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By prof. Lefteris  Kaliambos ( Λευτέρης  Καλιαμπός ) T. E. Institute of Larissa. Greece (February 2014)

Disc

Olympia 1993. The editor offered to me this trophy

Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paper IMPACT OF MAXWELL’S EQUATION OF DISPLACEMENT CURRENT ON ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS AND COMPARISON OF THE MAXWELLIAN WAVES WITH OUR MODEL OF DIPOLIC PARTICLES presented at the International conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” (1993).  In that conference I presented my DISCOVERY OF DIPOLE NATURE OF PHOTON according to which LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS INVALIDATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY .

LefterisKaliambosbiography2 html 21c873b8

NCSR "Demokritos" (2002). Discovery of nuclear structure

One can also see my paper NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society (2002). At that symposium I presented my DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE by following the same method of the enormous success of the Bohr model (1913) and the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions. I published the paper in Ind. J. Th. Phys. (2003), with a large number of integral equations which reveal the nuclear structure by using the electromagnetic forces of the well-established laws, since the neutron is not an uncharged particle but it has negative charge along the periphery and positive one at the center.


In the same way I discovered that the electron antineutrino (ν) has negative charge along the periphery and positive one at the center, while the electron neutrino ( ν +) has positive charge along the periphery and negative one at the center. Surprisingly it invalidates both Einstein’s relativity and the theory of weak interaction of the Standard model developed after the abandonment of natural laws. (See in User Kaliambos the above  papers along with  my  paper “ Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear  structures” published in Ind.J.Th. Phys.  in 2008). In that paper one can read my DISCOVERY OF TWO-ELECTRON ATOMS by using the discovery of the electron spin (1925) which has a peripheral velocity greater than light and gives stronger magnetic attraction than the electric repulsion between two electrons of opposite spin at very short interelectron separations.

 

THE ANTINEUTRINO ABSORPTION IS DUE TO ELECTOMAGNETIC FORCES WHICH INVALIDATE THE THEORIES OF WEAK AND ELECTROWEAK INTERACTIONS

Unfortunately the assumed massless and uncharged neutrinos led to the abandonment of the well-established laws of electromagnetism in favor of wrong theories. For example in 1934 Fermi developed the theory of weak interaction according to which the neutron decay could be explained by an unknown interaction called weak interaction of zero range. On the other hand the assumed uncharged neutron led to the abandonment of the same electromagnetic laws in favor of the wrong meson theory of Yukawa (1935) according to which  the nuclear force is due not to the well-established laws  of electromagnetic interaction but to an unknown force of short range called strong interaction  able to be mediated by fallacious force carriers. Under this new fallacious hypothesis a new theory called electroweak theory  for unifying the laws of electromagnetism with  false theory of weak interaction has been proposed by Glashow, Salam, and  Weinberg (1968) who believed that they predicted the existence of neutral currents.  

In fact, the huge Gargamelle bubble chamber photographed the tracks of a few electrons suddenly starting to move seemingly of own accord and this was interpreted as a neutrino interacting with the electron by a hypothetical exchange of an unseen Z boson.  Also under the false idea that Einstein’s wrong massless quanta of fields could be able to carry the electromagnetic forces and following the false Quantum Electrodynamics in the 1950s, they tried to formulate a similar theory of the wrong weak force.  So  they proposed that heavy bosons like W and Z ( able to be created at CERN) could be expected to be the fallacious force carriers of the wrong weak interaction like the fallacious masslees quanta of fields of Einstein's contradicting relativity theories .  The fact that the W and Z bosons have mass while the assumed massless quanta of fields of Einstein have no mass was a major obstacle in developing the new electroweak theory. Note that the electroweak theory was developed on the basis of massless particles (gauge theory) which cannot exist in accordane with my DISCOVERY OF PHOTON MASS . Therefore some mechanism should be required to break the symmetry of the fallacious massless particles which could give mass to the W and Z particles in the process. Note that one incorrect explanation, the Higgs mechanism was by Higgs and others in the mid 1960s. It predicts incorrectly the existence of yet another new fallacious field or paricle; the Higgs boson.    (See my CONFUSING CERN RESULTS AND IDEAS and  INVALIDITY OF HIGGS BOSON ).  In fact,  after the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement confirming accurately Newton’s action at a distance and the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) who showed the fallacy of Maxwell’s self-propagating fields the electric field of the Coulomb law is just a force per unit charge acting at a distance.  So the electric force per unit charge cannot carry the same electric force.

Discovety of three kinds of neutrinos:

It is now known that there are three kinds of neutrinos, the simple electron antineutrino (ν )  and the neutrino ( ν+) which are involved in the beta decay,  the muon neutrino νμ, and its antiparticle which participate in the decay of the lepton muon (μ ) and the  ντ and its antiparticle which participate in the decay of the lepton tau ( τ ).

