December 26, 2017
After my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” (2003) today it is well-known that in the quantum physics of non conservative forces are applied together the two well-established conservation laws of energy and mass, while the experiments reject relativity, based on Maxwell’s invalid self propagating fields. (Invalid Maxwell’s equations). Although in 1801 Soldner confirmed the gravitational properties of the Newtonian particles of light, and Planck (1900) showed that light consists of the quanta of energy E = hν, Einstein in his first paper of 1905 influenced by the invalid Maxwell’s fields without mass (1865) believed that light consists only of Planck’s quanta of energy E = hν without mass. Thus, for the explanation of the photoelectric effect he used only the conservation law of energy, while at the same year in the development of his theory of special relativity he violated the two well-established laws of energy and mass by introducing the hypothesis of mass-energy equivalence based on his incomplete equation E = mc2. (Invalid mass-energy conservation).
It is of interest to note that in the Compton effect (1923) the absorption of a photon by the electron contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔM, which cannot be explained by Einstein’s equation E = mc2. In fact, after my paper of dipolic photons presented at the international conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics”(1993), today it is well-known that the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ and the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ in the Compton effect are due not to the relative motion of the electron (theory of relativity) but to the absorption of the photon having energy E = hν (Planck 1900) and mass m = hν/c2 (Planck 1907). This is the law of the Photon-Matter Interaction given by
hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c2 or ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c2
This law based on the experiments of Lavoisier (1789) and of Joule (1847) contains also all the phenomena of atomic molecular and nuclear physics, because after my paper of (2003) and the paper “Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures” (2008), today it is well-known that the energy ΔΕ of interacting particles turns into the energy hν of photons, while the mass defect ΔΜ turns into the mass m = hν/c2 of the same photons.
For example according to the two conservation laws of energy and mass based on the experiments of nuclear physics in deuteron the 9 extra charged quarks of proton and 12 extra charged quarks of neutron give the very strong electromagnetic force of short range. (Discovery of nuclear force and structure). In this case the electromagnetic energy ΔΕ= 2.2246 MeV turns into the energy hν = 2.2246 MeV of the emitting photon, while the mass defect ΔΜ = ΔΕ/c2 which is equal to the mass of 4.3534 electrons turns into the mass m = hν/c2 of the emitting photon.
Note that Einstein after 33 years (1938) in his book “The evolution of physics” changed his previous ideas about the strange curvature of space based on the wrong hypothesis that light consists of quanta of Maxwell’s self propagating fields without mass and accepted the Newtonian particles of light with gravitational properties. For example on page 234 Einstein wrote: “A beam of light carries energy and energy has mass. But every inertial mass is attracted by the gravitational field, as inertial and gravitational masses are equivalent. A beam of light will bend in a gravitational field exactly as a body would if thrown horizontally with a velocity equal to that of light.”
Under such an inconsistency in 1993 M. Barone and F.Selleri organized the international conference of 1993 where I presented my paper of the dipolic photon which led to my discovery of the law of Photon matter Interaction.
In the same way after the experiments of Kaufmann (1901) and Bucherer (1909) I found that both the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ and the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ of the beta decay are due to the released energy Δw = 1.293 MeV and the mass defect Δm = mass of 2.53 electrons, when the neutron changes into proton. This is the general law of energy and mass given by
Δw/Δm = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c2
This general law, which rejects Einstein’s hypothesis of mass-energy equivalence includes not only the law of Photon-Matter Interaction but also all the phenomena of heat, because the thermal energy Q when changes into another energy is accompanied by a mass defect. Einstein in 1938 in his book on page 209 wrote: “The quantity of heat able to convert thirty thousand tons of water into steam would weigh about one gram.”
According to Newton’s second law in the system of conservative forces we apply not the fallacious rest mass of Einstein (wrong rest mass) but the constant inertial mass Mo which is equal to the gravitational mass. That is we get
Fds = dW = Mo(du/dt)ds = Moudu or ΔW = Mou2/2
In other words in the absence of absorption or emission of photons as it occurs in the Newtonian mechanics of conservative forces the inertial Mass Mo remains always constant when the potential energy turns to kinetic energy.
However in the quantum physics with the absorption of photons by electrons (correct explanation of photoelectric effect) the inertial mass Mo of the electron at high velocities u near the velocity c of light becomes a variable mass M given by the experimental relation found by Kaufmann in 1901.
