**(FROM GREEK PHILOSOPHY TO THE CRISIS OF MODERN PHYSICS)**

THE CRISIS OF MODERN PHYSICS STARTED WITH THE REJECTION OF THE NEWTONIAN PARTICLES OF LIGHT. THEN WRONG INTERPRETATIONS OF THE INDUCTION LAW LED TO THE FALSE SELF PROPAGATING FIELDS AND TO THE INVALID RELATIVITY. LATER THE ASSUMED UNCHARGED NEUTRON LED TO THE ABANDONMENT OF NATURAL LAWS FOR DEVELOPING FALLACIOUS NUCLEAR THEORIES. SO IN THE ABSENCE OF NEW LAWS WE REVIVED NATURAL LAWS UNDER THE QUANTUM DYNAMICS WHICH MODIFY THE MAXWELLIAN WAVES AND THE WRONG RELATIVITY. MOREOVER THEY GIVE THE BINDING AND THE STRUCTURE OF QUARKS, NUCLEONS, NUCLEI, ATOMS, AND MOLECULES.

By Prof.LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS T.E. Institute of Larissa Greece. This revoluti

on of physics was announced to many universities around the world (Jan 2012)

Writing in in Google Scholar "Kaliambos" one can see: a) My paper "Impact of Maxwell's..dipolic particles" presented at the international conference "Frontiers of fundamental physics" (Olympia, 1993). The paper invalidates Maxwell's fields and Einstein's massless quanta of energy along the wave front of Maxwell's fields rejected by the experiment of French and Tessman in 1963). Note that such massless quanta of fields led to the invalid relativity which violates not only the principle of relativity but also the two conservation laws of mass and energy developed by the Greek philosophers.

**PREFACE**Edit

In the history of physics of the two last centuries we distinguish three great problems connected with the crisis in modern physics. The first problem started in 1803 when Young and Fresnel rejected the Newtonian particles of light in favour of wrong waves propagating through the fallacious Aristotelian ether, though J. von Soldner in 1801 confirmed Newton's theory of light by showing the gravitational properties of Newton's particles. Then Faraday in his experiments on light (1845) for interpreting the electromagnetic properties of light used his wrong ideas that Young's waves consist of imaginary electric and magnetic "stress tensors" in space. Therefore Maxwell taking into account the bizarre properties of Aristotelian ether and Faraday's wrong ideas did not use the basic laws of Coulomb and Ampere but postulated wrong assumptions to fit the basic relation E/B = c as a result of Weber's experiments (1856). So he developed his wrong electromagnetic theory with false self propagating fields, which retarded the progress of physics for understanding the nature of light.

The second problem started with the development of Einstein's special relativity, which did much to retard the progress of physics for understanding the structure of nucleons, many-electron atoms, and molecules under the binding of spinning quarks and electrons, whose the enormous peripheral velocities of spin (u>>c) give magnetic attractions stronger than the electric repulsions. Note that Einstein's theory of relativity using wrong assumptions did not allow velocities greater than light
, while applications of natural laws with simple mathematics lead to the basic principle of "photon-matter transformation" where the absorption of photon mass m is responsible for the increase of mass ΔΜ of a moving particle. However photons cannot affect the spin of elementary particles, like electrons, positrons, up and down quarks, and simple neutrinos and antineutrinos, having peripheral velocities greater than the speed of light.

The third problem started with the historical discovery of neutron which was assumed to be an uncharged particle. Under this situation theoretical physicists abandoned the natural laws for developing wrong nuclear theories, though the Bohr Bodel and the Shroedinger equations based on the Coulomb law were very successful in describing the hydrogen atom.

All these serious problems are solved by the "New revolution in physics" started with a very important experiment of the two American physicists French and Tessman (American Journal of physics,1963) who showed that Maxwell’s basic assumption (displacement current) of his electromagnetic theory involves misconceptions. Under this condition I developed the model of dipolic particles or dipolic photons (“ Impact of Maxwell’s equations…” presented at the International conference FRONTIERS OF FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS, 1993). Our model is based on the Newtonian particles of light, on the Faraday effect, on the Compton effect showing that light behaves like billiard balls having momentum p= hν/c, and on the Lewis photons (1926). So the dipolic photons have not only energy E = hν but also a mass m of opposite charges for explaining both the gravitational and electromagnetic properties by providing time-varying fields E/B = c. Therefore they solved the great dilemma between Maxwell's waves and Einstein's photons by invalidating the self propagating fields.

