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This paper was announced to many universities around the world (December 2013)

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By prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός ) T. E. Institute of Larissa Greece

EINSTEIN’S INVALID RELATIVITY LED TO HIS  WRONG STATIC UNIVERSE WITH A STRANGE ANTIGRARAVITY

According to my discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION   the absorption of the  photon  energy hν and the photon mass m = hν/c2 in the photoelectric effect (1905) contribute not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔM  in accordance with the Kaufmann experiment (1902) because Einstein’s invalid formula E/M = c2 is modified as

 hν/m =  ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c2 .

 In this case of Quantum Dynamics the increase of the electron mass occurs under a length contraction and a time dilation deduced from Newton’s third law. (See my NEWTON INVALIDATES EINSTEIN ).  However Einstein under his false massless quanta of wrong fields believed that the absorption of light contributes only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ. Thus he developed his INVALID RELATIVITY because he believed incorrectly that the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ is due not to the absorption of the photon mass m = hν/c2 but to the relative motion of the electron with respect to a randomly moving observer. This false theory  not only violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass but also leads to complications. For example when an observer moves with an electron in the laboratory he will measure an increase of mass for all stationary objects in the laboratory. Also in the Bohr model (1913) according to Einstein’s invalid ideas the mass of the orbiting electron will be increased, while all atomic experiments confirm the well-known mass defect. 

In my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN one can see that during the formation of

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N.C.S.R. "Demokritos" (2002)

atoms the photon energy hν of the generation of photons is due not to Einstein’s false mass-energy equivalence, (because mass cannot turn into energy). In  fact, according to the atomic experiments the energy ΔΕ of the charge-charge interaction  is responsible for the energy hν of photon, while the mass defect ΔΜ becomes the photon mass m = hν/c2 in accordance with the two conservation laws of energy and mass. In the  same  way the two conservation laws govern my discovery of the nuclear structure and binding. (See my "Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism" presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society (NCSR "Demokritos", 2002) and published in Ind. J. Th. Phys.in 2003).

Under thisCRISIS OF FIELDS AND RELATIVITY Einstein in 1916 developed also his false general theory of relativity which did much to retard the progress of physics because he believed that the well-established laws of Newton are modified by his various hypotheses. For example under the false Maxwell’s fields moving through a fallacious ether the fundamental action at a distance of the well-established laws of nature confirmed by the experiments of the QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT was modified incorrectly by Einstein who used various hypotheses like incorrect gravitational fields, wrong gravitational waves, and a fallacious “ether structure” or a strange “curvature of spacetime”.(See my NEWTON AND GALILEO REJECT EINSTEIN and 12 AMERICAN PHYSICISTS REJECT EINSTEIN ).

Following such fallacious theories which cannot replace the well-established laws of nature Einstein also suggested that on the cosmic scale his false “curvature of space time” might have the effect  of making the universe finite  though unbounded. Moreover he believed in a static universe  by underestimating the energy deduced from the well-established laws of Newton Coulomb and Ampere. Under this confusion he introduced a hypothetical energy of vacuum as a  repulsive force in order to counteract the attractive gravity of his invalid hypotheses of general relativity. So in his paper Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity (1917) he added a hypothetical antigravity called cosmological constant Λ .                                       

 

HUBBLE’S LAW OF EXPANDING UNIVERSE REJECTS EINSTEIN’S IDEA OF  ANTIGRAVITY FOR A WRONG STATIC UNIVERSE

Einstein’s  strange hypothesis of antigravity (1917) evaporated by the American astronomer Hubble who observed in 1929 that our universe appears to be not static but expanding. In particular Hubble researched data from the observations made by the American astronomer Slipher (1914) to confirm a relationship between redshift and distance. So after Slipher’s and Hubble’s observations when it became clear that the universe wasn’t actually static, but was expanding instead, Einstein abandoned his strange hypothesis of antigravity, calling it the “biggest blunder” of his life. Nevertheless his friend Kurt Godel tried to justify Einstein’s antigravity by using Newton’s law of inertia. Especially in 1949 he supposed that our universe seem to be like a spinning cylinder as measured by a “non spinning observer”.  In fact, Kurt Godel invalidated Einstein’s hypothetical energy of vacuum by using Newton’s law of inertia. It is of interest to note that Newton was one of the first to recognize that the so-called “centrifugal force” of spinning objects is the result of the natural tendency – inertia – of  any body to keep on moving in the same direction. It is well-known that for an angular velocity ω such an inertial force (centrifugal force )  could be greater than gravity when the value of ω of a rotating system is very great.

