By Prof. L.Kaliambos (Λ. Καλιαμπός) Τ. Ε. Institute of Larissa (Greece)

Feb. 2013

**REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS BY REVIVING THE LAWS**

I PRESENTED AT THE 12th SYMPOSIUM OF THE HELLENIC NUCLEAR PHYSICS SOCIETY (N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", 2002) A LARGE NUMBER OF INTEGRAL EQUATIONS BASED ON NATURAL ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS WITH FORCES ACTING AT A DISTANCE. THEY REVEAL THE NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND INVALIDATE EINSTEIN'S WRONG IDEA THAT THE NUCLEAR BINDING ENERGY IS DUE TO THE MASS DEFECT. THEY ALSO INVALIDATE THE FALLACIOUS WEAK AND STRONG FORCES OF THE STANDARD MODEL DUE TO THE ASSUMED UNCHARGED NEUTRONS AND NEUTRINOS, WHICH LED TO THE ABANDONMENT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS. NOTE THAT SUCH THEORIES DO MUCH TO RETARD THE PROGRES OF PHYSICS. FOR EXAMPLE, UNLIKE THE NOBEL PHYSICS BASED ON TESTABLE PREDICTIONS, THE FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS PRIZE ( FPP) BASED NOT ON NATURAL LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS BUT ON THEORIES CANNOT LEAD TO THE PROGRESS OF PHYSICS, SINCE THE STRING THEORY IN VAIN TRIED TO UNIFY THE FALSE STRONG AND WEAK FORCES.

This article was announced to many universities around the world (Febr 2013).

Writing in Google scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paper " Impact of Maxwell's equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles" (Olympia, 1993) which invalidates Maxwell’s fields and Special Relativity.

Especially my dipole photons are based on the Faraday experiment (1845) and on the Compton effect (1923) according to which the absorption of the photon contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy but also to the increase of the electron mass, while Einstein's massless quanta of Maxwell's wrong fields led to the incorrect explanation of the photoelectric effect and to the invalid Einstein's relativity which violates not only the two conservation laws of mass and energy but also the principle of relativity deduced from Newton's laws.

One can also find my paper "Nuclear structureis governed by the fundamental laws of electomagnetism" presented at the 12th Hellenic nuclear physics society (NCSR "Demokritos",2002) and published in Ind. J. Th. Phys. (2003). In that paper I formulated a large number of integral equations based on the well-established laws of electromagnetism, which lead to the coherent nuclear structure and invalidate Einstein's relativity. For example in the nuclear structure the neutron mass is 2.53 electrons heavier than the proton mass. So according to the conservation law of mass when the neutron changes into the proton we observe a mass defect, Δm = mass of 2.53 electrons, which is equal to the increasing mass ΔΜ = mass of 2.53 of the emitting electron. that is Δm = ΔΜ = 2.53 electrons.

**In other words the increasing mass of the emitting electron, ΔM = 2.53 electrons, is due not to the ralative motion of the emitting electron (which violates the conservation law of mass ) but to the absorption of the mass defect Δm = 2.53 electrons.** **It is of interest to note that in 1909 Bucherer measured such an increasing mass, ΔM = 2.53 electrons, but he believed that he confirmed the theory of special relativity, because the neutron was discovered much more later (1932).**

On the other hand the abandonment of laws led to wrong nuclear theories of the standard model. (See in “User Kaliambos” the above published papers along with our additional published paper “Spin-spin interactions of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures”presented also at the 16th Symposium of the Hellenic Nuclear Physics Society ). Note that the discovery of the electron spin (1925) showed a peripheral velocity greater than the speed of light ( u>>c ) which leads to the quantum mechanics of two-electron coupling.

