By prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) T. E. Institute of Larissa Greece

Today it is well known that in 1632 from many experiments Galileo discovered the principle of relativity but Descartes avoiding this principle of relativity in his “* Optics*”(1637) begins by asserting that light is associated with a motion in a medium (immovable ether). Therefore he definitely rejects the possibility that in vacuum “

*”. Also in his famous work “*

**something material passes from the objects to our eyes to make us see colors and light***” (1644) for avoiding the action at a distance postulated that*

**Principles of Philosophy****the space is filled with pieces of the immovable ether**that can interact only when they touch.

Note that this idea did much to retard the progress of physics, because physicists of the 19^{th} and 20^{th} centuries abandoned the natural laws of forces acting at a distance ( Newton's third law of instantaneous action and reaction) and developed wrong fields and false force carriers like the mesons of Yukawa (1935), the virtual photons of Feynman (1949), the W and Z bosons of Weinberg (1967), the gluons of Gell-Mann (1973), and the gravitons of the Wrong Standard Model.

Newton in his law of gravity (**Principia,** 1687) involving forces acting at a distance in empty space and avoiding the existence of a medium in space remarked: “* I FEIGN NO HYPOTHESES*”. This statement of course predicted the non existence of the ether confirmed by the American physicists Michelson and Morley in 1887.

Furthermore following Galileo’s experiments Newton deduced the relativity (1687) from his laws of motion and remarked: “* From the positions and distances of things from any body considered as immovable we define all places. And then with respect to such places we estimate all motion…And so, instead of absolute places and motions we use relative ones*”.

A correct axiom in Newtonian relativity is that all inertial frames share a universal time, because in the systems of conservative forces (in the absence of absorption or emission of light) the inertial mass of a particle is invariant during the transformation of the potential energy into a kinetic one. However in quantum dynamics during a dynamic absorption of photons the mass of a particle increases under a length contraction and a time dilation.(Discovery of length contraction). Note that Einstein replaced the natural laws by his invalid postulations of his relativity according to which the relative motion with respect to a randomly moving observer is responsible for the increase of mass when the potential energy turns into a kinetic one. This hypothesis did much to retard the progress of physics, because he introduced the false rest mass or relativistic mass under the replacement of natural laws by hypotheses which led to many complications like the violation of the conservation law of mass etc.(Invalidity of special relativity).

In 1690 Huygens re-introduced the ether, because in his “* Treatise on Light*” developed the wave theory of light in terms of impulses in the ether.

However Newton based on his third law in 1704 developed his theory of particles of light in his **Opticks** moving in empty space. Note that the first sentence of the Opticks declares: “* My Design in this book is not to explain the Properties of Light by Hypotheses but to propose and prove them by Reason and Experiments”*. Opticks concludes a set of “

**Queries**” one of which concerns the

**cause of gravity**on the

**masses**of his particles. Note that later (1801) the German mathematician Soldner confirmed the gravitational properties of light. Nevertheless after the Young interference experiment (1803) and Fresnel’s wave theory, Newton’s particles of light were vanquished not to be heard of again till the 20

^{th}century.

** **

**THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY IN FARADAY’S INDUCTION LAW WAS CORRECT BUT THE CONCEPT OF FIELD LED TO COMPLICATIONS BECAUSE IT VIOLATES NEWTON'S THIRD LAW OF INSTANTANEOUS ACTION AND REACTION **

In 1831 Faraday discovered that the motion of a coil with respect to a magnet or the motion of the magnet relative to a coil gives exactly the same magnetic effect. That is, only the relative motion matters. It is well-known that the Faraday electromotive force (emf) is expressed by the simple equation

emf = - dΦ/dt

which is a magnetic resultant because it is consistent with the Ampere law of magnetic force. Faraday summarizes the results in the following short paragraph: “* All these results show that the power of inducing electric currents is circumferentially excited by a magnetic resultant*…” However in order to explain his induction, Faraday underestimated the fundamental laws of force of Coulomb and Ampere. So he introduced the wrong concept of fields which did much to retard the progress of physics. In fact, in nature exist only electric and magnetic intensities, which represent a kind of unit forces acting at a distance. (INTENSITY AND FALSE FIELD).

