By Prof.LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) T.E. Institute of Larissa – Greece      

This article was announced to many universities around the world (Feb 2011). Writing in Google Scholar  "Kaliambos" one sees our  papers "Impact of Maxwell's equations..." (1993) which invalidates Maxwell's fields and Einstein's relativity and "Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism" (2003) with a large number of integral equations which revealed the structure of nuclei by reviving the natural laws.(See in User Kaliambos these  papers along with the additional paper "Spin-spin interactions of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures")


According to my model of dipolic paricles presented at the international conference 'Frontiers of fundamental physics" (Olympia, 1993) a photon at the speed of light c creates local time-varying Ey/Bz = c of energy hν.


Olympia 1993 Why our dipolic photons reject Einstein

Thus, it can be expected to interact with charged matter through which it may pass. Einstein in his paper (1905) “On the Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light” showed that an electron in the photoelectric effect is ejected if it absorbs an energy hν greater than its binding energy ΔΕ. However Einstein under his fallacious massless quana of fields when he wrote the production and transformation of light he did not use the transformation of the photon mass m = hν/c2 derived from the well-known law c = U/p of the absorption of light under the interaction of photons with an electron. During the interaction the electric field of a photon gives the energy dw = hν as

Ey(-e)dy = dw = hν.

While the magnetic field gives the momentum p as

Bz(-e)dy = Fdt = p = mc. Since Ey/Bz = c we get m = hν/c2.

We clear that the photon works since E and B occur at the same time. However here the magnetic force appears after the electric force wich produces the velocity dy/dt on the electron. Under this condition according to Newton's ACTION AT A DISTANCE or INSTANTANEOUS SIMULTANEITY  the velocity dy/dt must approach to zero under a lenght contraction dy and a time dilation dt. Note that Einstein described it incorrectly based on the lenght contraction of the Michelson interferometer moving through a fallacious ether. Also he believed incorrectly only the transformation of energies of the absorption of photons, because in his conclusions of the above paper he wrote that light consists of a finite number of energy quanta localized at points of space that move without dividing, and can be absorbed or generated only as complete units. Also in the same year after his theory of relativity he formulated his formula ΔΕ = ΔΜc2, but under the errors of Maxwell’s self propagating fields ( see in Google Invalidity of Maxwell’s self propagating fields) he did not use the mass of matter ΔΜ = ΔΕ/c2 for the production of the mass of his quanta (photons), though in his paper “ Does the inertia of a body depend upon its energy-content?” he concludes that radiation conveys inertia between the emitting and absorbing bodies. The same transformation of energies was used also by Bohr in his model (1913) for the energies of the hydrogen atom.



NCSR "Demokritos" (2002)

So in the absence of a mass transformation in the absorption and generation of photons, we emphasize that if energy changes a type and leaves a system it simply takes its mass with it, since the mass cannot be converted into energy. Indeed, the energy of the sun's photons is the source of various non conservative energies that make life possible on earth. When photons fall on the green leaves of plants their energy and mass are absorbed by the coloring matter in the leaves. The absorbed energy and mass are utilized for effecting non conservative chemical energies. Under this situation for the absorption of photons we use the interaction of them with matter in the principle photon - matter interaction hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c2 under a length contraction and a time dilation. Note that this relation is derived also by the formula M = γMo by sqareing and differentiating both sides. It means that the increase of mass from Mo to M is due to the absorption of the photon mass m. On the other hand for the generation of photons we write the symmetrical situation of the matter-photon transformation ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c2 under a length dilation and a time contraction. When plant material is burned in air the process by which the energy and the mass of photons built up the products in the living plants is reversed under a length dilation and a time contraction. Note that in 1971 Hafele and Keating showed experimentally that a flying clock of a cesium atomic beam lost 59 nanoseconds during the eastward trip (acceleration with respect to the center of earth) relative to the atomic time scale of the U.S. Naval Observatory, while the flying clock during the westward trip (deceleration) gained 273 nanoseconds. In this process of novel ideas we conclude also that special relativity is invalid not only in conservative systems and binding energies but also in the real cases of accelerations of particles in accelerators (one reference frame on the earth ) with non conservative forces, since Einstein’s the relative motion of random reference frames leads to complications.( See in Google EINSTEIN’S WRONG ASSUMPTIONS IN SPECIAL RELATIVITY). Therefore Einstein's Special Relativity must be replaced by our Quantum Dynamics due to photon-matter interaction, since Einstein's relative motions lead to the fallacious ideas of the so- called kinematic effect, which we analyze historically with simple mathematics to help the readers appreciate that science at the frontiers is an ongoing human enterprise for revealing the mysteries of our world.