The dipolic photons also invalidate the special relativity, because they lead to my discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c2 . This equation shows that the increase of mass is not a kinematic but a dynamical situation due to the absorption of the photon mass, while Einstein believed incorrectly that the increase of the mass is due to the relative motion of the particle with respect to a randomly moving observer. Thus when the kinetic energy is due to the potential one with conservative forces the mass of the moving particle remains constant . Moreover it modifies Einstein's famous equation E = mc2 showing that Einstein's idea of mass-energy conservation is incorrect. Note that the equivalent "matter-photon transformation" invalidates the special relativity with simple mathematics. For example the orbiting electron in the hydrogen atom has less mass than the mass of the same electron at rest. This is the well-known mass defect, since the electron gives off a part (ΔΜ = m) of its mass for generating a photon. ( See in Google Model of dipolic particles , Invalidity of Maxwell’s self propagating fields, Einstein’s wrong assumptions in special relativity, Invalidity of special relativity, photon-matter interaction etc.).

It is of interest to note that in 2002 for the solution of the crisis in nuclear physics based on wrong theories due to the assumed uncharged neutron, I discovered nine extra charged quarks in proton and twelve ones in neutron, which led to the discovery of 288 quarks in nucleons. (See myNEW ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS ). Moreover the extra charged quarks lead to the nuclear structure by reviving the electromagnetic laws, while all nuclear theories did not lead to any nuclear structure , because all theorists abandoned the natural electromagnetic laws in favour of qualitative approaches based on wrong assumptions (without using natural laws).

WE PRESENTED THE PAPER AT THE 12th SYMPOSIUM OF THE HELLENIC NUCLEAR PHYSICS SOCIETY ( MAY 2002 ) INCLUDING A LARGE NUMBER OF INTEGRAL EQUATIONS BASED ON ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS WHICH REVEALED THE NUCLEAR STRUCTURE In 2006 using the spin of electrons I showed that the enormous tangential velocity of spin (u>>c ) leads to the electron coupling responsible for the covalent bonds etc. See my published paper “Spin-spin interactions of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures” (16th Hellenic Symposium on Nuclear Physics and Ind. J. Th. Phys. 2008). Under this condition the discovery of the electron spin by Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit met opposition from many physicists (including also Pauli). Such an enormous velocity is observed also in quarks and neutrinos for understanding the quark binding and the neutrino-quark interaction. (See in Google “Quarks neutrinos nucleons and nuclei”). It is of interest to note that these revolutionary ideas meet much skepticism, because I am not a professor of a famous university but an individual researcher in theoretical physics and a poet writing poems in Homer’s meter about Greek mythology and philosiophy. (See in Google Homer’s meter and our biography).

**GREEK PHILOSPHY AND MATHEMATICS IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE**Edit

In the history of physical science the first revolution is connected with the Greek philosophers and mathematicians. Anaximander (610-546) introduced the (Apeiron), an endless or unlimited primordial mass, which is the source of all things and responsible for genesis and decay of them under a first cause (Arche) . { Εκ γαρ τούτου πάντα γίνεσθαι και εις τούτο πάντα φθείρεσθαι , διό και γεννάσθαι απείρους κόσμους… }. [ From this all things grow to be and in this all things return to decay , and for this reason it bears infinite worlds…]. As a result of the infinity, Anaximander believed in a plurality of worlds like the Multiverse including the historical universe described by the Big Bang model.

In the same way Heraclitus (535-475), the philosopher of “ everything flows”, was the first to question the witness of the senses which show different world to each individual. The change obeys a universal law the ( logos), an intelligent governing principle materially embodied as eternal living fire, like the conservation law of energy.{ Αλλ’ ην αεί και έστιν και έσται πυρ αείζωον}. [ But it has been forever, and is, and will be, a fire living eternally].

Einstein incorrectly modified these two laws by introducing the wrong rest mass energy and the false transformation of mass into energy. In this direction our discovery of the “matter- photon transformation” ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν /m = c2 invalidated the special relativity for justifying the two separated conservation laws of mass and energy. In fact, the energy of the simple system electron-positron is due to their charge –charge interaction. Here the two particles give οff their energy ΔΕ to the two photons (ΔΕ = hν) confirming the Logos of Heraclitus. Also the two particles give off their mass ΔΜ to the mass of photons (ΔΜ = m) confirming the Arche of Anaximander.