** EXPERIMENTS INVALIDATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY**

After the French-Tessman experiment (1963) showing the fallacy of Maxwell’s fields,( See my paper in User Kaliambos ) I revived the basic concepts of Newton’s great work like the principle of relativity deduced from his laws, the action at a distance of natural laws, and Newton’s particles of light, which predicted the bending of light near the sun. The first experiment which confirmed Newton’s action at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity was that of Cavendish ( 1798). Moreover in 1801 Von Soldner confirmed Newton’s prediction of bending of light based on the action at a distance by calculating the amount of deflection of a light ray by a star. However, though Newton in his particles predicted vibrations, the experiments of Young (1803) and the wave theory of Fresnel led to the false ether, and to the concept of field (1832) introduced by Faraday, who went on to fill all space around currents with fallacious stretched rubber bands called lines of force. So among many physicists in 1856 Sir George Airy wrote that according to the experiments of the laws of Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820) involving charges q and Q and currents I and i respectively given by

F_{e} = KQq/r^{2} and F_{m} =(
k2 I/r )

the forces acting at a distance are simple and
clear, while the Faraday fields are vague and complicated lines. For example in
the Coulomb law the hypothetical field E cannot be a mediator of the electric
force because for q = 1 we obtain the electric intensity E which represents the
same force when q =1. Note that in the same year (1856) Weber showed
experimentally that K/k = c^{2} ( See my paper CRISIS OF FIELDS AND RELATIVITY ).

Nevertheless Maxwell in 1865 following the false ether and the Faraday field concept developed his wrong theory of electromagnetic waves, which led to the wrong theories of relativity and to the force carriers mediating incorrectly the wrong strong and weak forces developed after the abandonment of the real electromagnetic laws. (See our INVALIDITY OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY ).

Meanwhile in 1832 Faraday confirmed Newton’s principle
of relativity in his induction law, because the magnetic resultant, emf, is the
same due to the relative motion of magnets and conductors, no matter what
material is moving. Note that Faraday summarizes his results in the following
paragraph: "All these results show that the power of inducing
electric current is circumferentially excited by a magnetic resultant** .."**
Also the experiments showed that his induction law is consistent with the
magnetic force of the Ampere law. That is, the experiments of the so-called
motional emf confirm the interaction at a distance and invalidate the field
concept. However Maxwell not only used the wrong concept of the
displacement current but also violated the principle of relativity by
suggesting the propagation of a fallacious electric field when the magnet moves
with respect to the conductor. The same false ideas used also by Einstein in
his introduction of the false special relativity, which violate the principle
of relativity in the induction law. (See my paper EINSTEIN'S WRONG ASSUMPTIONS IN SPECIAL RELATIVITY ).

On the other hand the Michelson - Morley experiment (1887), in fact, confirmed not the Cartesian ether, but Newton's action at a distance, and the principle of relativity deduced from his laws according to which his particles of light behave like particles having mass. For example when a light source on a moving train emits Newton's particles of light, or our dipole photons, all observers on the moving train will measure the same speed of light by measuring the same mass m and frequency ν, while an observer on the ground of earth according to Newtons second law

F = dp/dt = d(mc)/dt = dm(c)/dt or FdS = dW = (dmc)c

will measure a different mass dm and frequency dν. He will measure also a bending of light because of an acceleration parallel to gravity. That is, it invalidates Einstein's second postulation. In contrast, the Lorentz transformation, based not only on the fallacious ether but also on an additional strange hypothesis of a length contraction of the Michelson interferometer , led to the false special relativity. Note that Einstein replaced the ether by the Faraday vacuum assumed to transmit the wrong Maxwell's fields. Thus in his general relativity (1916) he introduced the fallacious gravitational wave under a wrong non-Euclidian geometry of vacuum, which have never been observed, while in 1924 he re-introduced the fallacious ether. Thus, despite the confusion about the ether he believed that his wrong relativity is a general law which was able to modify the natural laws ( Read in Grolier Encyclopedia a summary of relativity written by Einstein in 1955 before his death).

It is indeed unfortunate that modern physicists
believe that Maxwell’s and Einstein’s theories are not wrong hypotheses
but fundamental laws. In “Laws of science-WIKIPEDIA” one reads the
following incorrect words: “*Newton’s laws are low-limit solutions*
to relativity* ” and “*Pre-Maxwell laws are not fundamental, since
they can be derived from Maxwell’s equations

*examined carefully the geometry of the magnetic forces in order to clear carefully the action at a distance.*

**”.**Under this condition we**THE EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY OF FORCES INVALIDATES FIELDS AND RELATIVITY AND REVEALS THE DIPOLE NATURE OF PHOTONS**

It is well-known that the gravitational and electric forces work with a simple Eucledian geometry along a straight line, whereas for calculating the magnetic force on moving point charges the math seems more complicated. For this reason in 1832, Faraday for interpreting his induction law introduced the wrong concept of field which led to the fallacious fields of Maxwell, Higgs, etc. ( See my paper INVALIDITY OF HIGGS BOSON ). Note that special fundamental physics prizes based not on natural laws but on contradicting theories have been awarded to St. Hawking and to seven scientists who led the effort to discover a Higgs-like particle at CERN.

