This article was announced to many universities around the world (September 2013).

By Prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) T. E. Institute of Larissa. Greece

**PREFFACE**

Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paper IMPACT OF MAXWELL’S EQUATION OF DISPLACEMENT CURRENT ON ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS AND COMPARISON OF THE MAXWELLIAN WAVES WITH OUR MODEL OF DIPOLIC PARTICLES presented at the International conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” ( Olympia,1993). The paper invalidates Maxwell’s fields moving through a fallacious ether. Especially Maxwell for formulating his electromagnetic theory was based not on the well-established laws but on wrong postulations. Although the famous experiment of Michelson and Morley

(1887) rejected the ether in favor of Newton’s particles of light, Einstein using the Lorentz math of the ether theory develop his invalid theories of special and general relativity which violate not only the two conservation laws of mass and energy but also the well-established laws of Newton.One can also see my interesting paper NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society (2002).

Using the well-established laws which led to the enormous success of the Bohr model (1913) and the time- independent Schrodinger equations in three dimensions (1926) I prepared the above paper published in Ind. J. Th. Phys. (2003). The paper reveals the nuclear structure by reviving the electromagnetic forces of the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere. Therefore it invalidates both Einstein’s relativity and the theories of the wrong Standard model, developed after the abandonment of natural laws. (See in User Kaliambos the above papers along with my paper “ Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures” published in Ind.J.Th. Phys. in 2008).It is well-known that in Newtonian mechanics the potential energy turns into a kinetic one under a constant inertial mass. However in the quantum dynamics the constant inertial mass M_{o} of a particle becomes a variable one M under the absorption of photons having both energy E = hν and a corresponding mass m = hν/c^{2}.

In this NEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS one sees that all modern experiments confirm the mass m of the Newtonian** **particles of light. For example the experiment of Nichols and Hull (1903) showed that E/p = c . Also the Compton effect (1923) showed that light consists of particles having momentum p = hν/c Thus under the Planck work that E = hν and since p = mc the above experimental result can be written as

hν/m = c^{2}

Under this condition Lewis in 1926 replaced Einstein's massless quanta of fields by particles named photons. Note that Lewis regarded photons as carriers of energy. while the invalid quantum electrodynamics based on Einstein's fallacious massless quanta of fields describes photons as carriers of electromagnetic forces violating the fundamental action at a distance of the well-established laws confirmed by the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement. That is, a photon provides both energy and mass. So all wrong hypotheses of Einstein about the interpretation of the photoelectric effect and the development of his invalid special relativity according to the two conservation laws of energy and mass of the fundamental Newtonian mechanics should be modified, since the increase of the electron mass is due not to the invalid Einstein’s relativity but to our discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION according to which the absorption of energy and mass of photons increases the energy ΔΕ and mass ΔΜ of an electron as

hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

Note that the invalid special relativity violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass, while the absorption of the photon energy and mass increases the energy and mass of an electron in accordance with the fundamental conservation laws of energy and mass of the Newtonian mechanics under the application of the well-established laws of Newton. For example the experimental result of Kaufmann (1902)

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} = c^{2}/(c^{2 - }u^{2})

is interpreted by applying Newton’s second law F = dp/dt. Here M_{o} is not the fallacious rest mass of Einstein but the constant inertial mass M_{o} of the electron, which becomes a variable mass M under a basic length contraction and a time dilation. We also discovered that it is due not to Einstein’s wrong relativistic simultaneity of two events but to the application of Newton’s third law of instantaneous simultaneity of forces acting at a distance, confirmed by detailed experiments of the Quantum Entanglement. Since in the quantum dynamics the energy of the absorbed photon increases both the mass M and the velocity u of the electron the application of Newton’s second law leads to

Fds = dW = (dp/dt)ds = [d(Mu)/dt]dt = d(Mu)u = ( Mdu + udM)u

Indeed differentiation of the experimental result of Kaufmann leads to

dMc^{2} = (Mdu +udM)u = dW . That is, hν/m = dW/dM = c^{2}

Unfortunately Einstein believed that the science is not the collection of the well-established laws but of various hypotheses (see RELATIVITY by L. Kaliambos ). So he developed also his invalid general relativity by using various hypotheses like the fallacious Maxwell’s fields or wrong gravitational fields and gravitational waves treated as force carriers moving at the speed of light, though the electric field was defined as an electric force per unit charge unable to carry the same force. Although the Michelson and Morley experiment rejected the ether in favor not only of Newton’s particles of light but also of the fundamental action at a distance of Newton’s laws, Einstein influenced by Maxwell’s fields moving through a fallacious ether tried to modify Newton’s well-established laws by introducing a false “ether structure” or a strange “curvature of spacetime.” Also he tried to interpret Mercury’s precession by using wrong hypotheses, while it is explained accurately by the Newtonian Sun-tide. (See my NEWTON INVALIDATES EINSTEIN ).