Under the same laws of conservation I observed also a particle-particle transformation. For example when an energetic antineutrino of mass or energy of 1.8 MeV interacts electromagnetically with a proton a neutron and a positron ( e+) are generated. Note that the energy and the mass can be expressed in MeV because an energy E of 1 eV = 1.6/10^{19} J.

While the mass M of
1 eV = (1.6/10^{19})/c2 = 1.7778/10^{36} Kg.

Studying many experiments I showed that the simple antineutrino (ν- ) has a negative magnetic moment, because it is a spinning particle having a negative charge along the periphery and an equal positive charge in the center, like the spinning neutron, while the simple neutrino has a positive magnetic moment. Both particles have peripheral velocities greater than the speed of light like the spinning up and down quarks . In our paper “Quarks, neutrinos, nucleons, and nuclei ” we showed that a proton consists of 93 uncharged triads (dud) with extra (4u +5d) quarks. In fact, the simple antineutrino interacts with the up quark ( u) of an uncharged triad as ν- + u = d + e+. That is, the transformation of the up quark into a down quark under electromagnetic interactions of short range generates a positron. During this transformation the proton of 93 uncharged quarks and 9 extra quarks is transformed into an unstable neutron with 92 uncharged triads and (4u + 8d) extra quarks. Under the two conservation laws we observe the conserved energy or mass in MeV as

1.8 + 2.4 = 3.69 + 0.511.

Note that Glasgow in 1968 developed the electroweak theory by assuming incorrectly that in such reactions, called weak interactions, very heavy bosons participate as force carriers. For example a similar interaction is observed also when a photon (γ) of energy or mass of 2.2246 MeV interacts with a deuteron (D) to separate it into a proton and a neutron. ( γ + D = p + n).

In antiquity, Empedocles (490-430) for describing the mystery of universal regularities posited four eternal and unaltered elements producing the phenomena of changing things by their interactions like the atoms ( indivisible particles) of atomistic philosophers Leucippus and Democritus (460-370), who ignored the paradoxes of the Eleatic school about the infinite division of matter and the non existence of vacuum . As change is the consequence of the mixture and separation of elements it was also necessary for Empedocles to suppose the existence of two basic powers, the Love and the Strife, **which** pervade the universe like the fundamental charge-charge interaction of the laws of Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820) involving attractive and repulsive forces acting at a distance.

It is surprising that Faraday (who was the greatest experimental genius) in attempting to explain his induction law (1832) of his detailed experiments, abandoned the fundamental at a distance forces of Newton's, Coulomb's and Ampere's laws and went on to fill all space surrounding magnets and coils with imaginary stretched rubber bands, called lines of force . Especially he believed incorrectly that such space was in a state of tention basic to physical action with electric and magnetic "stress tensors" which retarded the progress of physics for understanding the nature of forces and the nature of light, because all theorists of the two last centuries used such a wrong approach called the "Field concept". Faraday also believed that an electric current would be induced in a wire whenever the wire cut these stretched bands. Faraday said: “If you know the properties of space then you automatically know the properties of matter”. In fact, detailed experiments showed that the induction law is consistent with the Ampere magnetic force acting at a distance.

In the same way though Aristotle (384-322) was the first to use the inductive method of scientific investigation he unfortunately introduced wrong axiomatic principles. For example he claimed that there was no smallest part of matter and introduced the fifth element, the ether, which retarded the progress of physics for understanding the nature of forces and the nature of light. Aristotle also believed that everything in nature had an innate urge activated by God , Unmoved Mover. That is, he ignored any dynamical situation involving forces acting at a distance and believed that there are geometrical circles of stars formed by the ether. After 2,000 years Descartes reviving the false Aristotelian ether proposed that gravity is due to impulses of ether. After the discovery of the conservation law of mass by Lavoisier (1789), the chemist Lother Meyer in 1872 predicted our principle of "Matter-photon transformation" by suggesting that the chemical reactions might be accompanied by the absorption or emission of light. However he believed that light consists of particles of the fallacious Aristotelian “ether”.