Objects are located in space by means of a coordinate system called reference frame. Such a frame , by definition, is one in which Newton’s first law is valid: Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line. In the history of science Galileo was the first scientist who described the effects of changing from a system S' moving with a uniform velocity u with respect to S. For example a boat (system S') is moving at a velocity u with respect to a lake which is stationary in the reference frame of the earth (system S). When the motion is confined to the x direction of the system S the transformation of Galileo is given by the simple formula

x = x' – ut.

where x' is in the moving system S'. In general the transformation of velocities from one to the other system is obtained by taking the same time derivatives dt = dt' as given by the simple equation

dx/dt = dx'/dt – u.

For example when a hunter on a moving boat is shooting along the perpendicular direction to u the bullet for an observer on the earth will not go along the perpendicular direction, because it contains also the velocity u of the boat, while for the hunter on the moving boat it goes just along the perpendicular direction to u, because both the hunter and the bullet contain the same velocity u. Note that according to Galileo’s and Newton’s ideas all natural laws are the same in all reference frames and in all cases the time is always the same under Newton’s ideas for an absolute space and time.


One of the first scientists to have studied the nature of light was Newton who in the 17th century developed the corpuscular theory according to which light consists of tiny particles. Newton's view was popularized for over 100 years, but when Young (1800) showed experimentally the wave nature of light many physicists tried to determine the “true” rest frame of the universe. Since all known waves were transmitted by some medium Maxwell (1865) following the ideas of an immovable ether wrote that the interplanetary and interstellar spaces are occupied by a material substance. According to those ideas the light source should be independent of the speed of light like a moving boat which produces waves in a lake that are independent of the motion of the boat. So if light sources were moving through an immovable ether the light waves would not depend on the motions of the light sources. However in 1887 Michelson and Morley in a famous experiment with an interferometer showed that the speed c of light does depend on the motion of the light source like the bullets of the moving gun. Since the tiny particles of Newton’s corpuscular theory should contain a mass one concludes that the experiment of Michelson and Morley was consistent with the corpuscular theory of Newton.

Nevertheless under the great influence of Maxwell’s theory FitzGerald and Lorentz independently in order to adjust the results of the Michelson experiment in the Maxwellian ether, they suggested that the linear dimension Lo of the interferometer contracts as L = Lo/γ along the line of the motion u of the earth through an hypothetical reference frame of ether. Here the factor γ = 1/ (1-β^2)^0.5 depends on u since β = u/c which means that always γ>1. Under this condition in 1904 Lorentz modified the Galilean transformation by writing

x = γ(x'–ut) and for time ΔT = γΔΤο .

These are the Lorentz transformations which modify the absolute space time of the Galilean transformation and introduce the well-known length contraction L = Lo/γ and the time dilation ΔT = γ ΔTo.


In 1905 Einstein replaced the immovable ether by the vacuum and used the Lorentz factor γ in his theory of special relativity by introducing the assumption that the mass M of a moving body increases as M' = γM under a length contraction L' = L/γ and a time dilation ΔΤ ' = γΔΤ . However in his theory he gave the false name “Special Relativity” because he believed that the increase of mass is not a dynamical effect but a kinematic one due to the relative motion between a reference frames S and another reference frame S' which moves with respect to the S. In fact the increase of the elecron mass in a reference frame is due to the photon - electron interaction in which the photon mass is absorbed by the electron mass. ( Non conservative force). Under this condition Einstein's fallacious ideas can be shown clearly by using the correct rest mass Mo by producing accelerations of particles in one reference frame ( an accelerator of particles). According to the experiments of NON CONSERVATIVE FORCES IN ACCELERATORS the mass Mv of a particle moving in the reference frame of the accelerator with a great velocity v/c = 0.8 is given by the relation

Mv = Mo/[(1- (0.8)^2]^0.5

While for the velocity υ/c = 0.6 we write

Mυ = Mo/ [1- (0.6)^2]^0.5.