In general, when two positive point charges Q and q
(separated by a distance r) move with velocities u and υ respectively,
the vector F_{m} on the moving q is given by applying
the Biot-Savart law :

F_{m }= (kQusinφ/r^{2})qυsinθ = Bqυsinθ

Here φ is the angle between the vectors u and r, and θ is the angle between the vector υ and the vector B. In a detailed analysis of this problem we see that the vector u and the distance r form a plane (ur) with a perpendicular line (vector B) at q. However according to the Ampere law involving forces acting at a distance we may represent the plane (ur) by a simple xy plane where Q is at the point of the intersection of axes with the vector u pointing to +x. In this case the above expression can be written as

F_{m }= kQusinφqυcosα/r^{2 }

Here sinφ gives the projection of r on the y axis,
while υcosα is the
projection of υ on
the xy plane. Now it is well-known that according to the experiments the vector
F_{m} is perpendicular to both υ and υcosa. So it
lies in the xy plane and points always to the right direction with respect to
the vector υcosα,
when the r is projected on +y. Whereas the projection on –y gives a vector F_{m} (on
moving q), pointing always to the left direction with respect to the vector υcosα. In the same
way we can determine the F_{m} on the moving Q by starting with
the plane (υr).
That is, to calculate the quantity and the direction of F_{m }acting
at a distance the introduction of B by Faraday is unnecessary, because we use
the two real planes of the Euclidean geometry formed by the velocities with
respect to the r. Whereas Einstein in his General relativity suggested a
strange non- Euclidean geometry for gravity though the gravitational forces
have the same geometry of electric ones. Such a Euclidean geometry of
electromagnetism led us to study the mutual electromagnetic forces of a moving
dipole. A pair of equal and opposite point charges (+q , -q ) separated by a
distance r is called a dipole. When it moves at a velocity u perpendicular to
r, the applications of the laws of electromagnetism (without using the concept
of the Faraday fields) give an attractive electric force F_{e} and
a repulsive magnetic force F_{m} . Here F_{e}and F_{m} are
given by simple relations because Q = - q, and sinφ = cosα = 1.
Thus we write

F_{e} = Kq^{2}/r^{2}
and F_{m} = kq^{2}u^{2}/r^{2}

Since Weber (1856) found that K/k = c^{2} we
get

F_{e}/F_{m} = c^{2}/u^{2} .
So for u = c, we see that F_{e }= F_{m}

That is, these simple applications of forces acting at
a distance reveal that photons behave as moving dipoles. However under
the influence of Maxwell’s fallacious fields physicists believe that Newton’s,
Coulomb’s, and Ampere’s laws of action at a distance describe the failure of
gravity and of early electromagnetism. In “Action at a distance-WIKIPEDIA”
one reads: “ The exploration and resolution of this problematic
phenomenon led to significant developments in physics, from the concept of a
field, to descriptions of quantum entanglement and the mediator particles of
the standard model *”.*

In fact, the concept of “Quantum Entanglement”
was introduced, since experiments showed that a part of the transfer happens
instantaneously, like the action at a distance. In 1935 Einstein was
dissatisfied with this concept, because it seemed to violate his wrong ideas on
the transmission of information implicit in his invalid relativity. So
Einstein later wrote: “*Entanglement is a* *spooky*
action at a distance* ”. *Note that in our

*HISTORY OF RELATIVITY ” we noticed that the criticism of relativity based not on laws but on various hypotheses misleads the readers and does much to retard the progress of physics like the Kaku question “What if Einstein is wrong?” Similarly the article “A Quantum Threat to Special relativity” (SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN*

**“****Feb. 18,2009) misleads the readers, because it is based not on laws but on the hypothesis of the quantum entanglement which, in fact, is the action at a distance of the fundamental laws of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere.**