Although scientists rejected widely Faraday’s imaginary lines of force, Maxwell and Einstein accepted them leading to false self propagating fields and to the wrong assumptions of special and general relativity. For example Einstein in his general relativity incorrectly modified the dynamics of Newton’s gravity and went back to the Aristotelian geometric motions of planets. Also the wrong ideas of Faraday and the fallacious ether led to the false idea of a fallacious action of a wrong field generated by one particle on the other.

Later after the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron, which led to the abandonment of electromagnetic laws, great theorists for understanding the nature of nuclear forces developed wrong nuclear theories (without using natural laws) by modifying the wrong fields of Faraday and Maxwell. So they replaced the wrong fields with hypothetical force carriers , like electrons, mesons, virtual photons, W,Z bosons, and gluons, which did not lead to any nuclear structure. In our published paper “Nuclear structure…electromagnetism” we revived the abandoned electromagnetic laws involving forces acting at a distance, which give the nuclear structure. So using the basic laws of charge-charge interaction we showed that the wrong exchange forces and the fallacious force carriers of the so-called strong and weak interactions cannot exist.

According to Democritus the atoms (indivisible particles) are the smallest entities in the world moving in vacuum. Indeed today the two particles (electron and positron) seem to be the smallest entities moving in a vacuum like the atoms of Democritus, who believed also that atoms are eternal and analtered. However using our fundamental formula of “ matter- photon transformation” one sees that they are not eternal or unchangeable. In contrast they are altered, and the change is governed by the Arche of Anaximander and the Logos of Heraclitus. That is, some concepts of the atomistic theory based only on axiomatic principles like several ideas of Plato and Aristotle lead to complications without revealing any natural law. While the axioms in mathematics (Euclidean geometry) were very successful for the discovery of natural laws.. Later Archimedes (287-212) using many experiments was the first important physicist of antiquity who discovered the laws of flotation and buoyancy.

At the time of Plato (427-347) an astronomical problem was existing for the explanation of the irregular motions of planets. Plato gave his students this major problem to work on. Unfortunately his student Eudoxus, (408-347) following the traditional geocentric system proposed that the seemingly chaotic wandering motions of planets could be explained by several combinations of motions of homocentric spheres, while Heraclides (390-310) proposed that the earth rotates on its axis. Though Aristotle accepted the geocentric system, later Aristarchus (310-230) introduced the heliocentric system by using his measurements about the relative distance of the earth-sun with respect of the distance of the earth-moon. Then using the historical measurement of the periphery of the earth by Eratosthenes (276-195) and his observations of a lunar eclipse, estimated that the earth is smaller than the sun,leading to the heliocentric system. That is, Aristarchus applying the mathematics of Pythagoreans and the Eucledian geometry was the first Greek astronomer, who used a similar method of Galileo for the development of his heliocentric theory based on the two simple motions of earth.

However Archimedes offered an ingenious bit of reasoning to refute Aristarchus. If the earth is to move around the sun the astronomers should observe an annual parallax of the fixed stars. Aristarchus, as a great astronomer, answered that the small orbit of the earth with respect to the large distances of fixed stars cannot allow observable parallax with the naked eye. Even later telescopic measurements did not reveal it until 1838. Under this condition the great astronomers Apollonius (262-190) and Ptolemy (90 AD-168 AD) introduced in the geocentric system the more complicated epicyclic motions, which could not lead to the discovery of laws.

**GREAT REVOLUTIONS AND THE CRISIS OF MODERN PHYSICS**Edit

Finally after 1500 years the detailed astronomical measurements of Brahe (1574) led to the discoveries of the empirical laws of Kepler (1619) in the system of Copernicus (1543), who revived the heliocentric system of Aristarchus by using accurate results of the great astronomer Hipparchus (190-120).Then Newton using both Kepler’s laws and Galileo’s laws of motion (1632) discovered the universal law of gravity (1687) involving forces acting at a distance. For example Kepler in his third law formulated the empirical formula u2R = K for each planet where u is the velocity of planet and R the distance from the sun. Here K is a constant. Newton using his formula mu2/R = mGM/R2 found that u2R = GM = K , since M is the mass of sun and G a proportionality factor.