** **

**MAXWELL’S WRONG FIELDS MOVING THROUGH AN “ETHER” WERE BASED ON A FALSE “DISPLACEMENT CURRENT” AND ON A FALLACIOUS “ELECTRIC FIELD” WHICH VIOLATES NEWTON'S THIRD LAW CONFIRMED BY THE EXPERIMENTS OF THE QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT**

Unfortunately, after the abandonment of Newton’s particles of light, **Maxwell abandoned the principle of relativity** by using the false hypothesis of the Cartesian **ether**. Also to fit the experiments of Weber (1856) he postulated a “**Displacement current**” which involves misconceptions after the experiment of the American physicists French and Tessman (1963). Also Maxwell introduced incorrectly **an electric field** **E when the magnet moves with respect to the coil** as given in his simple equation

emf = ( E )2πr = - dΦ/dt

Note that after the French-Tessman experiment, in my paper “Impact of Maxwell’s …dipolic particles” (1993) I showed that the above equation is written as

emf = (F_{m}/dq) 2πr = - dΦ/dt

since the so-called motional emf showed that the Faraday induction is consistent with the Ampere law of magnetic force . Hence, Einstein’s assumptions based on such a wrong idea lead to many complications. In my paper (1993) I showed also that the constant speed of light c is deduced from the laws of electromagnetic forces applied on the dipolic photon which behaves like a moving dipole. Whereas Einstein thought that he could replace the laws of nature in order to explain the constancy of light. In my paper WRONG AND CORRECT EINSTEIN I notice that a new idea is correct when it leads to applications of laws. Under this condicion all experiments of atomic and nuclear physics reject Einstein. (EXPERIMENTS REJECT RELATIVITY).

**THE MICHELSON EXPERIMENT CONFIRMED NEWTON’S TIRD LAW AND THE GRAVITATIONAL PROPERIES OF LIGHT BY REJECTING MAXWELL'S ETHER**

In 1887 the American physicists Michelson and Morley in order to determine the Earth’s movement through Maxwell’s ether, used an interferometer with mirrors separated by equal lengths L and L_{o} (distances along the parallel and perpendicular directions to the hypothetical velocity u through the ether). Also in the laboratory they used a light source, but the experiment showed that the ether cannot exist as given by their formula:

L_{o}/L = c /(c^{2 }- u^{2}) ^{0.5}

Since L = L_{o} one gets u = 0. In other words the ether cannot exist and the earth behaves as a reference frame of Newton’s laws. Thus, not only Newton’s law of gravity based on action at a distance but also the Newtonian particles of light having mass, defeated the Cartesian ether. To simplify this situation consider that the source of light with the interferometer were on a moving train emitting the Newtonian particles of light having a mass m like our dipolic photons. Since Newton’s particles of light behave like all particles having mass, all observers on the train will measure the same velocity c, by measuring the same frequency ν, no matter what is the velocity of the train, while an observer on the ground will measure not only a different frequency according to the Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics, but also a bending of light predicted by Newton. According to the kinematics of Galileo the Newtonian particle of light invalidates the second postulation of Einstein because it has an accelerated motion along the vertical direction like the projectile motion. This is the bending of light near the sun confirmed by astronomical measurements. For example using the Newton’s mass in a photon we discovered that when the gravitational force F_{g} acts along a perpendicular direction to the velocity c the photon mass m behaves like the constant mass M_{o} of a particle. Here we do not use Einstein’s false rest mass because in gravity the mass of a particle remains always constant when the potential energy turns into a kinetic one. Thus applications of Newton’s second law give

F_{g}ds = dw = (dp/dt)ds = m_{o}(du/dt)ds = m_{o}udu

That is, when c is perpendicular to gravity the photon accelerates with a constant mass m_{o} along the vertical direction. However when the constant c is parallel to F_{g }the photon mass is a variable mass m because the force cannot affect the constant velocity c. Thus application of Newton’s second law gives

F_{g}ds = dw =(dp/dt)ds = (dmc/dt)ds = dmc^{2} = hdν

This equation explains the gravitational frequency shift by applying Newton’s second law. Note that Einstein in his general relativity incorrectly believed that he replaced the natural laws by his assumptions because in gravity he did not use his wrong relativity. In fact, he used the Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanics δν/ν = u/c, which leads to the above equation. It leads also to our Photon - Matter Transformation

hν/m = ΔW/ΔΜ = c^{2}

which leads to the formula of the increase of mass

M/M_{o} = c/(c^{2}-u^{2})^{0.5}

Note that during the absorption of a photon by a particle the photon gives off both energy and mass to the particle, while Einstein for the explanation of the photoelectric effect believed that photons give off only their energies. Also Mercury’s precession under a detailed knowledge was found that it is due to the Newtonian Sun-tide.