**UNIFIED FORCES INVALIDATE FIELDS, RELATIVITY, AND ALL THEORIES BASED ON WRONG STRONG AND WEAK FORCES**

Following Newton’s great work we applied the natural laws when a photon of variable mass with opposite charges interacts with an electron of charge

E_{y}(-e)dy/ B_{z}(-e)dy = dw/ F_{m}dt
= dw/dp

Since E_{y}/B_{z} = c and dp =
dmc we get

dw/dm = c^{2} or hν/m = c^{2}

Here we clear that Newton’s d(mu) = dmc, because c is constant. This simple formula modifies Einstein’s theory of photon (1905) because the absorbed photon by an electron contributes not only to the increase of energy but also to the increase of mass according to our discovery of our Photon – Matter Transformation :

hν/m = ΔW/ΔM = c^{2}

It is of interest to note that Newton's action at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity leads to the Quantum Entanglement and to the length contraction and time dilation during the absorption of the photon mass under the quantum dynamics. In Ancient Olympia we showed that our dipole photons work with electric and magnetic forces which occur under an instantaneous simultaneity of Newton's action at a distance. But when a photon interacts with an electron according to the electromagnetic laws the magnetic force occurs after the electric force which produces the velocity of the electron dy/dt .That is, simultaneity occurs when dy/dt = 0. Thus this situation is solved under a lenght contraction (dy) and a time dilation (dy).

Surprisingly the dipole photon not only explains the
electromagnetic properties of photons involving local time varying E_{y} and
B_{z } produced by its charges but also it provides
gravitational properties due to its mass m. Recall that the energy hν without
mass cannot exist. For example applying Newton’s second law when the simple
gravitational force F_{g} acts along the direction of the
constant c we see that the energy dw is given by

F_{g} ds= dw = (dp/dt)ds = (dmc/dt)ds =
dmc^{2} or hν/m
= c^{2}

which explains the gravitational red shift. Note that Einstein in the development of his general relativity did not use his relativistic equations but the simple Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics.

This simple formulation of the variable mass and energy of photon is similar to Einstein’s equation. (See my paper UNIFIED FORCES SOLVE THE CRISIS OF PHYSICS ) However Einstein’s equation was incomplete, since his relativistic mass is based on the false hypothesis of motions relative to a randomly moving observer. In fact, the increase of mass of particles in accelerators is due to the absorption of non mechanical energies. Note that all non mechanical energies on our earth (responsible of our life) are the result of the absorption of photons during the well-known photosynthesis. In other words both special and general relativity cannot replace the natural laws (See my paper WRONG AND CORRECT THEORIES IN PHYSICS ).

According to Newton’s second law when a particle of mass M absorbs the photon mass m and increases its mass, also the increase of energy dW is given by

dW = (dp/dt) ds = [d(Mu)/dt]ds = (dMu + duM)u

because M and u are variable quantities due to the
absorption of both energy and mass of photon. It means that the mass of
the particle increases under the absorption of the photon mass by applying
Newton’s law, while Einstein believed (incorrectly) that Newton’s law
is a limited case of his special and general relativity**. **Thus physicist
believe that natural laws are only approximations of Einstein’s special
and general relativity. In “Physical law- WIKIPEDIA* ” *one reads

*Newtonian mechanics is the low speed of special relativity… and.. the Newtonian gravitation law is a low-mass approximation of general relativity”.*

**: “**The first experiment which showed the increase of mass
was that of Kaufmann (1902). Surprisingly he found that an electron has a
variable mass M at a velocity u with respect to its constant mass M_{o} given
by

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} =
c^{2 }/(c^{2} – u^{2}) or M/M_{o} =
c/(c^{2}- u^{2})^{0.5} = γ

Indeed the differentiation of this relation gives

dMc^{2} = (dMu +duM)u = dW

which leads to our discovery of the
Photon-Matter Transformation. Here we see that the constant mass M_{o }before
the photon absorption became a variable mass M due to the photon absorption.