In those fruitful centuries Galileo demonstrated the values of simple mathematics in expressing his laws, which rejected Aristotle's ideas that a heavy body falls faster than a light one. Thus, once and for all the fallacious Aristotelian views on kinematics were thoroughly demolished, never to reappear in scientific circles. . Nevertheless Descartes in his Optics (1637) asserts that light is associated with motion in the fallacious ether. That idea led to the wrong wave theory of Huygens (1690) who proposed that light consists of waves propagating through the ether. Whereas Newton’s corpuscular theory including vibrations (1704) led to the photon theory (1905) and to our model of dipolic particles or dipolic photons (1993).

In 1801 a German mathematician, J. von Soldner confirmed the corpuscular theory by computing the trajectory of a corpuscle of light that passes close to the periphery of the sun. [J. von Soldner, Berl. Astr. Jahrb, (1804),p. 161]. Unfortunately in 1803 Young and Fresnel using the experiments of interference rejected the corpuscular theory, though Newton in his theory emphasizes the particle-wave duality. Reading carefully the results of his experiments one sees that Newton to account for the polarization assumed that light is a stream of rectangular particles. Also Newton suggested that light might have to be somehow assigned also periodic properties in order to account for the phenomenon of colors. Note that after the Ampere law the new concept of magnetic field could exert a force only on moving charges or currents. So Faraday for explaining the electromagnetic properties of light observed in his experiment of 1845 could use the Newtonian rectangular particles, to explain the torque by assuming that Newtonian particles could be similar to electric dipoles.

Then, after the discovery of the ratio of electric and magnetic constants by Weber(1856), Maxwell in 1865 recognized that E/B = c, but accepting the wrong theories of Huygens and Faraday’s lines of force introduced the fallacious self propagating fields by using the wrong assumption of the hypothetical displacement current and the wrong hypothesis that in the induction law the current is produced after the generation of an electric field. Also the idea of ether led to the hypothesis that self propagating fields are able to transmit not only the waves of light but also the electromagnetic forces. Note that the applications of electromagnetic laws on moving dipoles give the same equations of Maxwell. Also in our model of dipolic particles one can explain the diffraction, which Newton could not explain, because in those years the charge-charge interaction was unknown. When a dipolic particle strikes an interface at an oblique angle the one charge enters the new medium (water) with smaller speed because of the polarization of the molecules. Under this condition one concludes that the historical Michelson-Morley experiment (1887) should reject the Aristotelian ether.However under the great influence of Maxwell's electromagnetic theory Lorentz (1897 ) in order to explain the Michelson experiment under the wrong hypothesis of an immovable ether suggested that the linear dimension Lo along the velocity u of a body moving with respect to the fallacious ether is contracted to L according to his equation L/Lo = 1/γ where γ = c/(c2 –u2)0.5 .

On the other hand in 1900 Poincare recognized that the electromagnetic energy (E) behaves like a fictitious fluid with mass density of m = E/c2 . Moreover Kaufmann (1902) and other physicists by deflecting in electric and magnetic fields high-speed electrons of velocity u showed that the rest mass Mo increases to M according to M/Mo = c /(c2-u2)0.5 = γ.

That is, by pure coincidence the Lorentz factor γ is similar to the new factor γ of experiments when Lo/L = γ is replaced by the M/Mo = γ . Indeed in our model of dipolic particles one sees that according to the laws of electromagnetism involving forces acting at a distance the interaction of photons with an electron (in terms of fields) is given by

Ey(-e)dy = hν and Bz(-e)dy = Fdt = p = mc. Since Ey/Bz = c one gets hν /m = c2 .
Here we clear that the magnetic force on the electron appears after the electric force wich produces the velocity of the electron dy/dt. Houever according to Newton's action at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity the velocity dy/dt approaches to zero under a lenght contraction dy and a time dilation dt. That is, it invalidates Einatein's ideas of relative motions.

The same m = hν/c2 one may get by using the gravitational properties of photons. For example according to Newton’s law involving forces acting at a distance the energy of a photon on the surface of the earth interacting with the mass of the earth is given by

mgH = hδν . Here δν/ν = υ/c (Doppler effect), υ = gt and t = H/c .

Then substitutions give m = hν/c2. That is, applications of natural laws give the mass of photon.