Surprisingly Einstein in his general relativity introduced also his “equivalence principle” by using not the fallacious relativistic ideas but the fundamental gravitational and inertial properties of mass discovered by Galileo and Newton . Note that according to Newton’s great work all forces (not only gravity) cause accelerations under a constant inertial mass. Nevertheless Einstein believed that such accelerations are equivalent only to gravity. However in fundamental Newtonian mechanics these accelerations occur under a constant inertial mass which rejects Einstein’s concepts of rest mass or relativistic mass in motion with respect to a randomly moving observer. In other words Einstein’s general relativity rejects his special relativity.

**NEWTON’S PARTICLES OF LIGHT AND HIS LAWS WITH FUNDAMENTAL ACTION AT A DISTANCE REJT EINSTEIN’S FIELDS, GRAVITATIONAL WAVES, ETHER, AND THE STRANGE CURVATURE OF VACUUM**

In the history of modern physics it is fortunate that detailed experiments of the Quantum Entanglement (1935) confirmed accurately Newton’s action at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity. Since it rejected the “relativistic ideas” Einstein called it “Spooky action at a distance.” Moreover the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) who showed the fallacy of Maxwell's fields moving through a fallacious ether, opened the way for me to revive the well-established laws of nature which interpret accurately all experiments of the interactions of photons as particles having mass, as well as the experiments of quantum, atomic, molecular, and nuclear physics. Nevertheless today physicists influenced by the two contradicting theories of special and general relativity believe that photons are massless particles as quanta of the fallacious Maxwell’s fields. Despite this CRISIS OF FIELDS AND RELATIVITY they also believe that the gravity and the electromagnetic forces are due not to the fundamental action at a distance of the well-established natural laws of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere, but to the various hypotheses of Einstein including wrong fields and false gravitational waves under a fallacious “ether structure” or a strange “curvature of space time”. For example although the electric field was defined as the force per unit charge which cannot be a force carrier of the same electric force physicist believe that both electric and gravitational forces are mediated by the fallacious fields.

Under this confusion physicists also abandoned the well-established laws and introduced as force carriers various hypothetical gravitons, or virtual photons and massless gluons with very heavy unstable bosons of the fallacious strong and weak interactions described by the WRONG STANDARD MODEL . It is of interest to note that Newton after a careful analysis of experiments and observations rejected the ether in favor of his particles of light. In the “Luminiferous aether - WIKIPEDIA” we read:

“Christiaan Huygens, prior to Newton, had hypothesized that light was a wave propagating through an aether, but Newton rejected this idea. The main reason for his rejection stemmed from the fact that both men could apparently only envision light to be a longitudinal wave, like sound and other mechanical waves in fluids. However, longitudinal waves by necessity have only one form for a given propagation direction, rather than two polarizations as in a transverse wave, and thus they were unable to explain the phenomenon of birefringence, where two polarizations of light are refracted differently by a crystal. Instead, Newton preferred to imagine non-spherical particles, or "corpuscles", of light with different "sides" that give rise to birefringence. A further reason why Newton rejected light as waves in a medium was because such a medium would have to extend everywhere in space, and would thereby disturb and retard the Motions of those great Bodies (the planets and comets) and thus as it [light's medium] is of no use, and hinders the Operation of Nature, and makes her languish, so there is no evidence for its Existence, and therefore it ought to be rejected."

Although the task of science is to discover simple natural laws for interpreting observations and experiments Einstein unfortunately believed that science is not a collection of simple discovered laws but of various theories. (See EINSTEIN by L. Kaliambos ). Under such fallacious ideas Einstein did not like the fundamental gravitational force of the well-established laws of Newton. So he introduced also his fallacious “ether structure” or a strange “curvature of spacetime” which did much to retard the progress of physics, because Einstein believed incorrectly that a curved trajectory of a photon near the sun or a projectile with initial horizontal velocity on the earth is due not to the horizontal and vertical components of motion but to his invalid curvature of vacuum based on his wrong “mass-energy equivalence” (See my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN ). Although energy cannot turn into mass, in the “Spacetime-WIKIPEDIA” we read the following paragraph which means that vacuum and time are affected by matter which could represent energy: “In general relativity it is assumed that spacetime is curved by the presence of matter (energy)” In fact, when a photon moves in perpendicular direction to gravity it behaves like a projectile of Galileo’s detailed analysis of motions under the simple effect of a superposition.