Kaufmann soon tried to interpret his results by using
the so-called electromagnetic mass recognized by Thomson (1881) and other
physicists. Especially Kaufmann assumed that there is no “real mechanical mass”
but only the “apparent electromagnetic mass” which increases with a velocity.
Of course such a useful interpretation could be able for revealing the photon
mass which leads to the Photon-Matter Transformation under the quantum
dynamics. It is indeed unfortunate that Einstein did not follow the
useful ideas of the electromagnetic mass but the wrong idea of the Lorentz
ether. So he developed a wrong relativistic mass in motion relative to
a moving observer**, **which violates the conservation laws of mass and energy**.**

In fact, all objects on the earth or on a train moving
with a constant velocity (reference frame of the Galilean relativity principle)
under the gravity (but in the absence of any absorption of photons) have always
not a relativistic mass but a constant mass M_{o}. That is, in the
Newtonian mechanics the conservation law of energy under the correct Galilean
relativity is given by

M_{o}gH = M_{o} u^{2}/2

Of course it is always correct, when the system is
conservative, because all natural laws are the same in all inertial frames.
Whereas Einstein’s a stationary observer on the earth will measure
incorrectly an increase of mass on the moving body according to the fallacious
Lorentz transformation.** **

Also for a photon when the velocity c is perpendicular
to the force the photon accelerates with a constant mass m_{o}
and the energy dw is given by

F_{g}ds = dw = (dp/dt)ds = (m_{o}du/dt)ds
= m_{o}udu.

That is, in this case the photon mass m_{o
}behaves like the constant mass M_{o} of a
particle. Of course, this fact invalidates the second postulation of
Einstein that the velocity of light is always constant and his concept of rest
mass M_{o} . It also invalidates the Einstein massless photon of
his general relativity. This is the bending of light which predicted by Newton.
At the conclusion of his Opticks in 1704 Newton proposed the following query: ** “Do**
not bodies act upon Light at a distance, and by their action bend its Rays, and
is not this action strongest at the least distance?”

*Note that*such a prediction of the photon mass was confirmed not only by Soldner (1801) but also by Eddington (1919). Unfortunately under the influence of the fallacious Maxwell’s fields Einstein believed that the photon is a massless particle. So he could not accept a gravitational mass able to interact with the mass of stars.

Under Einstein’s ideas in “Photon-WIKIPEDIA”
(Experimental checks of photon mass) one reads this question: “** If**
the photon is not a strictly massless particle, it would not move at the exact
speed of light in vacuum”

*.*In fact, as we showed the speed c of a photon is due to its electric and magnetic forces, since the photons behave like dipoles moving at the speed c of light. Consequently by applying the conservation law of mass the absorption of the photon variable mass increases the mass of a particle and leads to u<c. That is according to such traditional ideas a massless photon could not contribute to the increase of mass of particles.

On the other hand the red shift is derived by using the gravitational forces of Newton on the real mass m of photon. For example when a photon moves along the level difference H like a falling body the energy is given by

ΔW
= Δmc^{2 } or
mgH = Δmc^{2}

Since Δm = hδν/c^{2} and m = hν/c^{2} we
get

Δm/m = gH/c^{2} = δν/ν

Here one can see that this changing is similar to the opposite well-known gravitational red shift experiment performed by the Pound-Rebka (1959). Of course it is derived simply by the application of Newton’s second law and invalidates the idea that it is a result of Einstein’s invalid special relativity.

Finally in WIKIPEDIA we see also that Einstein proposed the gravitational waves confirmed by experiment, while in the “Gravitational wave-WIKIPEDIA” we see that various gravitational detectors exist but they remain unsuccessful in detecting such phenomena.

**EXPERIMENTS OF MASS DEFECT REVEAL MAXWELL'S AND EINSTEIN’S SIGNIFICANT ERRORS**

For the conservation law of mass developed by Anaximnder, in 1879 Lavoisier found that an equal quantity of matter exists both before and after the expariment. But since there was still room for doubt in 1872 the German chemist Lothar Meyer suggested that the rearrangement of atoms during chemical reactions might be accompanied by the absorption or emission of particles of "ether". However Maxwell's theory and Einstein's massles photons did much to retard the progress of this idea, though the experiments revealed the mass defect.