It is indeed unfortunate that Einstein for formulating the special relativity (1905) replaced the fallacious Aristotelian ether by the vacuum because he accepted the Faraday hypothetical properties of space with imaginary lines of force. Though Einstein developed the photon theory, he emphasized that the vacuum has the properties for propagating the false self propagating fields of Maxwell. Also for formulating his general relativity (1915) accepted the field concept of Faraday and Maxwell and introduced a similar idea of Faraday that gravitation is also associated with some properties of space and time. Especially Einstein emphasized that light rays near the sun are bent because of the curvature of space and time. In fact, under the universal law of gravity the mass of photon m = hν /c2 interacts at a distance with the mass M of the sun and according to the independent velocities of Galileo the velocity υ of the photon toward the sun cannot be related with the speed c of photon.

Under this condition we applied the laws of electromagnetism on moving dipoles for developing the model of dipolic photons (1993). Then after a careful analysis of all experiments we discovered the “ photon-matter transformation” hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c2 accompanied by a time dilation and a length contraction.

This leads to M/Mo = γ since the differentiation of M2/Mo2 = γ2 = c2 /(c2- u2 )

gives the result dΕ/dΜ = c2.

That is, the increase of mass is due to the quantum dynamics because of the absorption of photons. However Einstein believed that the increase of mass is due to the relative motion of the moving particle with respect to a radomly moving observer. He also believed that the mass is transformed into energy leading to the fallacious mass-energy conservation. So to avoid confusions the phrase “special relativity” must be replaced by the phrase “ Quantum dynamics of photon- matter transformation”.

In the history of physical science we see also that the four elements of Empedocles were modified, while the atomic theory of Democritus was fruitful for the development of the atomic theory of chemical elements. Dalton (1803) from the calculations of the relative weights of chemical elements held that every element consisted of quantities of indivisible substances (atoms) which could not be further broken down by chemical methods. However in 1896 Becquerel discovered that some heavy atoms are unstable and Thomson, who discovered the electron in 1897, suggested that Dalton’s atom is a divisible substance made up of enough number of negatively charged electrons like seeds in a pumpkin able to neutralize the positively charged matter of Dalton’s atom. But this model could not explain the old puzzle of line emission spectra. Rutherford in 1911 after the gold foil experiments discovered the positively charged nucleus about which the light electrons can swarm at great distances. In other words Rutherford opened the way for the planetary model like the works of Aristarchus and Copernicus.

Meanwhile in 1871 Angstrom had measured the wavelengths of the visible lines of the hydrogen spectrum and Balmer in 1885 using these results formulated his empirical formula like Kepler who discovered his empirical laws by using the results of Brahe. In 1913 Bohr in order to explain Balmer’s formula for the hydrogen applied the Coulomb law in the system of the electron and the nucleus under the quantum theory of Planck and Einstein like Newton who explained Kepler’s laws under his discovery of the universal law of gravity. Bohr in his first paper considers the simple atom, hydrogen, consisting the electron orbiting in certain special orbits. Though Bohr showed that for the formation of the hydrogen atom energy of a photon hν = 13.6 eV is released he did not write anything for the mass defect, because Einstein in his photon theory described the photon only as a localized quantum of energy, while in our model of dipolic particles, photon has also a mass m = hν/c2 This situation invalidates the theory of special relativity, because the moving electron has less mass than the mass of the electron at rest. The electron in the electron-proton system of a potential of 27.2 eV gets a kinetic energy of 27.2 eV with a constant mass according to the Newtonian mechanics, and suddenly under a quantum jump it moves along the orbit with a kinetic energy of 13,6 eV giving a part of its energy

(ΔΕ = hν = 13.6 eV ) and mass ( ΔΜ = m = hν/c2) to the photon.

The Bohr model also was modified by the equations of Shroedinger, after the wave–matter duality introduced by De Broglie (1924). Schroedinger in his quantum mechanics (1926) describes the probabilities that an electron can be found in a region in space called orbital.

However for the description of many-electron atoms both theories could not explain the energies of two-electron orbitals. In our paper “ Spin- spin interactions of electrons…” we showed that two spinning electrons with opposite spin at a short distance r< 578.8 fm interact with a magnetic attraction stronger than the electric repulsion, since their peripheral velocities are faster than light. Under this condition they vibrate giving a vibration energy

Ev = 16.95Z - 4.1 where Z is the number of protons in the nucleus.