 

FOR THE EXPLANATION OF THE  ACELERATING UNIVERSE SOME COSMOLOGISTS REVIVED NOT THE LAWS OF NEWTON BUT EINSTEIN’S WRONG ENERGY OF VACUUM CALLED “DARK ENERGY”

Surprisingly in the mid-1990s astronomers found that our expanding universe is accelerating and  to explain these puzzling findings they have revived not the laws of Newton (including inertial forces) but the wrong idea of Einstein according to which the vacuum has energy in  it that acts repulsively. Especially cosmologists under the influence of Einstein’s false mass-energy conservation proposed that the assumed accelerated expansion of our universe (1998) is due to a hypothetical “dark energy” caused by vacuum or fallacious fields. Also the WRONG STANDARD MODEL suggests that “empty” space is not empty, because it is filled by the wrong Higgs field (medium like the fallacious Maxwellian fields) which should give from vacuum (nothing) the mass of quarks and leptons. (See  my papers CONFUSING CERN RESULTS AND IDEAS and  OUR EARLY UNIVERSE ).

Einstein in his general relativity (1916) underestimating Newton’s well-established laws introduced the principle of equivalence according to which a gravitational force is opposite and equivalent to a force of an accelerating or a rotating system. It is well-known that the force of a rotating object is Newton’s centrifugal force, which is an inertial force as a reaction to a centripetal force. Newton recognized the gravity and the inertia which are the two basic properties of mass. So the inertial force is not present in a stationary or inertial frame.

Nevertheless, in 1998 the astrophysicist Perlmutter at the Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, who proposed the accelerating expansion of universe, announced that it confirms Einstein’s cosmological constant as a property of vacuum.

Especially in 1998, published observations of supernovae  by the High-z Supernova Search Team followed in 1999 by the Supernova Cosmology Project suggested that the expansion of our universe is accelerating.  So, despite Einstein’s abandonment of the cosmological constant, Turner in 1998 revived Einstein’s the constant Λ, which remained as a mysterious repulsive force called “dark energy” incorrectly caused by vacuum , or  fallacious fields.

A NEW RESEARCH OF “DARK FLOW” (2008) LEADS TO THE IDEA THAT THE ASSUMED ACCELERATED UNIVERSE IS AN ILLUSION

In 2008)  Kashlinsky published in Astroph. J. his paper of “Dark Flow”. Especially a NASA team led by Kashlinsky discovered that a huge region of our universe of about 2.5 billion light years across, is moving relative to the rest of our universe. For the explanation of dark flow Kaslinsky suggested  that the motion could be a remnant of influence of no visible regions where the world is very different than that we see locally. Under these two different observations of “Dark energy” and “Dark flow” in 2010 the cosmologist Tsagas published his hypothesis in the Physical Review  that the accelerated expansion observed in 1998 is an illusion, because we are observers in the Kashlinsy’s flow.

MORE RESEARCHES ON A PROPOSED SPINNING UNIVERSE SHOULD EXPLAIN THE “DARK FLOW” BY APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON’S INERTIAL FORCES

It is of interest to note that the cosmic microwave background from the big bang had suspected also some anomalies  as evidence of rotation of our universe.

In 2011 Michael Longo of the Michigan Physics Department and his team used data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to study the rotation direction of spiral galaxies. He published his research in Physics Letters B by suggesting that our universe has a spin. Especially his team analyzed the data from 15,000 galaxies which led to evidence that our universe has an axis of rotation. Such an analysis could also be circumstantial evidence that what we see is merely part of a much larger and more homogeneous universe that extends far beyond our visible event horizon of our localized “spinning” and expanding universe.

If our universe was born rotating the applications of Newton’s inertial forces are able to explain the dark flow and the accelerated expansion as an illusion of the relative motions depending of the amount of spin. For example our Earth has one rotation per 24 hours. However for one rotation per 1.41 hours an object at the equator should be weightless since the gravitation attraction Fg is equal to the centrifugal force Fc . That is Fc = Fg . However for the molecules in the atmosphere above the equator we have Fc > Fg  because in this region the radius R is greater than the radius r of the Earth. Note that for an object with mass m having an angular velocity ω we get

(Fc = mω2R)  > ( Fc = mω2r)

Under this condition all molecules in the atmosphere above the equator will flow to the opposite direction of the gravitational field while the molecules of the ocean will have a weight because Fg > Fc  . This example is able to explain the so called “dark flow” under the condition of a large spin of our universe. So the dark flow should be a centrifugal flow with centrifugal and Coriolis forces for a region where Fc > Fg. This also suggests that our universe was rotating from the very beginning and retained an overwhelming strong angular momentum. This could imply that the primeval Big Bang universe had rotation energy on a vast scale.