In 1901-1903 the American physicists Nichols and Hull with experiments of the absorption of light showed that dw/dp = c or hν/p = c.

This is the law of absorption of photons which led to the development of Quantum Mechanics. Also the same law leads to our Photon-Matter transformation which invalidates Einstein’s ideas because the applications of Newton’s second law give dp = dmc and explain the experiments of Kaufmann.

**LORENTZ IN 1904 TRIED TO EXPLAIN THE INCREASE OF MASS OF THE KAUFMANN EXPERIMENTS (1901-1903) BY USING THE WRONG HYPOTHESIS OF ETHER **

Although the Michelson experiment confirmed the non existence of ether, (u = 0), Lorentz in 1904 under the influence of Maxwell’s moving fields supported strongly the ether and postulated that during the motion of the earth trough the ether, the length L of the Michelson interferometer is not equal to L_{o} but it becomes shorter than L_{o}. That is, L < L_{o .} Then he tried to explain the increase of mass of the Kaufmann experiments, though the length contraction of the interferometer contributes not to the increase of mass but to the mass density.

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**EINSTEIN IN 1905 FOLLOWING THE LORENTZ STRANGE CONTRACTION REPLACED THE NATURAL LAWS BY HIS FALLACIOUS HYPOTHESES OF RELATIVE MOTIONS WITH RESPECT TO A RANDOMLY MOVING OBSERVER**

In the introduction of his wrong theory of relative motions with respect to an observer Einstein used the false electric field of Maxwell in the Faraday induction, which violates the principle of relativity. Then by postulating a constant speed of light, which contradicts the bending of light, did not apply the natural laws but replaced them in order to account for his postulation. In the summary of his theory for the Grolier Encyclopedia in 1955 (before his death) Einstein remarked: “**The content of the theory is the answer to the question: How must the known laws of nature be modified in order to account for the postulate of the constancy of the velocity of light”.**

For Einstein’s wrong and invalid assumptions see in Google my paper EINSTEIN'S WRONG ASSUMPTIONS IN SPECIAL RELATIVITY

Einstein under the influence of Maxwell’s moving fields without mass, in his theory of photons could not accept the mass of Newton’s corpuscles . In his photon theory (1905) he wrote: “**The wave theory of light, which operates with continuous spatial functions has worked well in the representation of purely optical phenomena*** and will probably never be replaced by another theory*”. Under this condition Einstein believed incorrectly that photons are massless particles. Unfortunately such a wrong idea led to many complications. For example in his formula E/m = c

^{2 }one observes an illogical situation how a massless particle like Einstein’s photon is able to have an energy hν. In “Photon – WIKIPEDIA” (Experimental checks on photon mass) one reads the incorrect paragraph: “

*”.*

**The photon is currently understood to be strictly massless but this is an experimental question. If the photon is not a strictly massless particle it would not move at the exact speed of light in vacuum**In fact, the mass of photon under the application of Newton’s second law is responsible for the increase of mass of electrons or other particles which leads to u<c of particles when they absorb the photon mass. Therefore electrons cannot move as fast as the speed of light, because of the absorption of the photon mass. Whereas, the massless photon of Einstein leads to the violation of the conservation law of mass.

St. Hawking in his article “A brief history of relativity” (1999) under the influence of Einstein’s theory emphasized dogmatically that “…* the speed - of - light problem was solved by Einstein once and for all”.* Of course Hawking avoided to write, why Einstein in 1924 re-introduced the ether. Today it is well-known Einstein’s the following paragraph: “

*”. Hawking also*

**Every theory of local action assumes continuous fields, and thus also the existence of an eather****believes that the energy of atomic bomb is due to the mass defect according to Einstein’s incomplete equation E = mc**

^{2}. So at the end of his article he wrote: “

*”.*

**Clearly, no scientist better represents those advances than Albert Einstein: TIME’s Person of the Century**In fact, **Einstein’s, Mass – Energy Equivalence, rest mass, rest energy, relativistic mass, relativistic energy, and transformation of mass into energy, are fallacious ideas. **