Though the vibration is repulsive the two-electron orbitals experience a stronger binding than the one-electron orbitals. For example the binding energy of the hydrogen atom with two electrons is E = - 27.2 + 16.95 - 4.1 = -14.35 eV adding a new concept in quantum physics. Using this vibration energy we also explained the empirical formula of Moseley, who in 1914 discovered the number of protons for each element This situation of stronger bindings of two-electron orbitals is the only way for understanding the atomic and molecular structure. In other words the enormous peripheral velocities (υ>>c) of the electron spin are responsible for our life.

Of course in this direction Einstein’s idea that the speed of light is the greatest velocity in nature did much to retard the progress of physics because Pauli rejecting the electron spin discovered by Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit introduced qualitative approaches like the exclusion principle which cannot be valid in the formation of deuteron. Also Heisenberg for explaining the molecular binding did not use the electromagnetic laws but introduced qualitative approaches like his wrong idea of the “exchange interaction”.

Moreover after the discovery of neutron by Chadwick (1932) it appeared that neutron has no charge. So Heisenberg in the same year for explaining the nuclear force between the proton end the neutron abandoned the electromagnetic laws in favor of qualitative approaches by introducing the fallacious idea of exchange forces , though Bohr and Shroedinger used the electromagnetic laws for the description of the hydrogen atom. The same wrong theories we observe in the so called weak interaction of Fermi (1934), in the meson theory of Yukawa (1935), in Feynman’s virtual photons (1950) based on the false self propagating fields, in the electroweak theory of Glasgow (1968) and in the theory of Gell- Mann (1973) who developrd the quantum chromodynamics with hypothetical gluons and color charges which could not lead to the nuclear structure. Note that in 1964 Gell-Mann proposed the historical quark model with spinning quarks of fractional charges.

Under this condition in my paper “Nuclear structure… electromagnetism” I analyzed carefully the magnetic moments of nucleons which give charges distributed in the centers and along the peripheries as: For proton (-5e/3, +8e/3) and for neutron (+8e/3, -8e/3). Then applications of natural laws under the quantum dynamics involving Fem acting at a distance between these charge distributions give the structure of nuclei with weak radial p-n bonds and very strong axial p-n bonds of short range. because nucleons are spinning oblate spheroids. In all stable nuclei the p-n bonds of short range overcome the p-p repulsions of long range Since Gell-Mann in 1964 in his historical quark model showed that the up quark has a charge +2e/3 and a down one has a charge –e/3 one sees that the charge distributions lead to the discovery of extra charged quarks as: For proton (5d, 4u) and for neutron (4u,8d). In our paper New atomic and nuclear physics we showed that the extra charged quarks which are responsible for the nuclear binding and structure are a part of 288 quarks in nucleons. For example the neutron is unstable because it has 92 (dud) uncharged triads and (4u+8d) charged quark while the proton has 93 uncharged quarks and (5d +4u) charged quarks.. But the deuteron is stable since the mass defect of 2.2246 MeV of the weak p-n bond is greater than the

ΔΜ = Μd – Mu = 3.69 – 2.4 = 1.29 MeV .

In heavier nuclei such single p-n bonds with attractive electromagnetic forces of short range are unstable because of the n-n repulsions. However in stable nuclei the extra neutrons make two or three p-n bonds per nucleon in order to overcome the long-ranged p-p repulsions.

**CONCLUSIONS**Edit

Summarizing we see that after the rejection of the Newtonian particles of light in favour of wrong waves propagating through a fallacious ether or a bizarre space great theorists of the two last centuries abandoned the natural laws and the inductive method which demands detailed experimental evidence for the discovery of new laws or to revive the known laws in order to support the conclusions like Galileo’s and Newton’s methods. Under this condition the “New revolution in physics” in the absence of new natural laws revives carefully the well-established electromagnetic laws involving forces acting at a distance, and UNDER THE QUANTUM DYMAMICS, modified the false Maxwellian waves and Einstein’s wrong relativity. Also detailed applications of natural electromagnetic laws on spinning electrons and spinning quarks having peripheral velocities greater than light led to the binding of electrons for the structure of molecules and manty-electron atoms They also lead to the binding of quarks for the structure of nucleons. Moreover the charge distributions in nucleons due to the extra quarks in nucleons under the application of the laws of electromagnetism led to the nuclear binding and to the nuclear structure.