For the beta decay we must emphasize that neither the electron nor the positron or neither the antineutrino or the neutrino exists inside the nucleus prior to the decay. Unfortunately under the influence of Einstein’s wrong mass-energy conservation,  physicists believe that these particles are created in the process of the fallacious conversion of energy to mass. In my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” I showed that the formation of deuteron D  is due not to Einstein's invalid conversion of mass to energy because the mass defect of nucleons turns into the mass of photon in accordance with the following reaction

 p + n = D + γ 

That is, in the formation of the  deuteron D  the energy of the electromagnetic interaction ΔΕ  between the charges of neutron (n) and the charges of proton (p) turns into the energy hν of the generated photon (γ)  while the mass defect ΔM of nucleons turns into the mass m = hν/c2 of the generated photon in accordance with my discovery of the MATTER-PHOTON TRANSFORMATION

ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c2

In the same way one observes that the mass in the absorption of the energetic antineutrino ( ν ) by the proton ( p ) is equal to the total mass of the neutron (n)  and the positron ( e+) in accordance with the following reaction

  ν + p = n + e+

After my  DISCOVERY OF QUARKS IN PROTON AND NEUTRON this simple reaction can be written as

ν + [ 92(dud) + (dud) + 4u  + 5d ] = [ (92(dud) +4u + 5d ] + e+    or    ν + (dud) =3d +e+

That is

ν + u = d + e+  

 As in the case of the neutron which interacts with proton for the formation of the deuteron we may see here that the antineutrino could be treated as a particle  with opposite charges.  So the charge of the energetic antineutrino could interact with the charge of the up quark for giving a down quark and a positron under the two conservation laws of energy and mass. For example according to the conservation law of mass the above reaction in MeV can be written as:

1.8 + 2.4  = 3.69 + 0.51    MeV

Whereas the so –called force carriers of very heavy bosons, like the discovered W and Z  bosons at CERN did much to retard the progress of physics, because both the  fallacious weak and  strong interactions have sparked a new hope that a grand unification scheme could be found for the unification of the false forces and fields. In fact in nature exist three fundamental interactions of the well-established laws of Newton (1687), Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820).  Fortunately my  DISCOVERY OF THE DIPOLE NATURE OF PHOTON  led to my DISCOVERY OF UNIFIED FORCES

 

DISCOVERY OF THE NEUTRINO MASS WITH OPPOSITE CHARGES INTERACTING UNDER THE WELL-ESTABLISHED ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS  INVALIDATES THE THEORIES OF WEAK AND ELECTROWEAK INTERACTIONS

Unfortunately the wrong Standard Model of particle physics assumed that neutrinos are massless. However the experimentally established phenomenon of neutrino oscillation, which mixes neutrino flavor states with neutrino mass states,  requires neutrinos to have  masses.  Massive neutrinos were originally conceived by Bruno Pontecorvo in the 1950s. In 1998, research results at the Super-Kamiokande neutrino detector determined that neutrinos can oscillate from one flavor to another, which requires that they must have mass.  In 2006, the MINOS experiment measured oscillations from an intense muon neutrino beam, determining the difference in the squares of the masses between neutrino mass eigenstates. In 2009 lensing data of a galaxy cluster were analyzed to predict a neutrino mass of about 1.5 eV.  On 31 May 2010, OPERA researchers observed the first tau neutrino candidate event in a muon neutrino beam, the first time a transformation in neutrinos had been observed, giving evidence that they have mass.

In July 2010 the 3-D Mega Z DR7 galaxy survey reported that they had measured a limit of the combined mass of the three neutrino varieties to be less than 0.28 eV. A tighter upper bound yet for this sum of masses, 0.23 eV, was reported in March 2013 by the Planck collaboration. On July 19, 2013 the results from the T2K experiment presented at the European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics in Stockholm confirmed accurately the neutrino oscillation.  Whereas a February 2014 result estimates the sum as 0.320 ± 0.081 eV.

The neutrino has half-integer spin (½ħ) and is therefore a fermion. The discovery of neutrino flavor oscillations implies that neutrinos have mass. The existence of a neutrino mass strongly suggests the existence of a tiny neutrino magnetic moment of the order of 10−19  μB, allowing the possibility that neutrinos  interact electromagnetically.

Unfortunately Majorana in 1937 developed a theory in which the simple neutrino (ν+) and the antineutrino (ν)  are identical particles. In fact, the antineutrino emitted in neutron decay differs from the neutrino emitted in proton decay. According to the experiments in the neutron decay the electron antineutrino pair are emitted in a singlet spin state (S =0 ) like two electrons of opposite spin. Note that according to my DISCOVERY OF TWO-ELACTRON ATOMS the opposite spin of paired electrons is due to the electromagnetic interaction between the two electrons having the same charge (-e)  distributed along the periphery of the electrons. However In  the deuteron of parallel spin ( S =1)  one observes that the proton is spinning with the positive charge (+8e/3) distributed along the periphery, while the neutron is spinning with a negative charge (-8e/3) distributed along the periphery. That is, the like charges along the peripheries give opposite spin, while the unlike charges along the peripheries give parallel spin. ( See my DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE ).  Therefore the opposite spin of the electron antineutrino pair is due to the fact that the antineutrino has a negative charge along the periphery and a positive charge at the center like a spinning neutron with negative charge along the periphery and positive charge at the center. The analogous result holds for positron emission. In that case the positron neutrino pair of opposite spin means that the neutrino has negetive charge at the center and positive charge along the periphery which interacts elecromagnetically with the spinning positive charge (+e ) of the positron.

 

CONCLUSIONS

To conclude one observes that according to the experiments and the well-established laws of electromagnetism the opposite charges of neutrinos and antineutrinos interact with the charged quarks at a distance. Especially during the emission the negative charge along the periphery of the antineutrino interacts with the (-e) charge of the spinning electron for giving opposite spin in the electron antineutrino pair. Whereas the positive charge along the periphery of the neutrino interacts electromagnetically with the positive charge (+e) of the spinning positron for giving the opposite spin of the positron neutrino pair. Under this condition of electromagnetic interactions all fallacious theories of weak and electroweak interactions as well as all false ideas of  meson theory and the so-called quantum chromodynamics including wrong strong interactions with fallacious gluons and “color forces”  do much to retard the progress of physics.