In the generation of hydrogen atom during the
transformation of the potential energy into the kinetic one of 27.2 eV the mass
M_{o} of the electron remains constant but under the Bohr quantum
jump it drops to a velocity around the proton with a kinetic energy of 13.6 eV.
Note that during the quantum jump we observe a difference in energies as

ΔΕ = 27.2 - 13.6 = 13.6 eV

which turns into the energy hν =13.6 eV. Also we observe a mass defect ΔΜ which turns into the mass m of photon according to Matter–Photon Transformation

ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c^{2 }

That is, in atomic physics when energy is removed from a system, mass is always removed along with energy. Here the energy ΔΕ is due to the fundamental charge-charge interaction which turns into the energy hν while the mass defect ΔΜ turns into the mass m of photon. In other words the electron decreases its mass, though it moves with a velocity around proton in a laboratory with a stationary observer in it. So, all orbiting electrons in atoms invalidate dramatically the special relativity, according to which the mass of an electronmoving with respect to the nucleus increases.

Unfortunately Einstein using his incomplete
equation ΔE
= ΔΜc^{2}believed
that the kinetic energy ΔE with respect to an observer adds an inertia in an
amount ΔE/c^{2}.
In other words he assumed that energy has mass. So he introduced false ideas of
rest energy M_{o}c^{2 }and relativistic energy Mc^{2} given
incorrectly by

ΔE
= ΔΜc^{2} =
(M – M_{o})c^{2} = Mc^{2} - M_{o}c^{2}

This equation of course includes the biggest errors in
the history of physics which did much to retard the progress of physics,
because Einstein underestimating the energies due to forces of natural laws
suggested that even a mass of a motionless particle has energy called rest
energy. Consequently the concepts of rest energy or relativistic energy
are false ideas** **because** **the energy is due not to masses but to
Coulomb’s charge-charge interaction**. **Therefore in the case of the hydrogen
atom for the mass defect one writes incorrectly

ΔΜc^{2} =(
M_{o }– M)c^{2} = hν or M_{o}c^{2} –
Mc^{2 }= hν =13.6
eV

That is, Einstein believed that the energy of photon
is due to the change in the rest energy of the system called Mass-Energy
Equivalence, which is a false idea**. **

In fact, the energy of photons is due not to the mass defect but to the energy of the Coulomb law because it gets a real mass after the mass defect. In the same way for the so-called annihilation of electron and positron Einstein’s incomplete equation is written as

2M_{o} c^{2} = 2hν

which means that the mass of the two particles
is converted into the energy hν. Such a false idea of course
violates the two conservation laws of mass and energy developed by Anaximander
and Heraclitus.** **Unfortunately in “Annihilation** –**WIKIPEDIA**”**
(Electron-positron annihilation) we see these wrong ideas written as: * “..the*
mass of the two particles are converted entirely into energy

*”.'*

In fact according to our discovery of the Matter- Photon Transformation we may write correctly

ΔΕ/2M_{o} =
2hν/2m
= c^{2 }in reaction (e + e^{+} = γ +γ)

According to this complete relation as in the case of
Hydrogen the energy ΔΕ =
1.022 MeV of the fundamental charge-charge interaction of the two particles is
transformed into the energy 2hν = 1.022 MeV οf 2γ. Similarly the mass 2M_{o}of
the particles is transformed into the mass 2m of the two photons in accordance
with the two conservation laws of mass and energy. In other words **all**
concepts of rest mass, rest energy, relativistic mass, and relativistic energy
are fallacious ideas**.**

Note that when I presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic Nuclear Physics Society my paper with a large number of integral equations which reveal the nuclear structure and showed that the nuclear binding energy is due not to the mass defect but to the energy of the charge-charge interaction the paper met much opposition by many old physicists. Especially one old physicist (student of Einstein) did not ask any question but said that all my equations are wrong, because they are not based on "Einstein's Law".

Nevertheless these simple examples tell us that the
mass cannot be converted into energy**, **because the energy hν of
photons is due (not to the rest mass or to the false rest energy of particles)
but to the energy of charge-charge interaction. That is, Einstein’s Mass-Energy
Equivalence is invalid**. **Note that the Dirac theory (1928) is based on the
wrong relativistic energy E = Mc^{2} which was also derived by
using simple mathematics as

E = ( M_{o}^{2}c^{4} +
P^{2}c^{2 })^{0.5}

It is indeed unfortunate that in “Mass-energy
equivalence**-**WIKIPEDIA**” **one can read confusing ideas about the rest
mass or invariant mass, because it is believed that the energy of gamma ray is
compared with the mass defect. Of course to avoid such confusions the above
wrong article must be replaced by the “Photon-Matter Transformation**” **since
in our paper (2002) we showed that in all cases of atomic and nuclear physics
the energy of generated photons is just the same energy of the fundamental
charge-charge interaction.