**GALILEO’S ANALYSIS OF CURVED TRJECTORY AND NEWTON’ LAWS REJECT EINSTEIN’S “CURVATURE OF SPACETIME” AND HIS RELATIVISTIC MASS**

It is well-known that Galileo analyzed carefully the two separate motions (horizontal velocity and gravitational acceleration) of a projectile which do not impede or interfere with each other; on the contrary, the curved trajectory at any moment is the simple effect of a superposition of the two individual components. Newton taking into account this discovery predicted the bending of his particles of light near the sun confirmed by Soldner in 1801. In the same way I revealed that when a photon of mass m = hν/c^{2} (see my PHOTON OF LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS ) moves with its constant velocity c in perpendicular direction to gravity the gravitational force according to Newton’s first law will produce an acceleration along the direction of gravity which invalidates Einstein’s postulation of special relativity. Thus the two individual components of the velocity c and the gravitational acceleration under the simple effect of a superposition will give the bending of light.

We revealed that when c is perpendicular to gravity the photon mass behaves like the mass of particles which provide the two properties of gravitational mass and constant inertial mass of the Newtonian mechanics, while Einstein’s concept of rest mass is invalid. In other words the real gravity acting at a distance on the constant inertial mass of photon, under the application of the discovered well-established laws is responsible for the bending of light near the sun. In this case for the gravitational force F_{g} at a distance R from the center of the sun having a mass M we apply Newton's universal law of gravity by using the Euler formula (1750) deduced from Newton's first law

F_{g} = m_{o}(du/dt) = GmM/R^{2}

Here m_{o} is not the fallacious rest mass which could turn into a relativistic mass of Einstein’s invalid relativity but the correct constant inertial mass m_{o} discovered by Galileo and Newton, which is equal to the gravitational mass m of the same photon. It is well-known that the potential energy of gravity turns into a kinetic one under the constant inertial mass. In this case also the time intervals are universal or invariant. It is surprising that Einstein himself in general relativity introduced the equivalence principle according to which the gravity is equivalent to the acceleration under a constant inertial mass. Of course it has a limited application because Newton proposed that all kinds of force produce accelerations under the constant inertial mass. For example in the Bohr model the electric force is responsible for the electron acceleration having a constant inertial mass during the acceleration. Note that in both cases the constant inertial mass rejects Einstein’s concepts of rest and relativistic mass. That is, Einstein rejects himself.

Nevertheless Einstein in order to interpret the gravitational interaction on his wrong massless photons moving as quanta of the fallacious Maxwell’s fields did not like the discovered laws but tried to introduce various hypotheses of gravitational waves under a fallacious “ether structure” or a strange curvature of spacetime, with false gravitational fields which lead to complications. For example Einstein believed incorrectly that the most direct and transparent prediction of his equivalence principle is the gravitational red shift. However I revealed that it happens when the velocity c is parallel to gravity. In this case Newton’s formula of his second law can be written as

F = dp/dt = d(mu)/dt = c(dm/dt) Or Fds = dW = c(dm/dt)ds = dmc^{2} = hdν

That is, when the velocity c is parallel to gravitational force F the photon mass cannot behave like the mass of the particles because photons cannot accelerate along the direction of the constant velocity c. Therefore the photon mass now is not a constant inertial mass but a variable mass. This situation changes the frequency ν and interprets the gravitational red shift and the black holes under the rejection of Einstein’s equivalence principle. It occurs under a basic length contraction and a time dilation because any acceleration along the direction of the velocity c must approach to zero under a length contraction and a time dilation. Note that the photon operates at the velocity c with equal electric attraction and magnetic repulsion in accordance with Newton’s third law which is the same in all inertial frames with forces of instantaneous simultaneity. So any acceleration along the direction of the velocity c will give stronger magnetic repulsion than the electric attraction. However Einstein believed incorrectly that the simultaneity is relative with respect to a randomly moving observer. Note that in 1954 for the fields of his wrong relativity Einstein wrote the following letter to his friend M. Besso: “I consider it quite possible that physics cannot be based on the field concept, i.e. on continuous structures.” (See my WRONG AND CORRECT EINSTEIN ).