Then we get Mv / Mυ = 4/3. Here we see the increase of mass from Mo to M due to non conservative forces which lead to the correct relation M = γ Μο by using accelerations in one reference frame (Laboratory). Now if we use Einstein's relative motion u/c in his relation M' = γM of different frames we write

u/c = v/c - υ/c = 0.8 - 0.6 = 0.2

which is between Mv and Mυ of two random systems S' and S. Therefore we write

Mv / Mυ = 1/[1-(0.2)^2]^0.5 = 1.02

which differs fundamentally from the experimental value. This simple example tells us that Einstein’s special relativity ( random relative motion between different reference frames or different observers) is invalid not only in conservative systems and in binding energies but also in the cases of the accelerations of particles by using one reference frame under non conservative forces. That is, Special Relativity must be replaced by our Quantum Dynamics due to photon-matter interaction. (Non conservative forces).

Also Einstein’s the fallacious kinematic effect of relative motions leads to the concept that the reference systems are completely equivalent. Of course it led to the fallacious ideas that he regarded S as the “stationary” frame with S' moving at a speed u or considered S' the “stationary frame” So he introduced the false concept that the observer of S measures an increase of mass as M' = γM and also the observer of S' measures the same increase of mass as M = γM' where M' was assumed to be the rest mass in his reference frame S'. That is, he used the same length contraction and time dilation in both cases of moving reference frames. In fact this situation is the result of Quantum Dynamics which take place in one reference frame where we measure the increase of mass after the acceleration due to non conservative forces and the decrease of mass after the deceleration.


Einstein following the errors of Maxwell's moving fields introduced the wrong postulate that the source of light is independent of the speed of waves in vacuum though in the same year he developed the theory of photons which must have a mass like the tiny particles of Newton's corpuscular theory which behave like the bullets of a moving gun.( Michelson experiment). Another serious problem of his theory was to explain WHAT IS THE CAUSE of the increasing mass which is against to the separate laws of conservation of mass and energy. In fact according to the model of dipolic particles a dipolic photon with hν/m = c2 interacts with a stationary charged particle of mass Mo in the reference frame of the light source. In this situation a photon gives its energy hν and its mass m to a stationary charged particle. During the acceleration the mass Mo is increased as M = γΜo since the mass m of the dipolic photon (along with the energy hν) is absorbed by the mass Mo which becomes M = Mo +m = γMo under the Lorentz length contraction L = Lo/γ and the time dilation ΔΤ = γ Δ according to the photon–matter interaction hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c2 . Note that according to the Doppler effect the same photon gives different energies when it is emitted from different light sources moving at different velocities with respect to the laboratory.


When Einstein formulated the equation ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c2 he wrote that the two separate conservation laws of energy and mass are one. So he did much to retard the progress of nuclear physics because many physicists believe that the source of the nuclear binding energy is the mass defect which should be transformed into the nuclear energy. Under this fallacious idea in 2002 I presented at a symposium of the Hellenic nuclear society my paper “ Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” which met much skepticism. Note that the nuclear binding energy is due to the net attractive electromagnetic forces of the distributed charges in nucleons ( See in Google new ideas on nucleons). In fact such a nuclear binding energy ΔΕ is transformed into the energy hν of photons. Also at the same time the mass defect ΔΜ of nucleons is transformed into the mass m of photons. So in this case the above equation is the one part of the matter-photon transformation

ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c2 .


Since nature is inherently symmetric we solve also the problem of deceleration according to which a photon is generated. Under the Quantum mechanics in the binding energies we observe a mass defect which leads to deceleration in the symmetrical matter- photon transformation ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m =c2 under a length dilation Lo = γL and a time contraction ΔΤο =Τ/γ. In other words when the charged particle returns to its rest position in the same laboratory we observe the symmetric situation which is responsible for the generation of photons under the exchange of energy and mass. This situation should be similar to the case of a satellite orbiting the earth within its atmosphere. As a result under NON CONSERVATIVE FORCES it gradually loses altitude in the reference frame of the earth and finally plummets to the ground.