Under his incomplete equation Einstein also introduced
another wrong concept of Mass-Energy conservation. Einstein himself
pointed out: “Pre-relativistic physics contains two conservation laws of
fundamental importance, namely the law of conservation of energy and the law of
conservation of mass; these two appear there as completely independent of each
other. Through relativity they melt together into one principle”.** Such a**
false idea did much to retard the progress of nuclear binding because it is
believed that the nuclear binding of deuterium is due to the change in the
false rest mass energies between the isolated nucleons and the stable
deuterium. Under these difficulties in 2002 we showed that the binding energy
is due to the electromagnetic interaction of the charged 9 quarks in proton and
12 charged quarks in neutron. Moreover in “Dark energy-WIKIPEDIA” one
can see the false idea of a dark energy due to Einstein’s

**wrong**mass-energy conservation

**. (**See my article “OUR UNIVERSE

**”).**

Unfortunately, writing in Google “Limitations of Newton’s second law in special relativity” one can see that in the first four articles of WIKIPEDIA there are (incorrectly) such limitations, because Einstein believed that in all cases of motions relative to a randomly moving observer the mass of a particle increases according to the wrong Lorentz ideas.

**THE DISCOVERY OF THE ELECTRON SPIN SHOWED A PERIPHERAL VELOCITY u>> c WHICH LEADS TO TWO-ELECTRON COUPLING**

Another false idea of relativity which retarded the progress of physics is the idea that the peripheral velocity of spinning electrons, quarks, and neutrinos cannot overcome the speed of light. In our paper “Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures”(2008) we showed that the coupling of two electrons in orbitals is due to the peripheral velocities of spinning electrons which are greater than c , since the photons cannot affect the peripheral velocity. Especially this situation explains the coupling of opposite spinning electrons for making the covalent bonds in molecules, and the binding of spinning quarks, since the magnetic attraction of opposite spin is stronger than the electric repulsion. (See in Google my scientific article “QUARKS, NEUTRINOS, NUCLEONS, AND NUCLEI”).

In User Kaliambos one can see our paper “Spin-spin..
structures” in which we showed that two electrons of mass m and of opposite
spin interact giving a repulsive electric force F_{e} and an
attractive magnetic force F_{m} whose the resultant force F_{em} is
given by

F_{em} = F_{e} - F_{m} =
Ke^{2}/r^{2} - (Ke^{2}/r^{4})(9h^{2}/16π^{2}m^{2}c^{2})

Of course for F_{e} = F_{m} one
gets the equilibrium separation

r_{o} = 3h/4πmc =
0.5788/10^{12} m

That is, for r<r_{o} the two electrons
behave like one particle and exert an attractive F_{em} with a
motional emf of the induction law. After a detailed analysis of many
two-electron atoms we concluded that it produces a vibration energy E_{v} given
by

>E_{v} = 16.95Z - 4.1

Thus, using the Bohr model the ground state energy E of the simple Helium atom is given by </p>

E = 2(-13.6)Z^{2} +(16.95Z - 4.1) =
-79 eV

which is equal to the experimental result. Under this
condition since the two electrons behave like one particle the Schrodinger
equation is applied correctly for giving the same wave function as that of the
one-electron atoms. Here the Pauli exclusion principle is just a qualitative
approach because it cannot be applied in the structure of deuteron. Note that
the discovery of the electron spin by Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit (1925) which
involves peripheral velocity greater than the speed of light met opposition
from many physicists including Pauli. The pressure was so great that Uhlenbeck
and Goudsmit wanted to withdraw the paper they had submitted. However it was
too late to do so, because their adviser P. Ehrenfest had already sent the
paper for publication. He said: “You are both young enough to allow
yourselves some foolishness! Be a little crazy**”. **Later under the
influence of Einstein’s relativity Pauli in 1946 said: “I strongly
doubted the correctness of this idea (spin) because of its classical mechanical
character**”. **Of course such an idea did much to retard the
progress of physics and led to the development of wrong theories. In “Helium
atom –WIKIPEDIA**” **one reads**: “ **However, various approximations
, such as the Hartree-Fock method, can be used to estimate the ground state
energy and wavefunction of the atom**” ''**