2003 I discovered 9 charges quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron, able to give the nuclear structure by applying the electromagnetic laws, today physicists influenced by the invalid relativity and the various contradicting nuclear theories continue to believe that the proton is composed of only 3 quarks with fallacious gluons which cannot lead to the proton structure. For example in the “Proton Wikipedia” one reads the following wrong ideas:

“In the modern Standard Model of particle physics, the proton is a hadron, and like the neutron, the other nucleon (particle present in atomic nuclei), is composed of three quarks. Prior to that model becoming a consensus in the physics community, the proton was considered a fundamental particle. In the modern view, a proton is composed of three valence quarks: two up quarks and one down quark. The rest masses of the quarks are thought to contribute only about 1% of the proton's mass. The remainder of the proton mass is due to the kinetic energy of the quarks and to the energy of the gluon fields that bind the quarks together.”

Since the two up quarks of the WRONG STANDARD MODEL lead to complications, let us analyse carefully the following experimental relation of the proton having mass M in case in which it spins like a spinning disk.

μ/S = 2.79278(e/M)

Note that according to the deep inelastic scattering the negative charge (-q ) of the proton should be limited at the center. Then taking into account that a uniform charge distribution of the two up quarks (n = 2) of the wrong Standard Model cannot justify the above relation we may assume that the positive charge +Q = 2u exists along the periphery. Also in this case the charge distribution of +Q = 2u = 2(2e/3) = +4e/3 cannot justify the above relation. Under these difficulties one may assume that the integer number n of real charged up quarks is greater than the number n = 2 up quarks given by the theory of quantum Chromodynamics. That is, n > 2 where n = 3, 4.... Under this condition we may write

+Q = nu = n(2e/3)

According to the electromagnetic laws the magnetic moment μ of a simple disk spinning with a frequency ν and having the positive charge +Q along the periphery the magnetic moment μ is given by

μ = +QνπR^{2} = n(2e/3)νπR^{2}

where R is the radius of the disk.

Whereas the spin S of the disk with mass M is given by

S = 0.5 MωR^{2} = 0.5M(2πν)R^{2}

In other words the above experimental relation can be written as

μ/S = [n(2e/3) νπR^{2}] / [ 0.5M(2πν)R^{2}] = 2.79218(e/M)

But in this relation the n cannot be an integer number when the proton behaves like a spinning disk.

In a simple discussion the picture of the proton could be as a rather oblate spheroid associated with the spin having a factor t characterizing the shape between a sphere and a disk. Since the spin S of a spinning sphere of radius R and mass M is given by

S = 0.4Mω R^{2}

we can say that 0.5 > t > 0.4.

Under such a condition and solving for n we found that n = 4, because the above experimental relation can be written as

μ/S =[4(2e/3)νπR^{2}] / [tM(2πν)R^{2}] = 2.79218(e/M) or 8/6t = 2.79218

Then solving for t one gets t = 0.47742

In other words according to the experiments and the applications of natural laws we see that the proton is an oblate spheroid which has 4 up quarks (4u) with +Q = 4u = +8e/3 existing along the periphery . Since +Q -q = +1e one concludes also that a negative charge -q = 5d = -5e/3 exists at the center in accordance with the experiments of the deep inelastic scattering. Since a down quark (d) has a negative charge( d = -e/3), it means that the proton contains also at the center 5 down quarks (5d).

Of course, to describe the structure of the neutron under the (udd) scheme with fallacious gluons one observes the same complications. So taking into account the symmetry properties of nucleons, that the current distributions with neutron and proton are quite similar and using the same method we found that the neutron has 4u charged quarks at the center and 8d charged quarks along the periphery. Then applications of electromagnetic laws by using such charged quarks at the size of protons and neutrons give the experimental binding energy E = -2.2246 MeV of the deuteron. Note that this binding energy of electromagnetism rejects Einstein’s fallacious theories of relativity because the binding energy of electromagnetic forces turns into the energy of the generated photon. Moreover the so- called mass defect turns into the mass of the generated photon. In the same way in the Bohr model the binding energy of -13.6 eV turns into the energy of the generated photon and the so-called mass defect turns into the mass of the generated photon.

It is of interest to note that the stability of proton is due to the structure of proton having 93 neutral quark triads (dud) and extra 4u with 5d , while the free neutron is unstable because it has 92 neutral quark triads (dud) and extra 4u with 8d. Under this condition the unstable quark triad (ddd) of the free neutron turns to the stable quark triad (dud) of the stable proton.

**CONCLUSIONS**

The detailed analysis of the magnetic moments and of the experiments of the deep inelastic scattering of proton and neutron showed that the correct proton has 4u and 5d charged quarks, while the correct neutron has 4u and 8d charged quarks able to give the charge distributions in nucleons which interact to give the correct binding energy of the deuteron by applying the natural laws of electromagnetism. Note that the mass of an up quark is u = 2.4 MeV/c^{2} while the mass of a down quark is d = 3.69 MeV/c^{2}. Such masses are very small with respect to the mass of a proton or a neutron. Under this condition I discovered that the correct structure of the stable proton consists of 93 neutral quark triads (dud) including also the extra charged quarks 5d and 4u.