By Prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) Τ.Ε. Institute of Larissa Greece

This paper was announced to many universities around the world (January 2014).

According to my discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER TRANSFORMATION hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2} the photon absorption in the photoelectric effect (1905) contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ in accordance with the Kaufmann experiment (1902). Historically Newton in 1704 predicted the bending of his rectangular particles of light when they pass near the sun confirmed by Soldner in 1801. Although the experiments of Michelson and Morley (1887) rejected the Maxwellian ether (1865) in favor of Newton’s particles of light, Einstein influenced by Maxwell’s fallacious fields believed that light consists of his massless quanta of fields. So he explained incorrectly the photoelectric effect which led to his invalid relativity according to which the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ is due not to the mass m = hν/c^{2} of the photon but to the relative motion of the electron with respect to a randomly moving observer. ( WRONG AND CORRECT EINSTEIN ).

Of course such an increase of mass with speed is deeply disturbing. Surely a moving particle (without absorptions of mass) has no more “tangible” ponderable matter than before. Therefore Einstein believed incorrectly that the mass is not simply a measure of the quantity of matter after all. In other words Einstein violated the conservation law of mass. Then in trying to understand such a fallacious change of mass with speed Einstein was led to the invalid concept that kinetic energy KE added to a ponderable object also adds inertia in an amount KE/c^{2} by assuming that energy has mass since the kinetic energy of a moving particle with respect to a randomly moving observer should be redefined incorrectly as

KE = ΔΜc^{2} = Mc^{2} - M_{o}c^{2}

One of the important properties of mass is that it cannot be created or destroyed in accordance with my discovery of the **Photon-Matter Interaction**. Unfortunately Einstein under his formula complicated more the problem by introducing his additional wrong assumption that energy turns into mass. Under this crisis of physics which did much to retard the progress of nuclear physics Einstein himself pointed out:

“Pre-relativity physics contains two conservation laws of fundamental importance, namely, the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation of mass; these two appear there as completely independent of each other. Through relativity theory they melt together into one principle.”

It is of interest to note that the Bohr model (1913) and the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions (1926) based on natural laws showed that the energy hν of the generated photon is due not to the mass defect of the proton-electron system but to the energy of the charge-charge interaction between the electron and the proton. Thus the mass defect ΔΜ turns into the mass m = hν/c^{2 }of the photon in accordance with my discovery of the Photon-Matter Interaction.( BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN ). Nevertheless today physicists continue to believe that the nuclear binding energy is due to the nuclear mass defect. Under this crisis of nuclear physics I Published my paper "Nuclear structure is governed by the funamental laws of electromagnetism" (2003) . This paper presened also at the Symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society by showing that the energy of the generated photon is due not to the nuclear mass defect but to the electromagnetic energy between neutrons and protons, because I discovered that the proton and the neutron consist of 9 extra charged quarks and 12 ones respectively existing among 288 quarks in nucleon. (New structure of protons and neutrons ).

Of course Einstein’s fallacious concepts of relativistic energy (Mc^{2}) and rest energy M_{o}c^{2}) violate dramatically the well-established laws of nature according to which energy is due not to the mass but to the fundamental force of interaction. Under his confusion Einstein also violated the discovery of Newton’s inertial constant mass M_{o . }

It is well-known that in the Newtonian mechanics of conservative forces, withour photon absorptions or emissions, under the constant inertial mass M_{o} the potential energy FΔS turns into a kinetic energy ΔΕ as

FdS = dW = M_{o}(dudt)dS = M_{o} udu or FΔS = ΔΕ = M_{o}u^{2}/2

Note that Einstein after his fallacious Mass-Energy Equivalence in his general relativity introduced also another principle of equivalence because he believed that Newton’s gravitational force F is due to the acceleration α. On this hypothesis he used Newton's discovery of the constant inertial mass Mo = F/α. Of course such an introduction in his general relativity rejects his concepts of rest mass , rest energy, relativistic mass, and relativistic energy of his special relativity. In other words Einstein rejects himself.