**THE GALILEAN PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY REJECTS THE RELATIVITY OF EINSTEIN WHO USED MAXWELL’S A FALLACIOUS HYPOTHETICAL ELECTRIC FIELD OF THE INDUCTION LAW**

In the Faraday induction law (1832) all experiments of the so-called motional EMF showed that according to the Galilean principle of relativity the EMF is consistent with the magnetic force F_{m }of the Ampere law no matter what is moving. Especially F. E. Neumann (1847) proved that induction is a consequence of Ampere's force law. However Einstein influenced by Maxwell's wrong fields in his theory of relativity believed that when a magnet moves with respect to a conductor a fallacious electric field should be produced, which violates the principle of relativity. In fact, the fallacious electric field (E) of the following incorrect equation of Maxwell

E2πr = (dB/dt) πr^{2}

can be written correctly as

(F_{m}/q) 2πr = (dB/dt) πr^{2}

In other words Einstein’s special relativity not only cannot be related with the observed absorption of photons in the quantum dynamics but also violates the Galilean principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s well-established laws.

**THE TWO CONSERVATION LAWS OF THE NEWTONIAN MECHANICS REJECT EINSTEIN’S INCOMPLETE EXPLANATION OF THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND HIS FALLACIOUS “MASS-ENERGY EQUIVALENCE”**

Unfortunately Einstein’s “mass-energy equivalence” violates the two conservation laws of mass and energy developed by the Greek philosophers Anaximander, Heraclitus, and Democritus confirmed by a large number of experiments. (See my NEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS ). Note that the Kaufmann experiment (1902) showing that the electron mass increases with the velocity of the electron led me to discover in the quantum dynamics the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION

hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2 }

It is unfortunate that Einstein in 1905 influenced by Maxwell’s false moving fields believed that photon has only energy hν. So in the absorption of photon (photoelectric effect) he used only the energy hν of the photon. In fact, the photon behaves like a particle of Newton’s Opticks (1704) . As a result the absorption of the photon mass m = hν/c^{2} in the quantum dynamics interprets accurately the photoelectric effect in accordance with the two conservation laws of energy and mass of the Newtonian mechanics. Moreover in the same year Einstein developed his incorrect relativity by formulating his incomplete formula E = mc^{2 }according to which the mass defect of atomic and nuclear binding energies should be transformed into the energy of generated photons. Such a fallacious idea did much to retard the progress of nuclear physics because the violation of the two conservation laws of mass and energy led to the abandonment of the fundamental forces of the well-established laws in favor of various wrong theories.

In fact, Bohr in 1913 showed accurately that the energy of the generated photon is due not to the mass defect of the system electron-proton but to the charge-charge interaction of the electron-proton interaction. Therefore the mass defect is transformed into the mass of the photon which confirms the Newtonian particles of light having mass. It also confirms the two conservation laws of energy and mass of the Newtonian mechanics. Under this condition in 2002 we revealed that the nuclear binding is due not to the mass defect of nucleons but to the electromagnetic forces of short range between 9 extra charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron of the NEW STRUCTURE OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS .

**NEWTON’S THIRD LAW REJECTS EINSTEIN’S “RELATIVISTIC SIMULTANEITY”**

According to the Galilean relativity deduced from Newton’s laws all natural laws are the same in all inertial frames. For example a game of billiards played on a train with uniform linear velocity can equally described by a man playing the same game on the ground because the time intervals are the same in both systems. As a result according to the well-established Newton’s third law simultaneous events at two positions in one inertial frame are simultaneous in any other inertial frame. Also in the absence of the absorption of photons lengths of space and time measure the same in any inertial frame. However in the quantum dynamics the absorption of photons by an electron changes not only the mass but also the space and time. It is well-known that a photon as a dipole interacts with the charge (-e) of an electron as

E_{y}(-e)dy = dW and B_{z}(-e)(dy/dt) = F_{m} Or B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m}dt = dp = dmc

Since E_{y}/B_{z} = c we get dW/dm = c^{2} .

In this interaction we see that the magnetic force F_{m} due to the velocity dy/dt produced by the electric force must occur after the electric force. But this situation should violate Newton’s third law of instantaneous simultaneity. So to avoid such a situation the velocity dy/dt should approach to zero under a basic length contraction (dy) and time dilation (dt). To conclude we emphasize that all experiments and observations assumed to be interpreted by the wrong hypotheses of Einstein which violate the two conservation laws of mass and energy are explained here accurately by applying the well-established laws.