In cases in which we observe accelerations or decelerations without any absorption or generation of photons the Lorentz transformation cannot be applied. In this case we apply the absolute space time of Newton’s ideas. Under such an absolute space time let us study the formation of helium atom. According to the Bohr model in a heliumlike atom with one electron in the orbit ( first ionization) the ground state energy E = -54.4 eV. Since the radius r has the half value of the radius of hydrogen we get the following Coulomb potential energy

K (-e)2e /r = - 108.8 eV

of the system nucleus- electron. Note that it is transformed into the kinetic energy EK = 108.8 eV with a velocity v/c = 0.02. (The kinetic energy of the nucleus is negligible). During this transformation the mass Mo of the electron remains the same under an absolute space time because the system of nucleus-electron is conservative (Coulomb potential) without any absorption of photons.

Therefore a particle can move faster than the speed of light when it absorbs both a dissipetive and a potential energy including conservative forces.

However for the formation of helium according to quantum mechanics the electron decelerates and loses the half of its kinetic energy EK/2 = 54.4 eV for getting the lower kinetic energy Ek = 54.4 eV with a velocity υ/c = 0.014. So according to the Matter – Photon transformation ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν /m this lost energy and the mass defect ΔΜ generate a photon with the energy hν = 54.4 eV and a mass m = ΔΜ. Note that the light source is created in the atom which is stationary in the reference frame of the laboratory. That is, for the binding energy of the one electron in the helium atom we distinguish the absolute space time during the acceleration of the electron in the conservative system of the Coulomb potential which means that the theory of the so-called special relativity is invalid in conservative systems. Of course in the second case of the generation of photons the relative motions of Einstein do not predict such a symmetrical situation of length dilation and time contraction. Note that without such a symmetrical situation of the generation of photons, matter could not exist. Using again the Bohr model we see that the second electron accelerates like the first electron to the same velocity v/c = 0.02 under an absolute space time with a kinetic energy EK= 108.8 eV. However for the formation of the two-electron orbital it loses only 54.4 - 29.8 = 24.6 eV which generates a photon of hν = 24.6 eV, because the second electron interacts with the first one with a magnetic attractive force greater than the repulsive electric one for making the two-electron orbital of opposite spin. ( See in Google New ideas on two-electron forces) . Under this electromagnetic attraction the two electrons provide a vibration energy Ev = 16.95Z - 4.1 Since the nucleus of helium has two protons ( Z=2) one gets Ev = 29.8 eV. In other words, the total binding energy of helium atom is 54.4 + 24.6 = 79 eV, which generates two photons with hν = 54.4 eV and hν = 24.6 eV.


All experiments on atoms molecules and also on nuclei showed that both energy ΔΕ and mass defect ΔΜ are released when particles join to form matter. However under the fallacious ideas of special relativity (kinematic effect, conservation of mass-energy etc.) many physicists believe that the binding enery in nuclei is due to the mass defect. It happens because Einstein did not know that the increase of mass and also the mass defect are due to the quantum dynamics of photon -matter interaction which we formulated after the application of basic electromagnetic laws. In the absence of a detailed knowledge Einstein using wrong assumptions in his book The evolution of physics (1938) wrote about his theory of relative motions with the following generalities: The relativity theory arose from necessity, from serious and deep contradictions in the old theory from which there seemed no escape. The strength of the new theory lies in the consistency and simplicity with which it solves all these difficulties, using anly a fiew very convincing assumptions.

Nevertheless Einstein contributed significantly to fundamental physics for changing the ideas about the nature of light and Newton's ideas of space time. With the great developments for light during the last three centuries like Newton's corpuscular theory, Maxwell's self propagating fields and Einstein's quanta of energy (photons), there has come a need for fundamental revision, since photons are not only quanta of energy but also they contein mass and opposite charges able to interact with charged matter. So our model of dipolic particles leads to the Quantum Dynamics characterized by three forms of space time: A). Absolute space time of Newton's laws in conservative systems. It means that the laws of Newton are always correct in conservative systems. B). Length dilation-Time contraction in the formation of matter under the generation of photons. C). Length contraction-Time dilation in the disintegration of matter under the absorption of energy and mass of photons.