M2/Mo2 = c2/(c2-u2)
Then differentiating this by applying Newton’s second law F = dp/dt we get the same equation of Einstein ΔE/ΔM = c2 which is due to the absorption of hν/m, in accordance with the two well-established conservation laws of energy and mass. That is, since the absorption of photon contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase to the electron mass ΔΜ we get the complete equation
hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c2
In this Photon-Matter Interaction under the application of Newton's third law both the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ and electron mass ΔΜ occur under a length contraction and time dilation. (Discovery of length contraction).
Unfortunately under the influence of the invalid relativity today many physicists continue to believe that Einstein’s hypothesis of mass-energy equivalence is correct. For example writing in Google “Mass-energy equivalence-WIKIPEDIA” we read that Einstein’s formula E = mc2 implies that even an everyday object at rest with a modest amount of mass has a very large amount of energy. However after my papers of 2003 and 2008 today it is well-known that Einstein’s relation KE = Mc2-Moc2 is invalid, because the hypothesis of Moc2 cannot be applied in atomic, molecular, and nuclear physics. (Invalid rest energy). For example In the Bohr model ( Nobel prize 1922) Bohr discovered the conservation law of energy in the atom of hydrogen, because the electric energy ΔΕ = 13.6 eV of the proton-electron interaction turns into the energy hν = 13.6 eV of the emitting photon. That is, ΔΕ = hν = 13.6 eV which invalidates the hypothesis of rest energy because the energy hν = 13.6 eV of the photon is due not to the hypothesis of rest energy but to the real energy of the electric interaction between the proton and the electron.
Note that Einstein in 1938 for the description of the Bohr model abandoned his hypothesis of rest energy and wrote that the energy of the photon is due not to the mass defect but to the energy of the electron-proton interaction in accordance with the law of conservation of energy. For example on page 282 Einstein wrote: “From the energy principle it must follow that the energy level of an atom is higher before emission and lower afterwards, and that the difference between the two levels must be equal to the energy of the emitted photon.”
In fact, using the energy ΔΕ = 13.6 eV it is possible to calculate the mass defect ΔΜ = 13.6 eV/c2 which is very small with respect to the electron mass. Note that according to the two well-established laws of energy conservation and mass conservation in the electron positron interaction we observe an electromagnetic energy ΔΕ = 1.022 MeV which turns to the energy 2hν = 1.022 MeV of the two emitting photons, while the mass defect ΔΜ = ΔΕ/c2 which is equal to the mass of the electron and the positron turns into the mass m = hν/c2 of the two emitting photons. That is, in this case of the interacting charges of electron and the positron the energy ΔΕ = 1.022 MeV is accompanied by the mass defect equal to the mass of two electrons . Whereas in the proton-electron interaction for the formation of the hydrogen atom the mass defect ΔΜ = 13.6 eV/c2 is equal to the very small mass of 0.0000266 electrons. Under this condition Bohr used only the conservation law of energy.
However under Einstein’s false hypothesis that mass turns to energy today many physicist believe that the mass of the two particles does turn into the energy of the two photons. For example writing in Google “Electron -positron annihilation- WIKIPEDIA” we read this fallacious idea, which does much to retard the progress of physics. In this case it is used the invalid rest energy. So, the fundamental interaction of the electron-positron system is absent. In other words Einstein's hypothesis of rest energy violates not only the two basic laws of energy and mass but also the two well-established laws of Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820).
Also in the MODERN PHYSICS (page 37) under the influence of the invalid relativity we read not the real energy ΔΕ = 13.6 eV due to the electric interaction of particles but the following false idea about the determination of the change in the rest mass of a system consisting of a proton and the electron as the two particles combine to form a hydrogen atom. In this false example the mass defect ΔΜ = ΔΕ/c2 gives the hypothetical rest energy Moc2 = 13.6 eV, while Bohr proved that the real energy ΔΕ = 13.6 eV is due to the electric interaction of the proton-electron system. Nevertheless on the same page we read the following invalid idea:
“ Not only does the mass of a system change as it absorbs or releases energy, but the entire rest mass of a body may be converted to energy.”
In the same way under the influence of the invalid relativity today many physicists believe that the energy ΔΕ of the gravitational waves discovered by the LIGO team (2016) are due to the mass defect ΔΜ = mass of 3 suns. In fact, according to the well-established conservation law of energy the energy ΔΕ of the gravitational waves is due to the gravitational energy Δw of the two interacting black holes. (Spasetime ripples of laws).
To conclude we emphasize that all the experiments of the quantum physics of non conservative forces including the atomic, molecular, and nuclear physics reject Einstein’s hypothesis of mass-energy equivalence based on the incomplete equation E = mc2 which is replaced here by the general law of energy and mass given by
Δw/Δm = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c2.