For example the energy of photons in the so-called annihilation of electron and positron is due not to the mass of electron and positron but to the energy of their charge-charge interaction. In our fundamental equation of the Matter- Photon Transformation

ΔW/2M_{o} = 2hν/2m = c^{2}

the energy ΔW of the charge-charge interaction turns into the energy 2hν while the mass 2M_{o} of electron and positron turns into the mass 2m of photons. Nevertheless in “Annihilation – **WIKIPEDIA' ” **one reads the wrong paragraph:

*When the masses of the two particles are converted entirely into energy, this rest energy, is given off ”.*

**“**Moreover Einstein starting with his wrong idea of rest energy E = M_{o}c^{2 }formulated his invalid relativity

Einstein believed that hν = Pc is correct for massless particles. In fact, this equation is derived from Newton’s second law, because the photon has a variable mass m.

Also Einstein for his fallacious mass-energy conservation wrote : “* Pre-relativity physics contains two conservation laws of fundamental importance, namely, the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation of mass; these two appear there as completely independent of each other. Through relativity theory they melt together into one principle*”. In fact, in the phenomena of quantum physics one must use my discovery of the law of energy and mass. Note that in the Matter-Photon transformation the orbiting electrons in atoms invalidate dramatically the special relativity.

**See also in my paper CRISIS OF FIELDS AND RELATIVITY the Hawking contradictions and Einstein’s confusing ideas about Maxwell’s fields and the ether. Since all the fruits of Newton’s great work would be lost by accepting the hypothesis of relative motions assumed to increase the mass of a particle, when Michelson and Einstein met briefly in 1931, Michelson remarked**

**that he regretted that his experiment might have been responsible for giving birth to such a**“

**monster**” –

**referring to special relativity.**

**THE INCREASE OF MASS IS EXPLAINED ALSO BY APPLYING THE LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM **

Following the electromagnetic mass recognized by Thomson in 1881 we see that when a photon interacts with an electron, of charge –e, the applications of electromagnetic laws on our dipolic photon of mass m with opposite charges lead to the following expressions

E_{y}(-e)dy /B_{z}(-e) dy = dW/dP = dW/dmc

Since E_{y}/d_{y} = c one gets dW/dm = c^{2 }

That is, both gravity and electromagnetism solve the crisis of fields and relativity under the unification of forces acting at a distance. Indeed, we do not use here the false word field but the electric intensity E_{y} and the magnetic intensity B_{z} which represent a kind of unit forces acting at a distance. They lead to our Photon –Matter Transformation under the unification of forces. Note that the photon mass absorption under the quantum dynamics modifies the space and time of the newtonian mechanics in order to accommodates the simultaneity of electric and magnetic phenomena during the photon mass absorption in a situation involving a very small dy/dt approaching to zero. In our paper of 1993 we showed that the photon works because the electric and magnetic forces of the photon charges work at the same time or because E and B occur at the same time. But according to the laws of electromagnetism the magnetic force on a stationary electron appears after the electric force, which produces the velocity dy/dt of the electron. Under this velocity the simultaneity must occur when the velocity (dy/dt) approaches to zero. Thus the problem of simultaneity of the two different forces of electricity and magnetism is resolved mathematically under a lenght conraction (dy) and a time dilation (dt). Note that Einstein reading Mach's speculations (1893) about relative motions with respect to the fallacious "fixed stars" and the Lorentz length contraction of the Michelson interferometer moving through a false immovable ether, introduced the wrong hypothsis of relativistic simultaneity. So he violated Newton's conserved third law which is the same in all inertial frames. Note that Newton's instantaneous simultaneity confirmed also by experiments of the "Quantum Entanglement". See also in Google my paper UNIFIED FORCES SOLVE THE CRISIS OF PHYSICS .

** **

**CONCLUSIONS **

**The principle of relativity (Galileo, 1632) deduced from Newton's laws explains why all natural laws are the same in all inertial frames. Whereas Einstein violating the principle of relativity in the induction law introduced a fallacious relativity which violates all natural laws, like the two conservation laws of energy and mass. In fact, the increase of mass in accelerators is due not to the relative motion of a particle with respect to a randomly moving observer but to the application of the well-established laws during the absorption of non mechanical energies under a length contraction dy and a time dilation dt, because Newton's instantaneous simultaneity is conserved in all inertial frames. Today it is well known that all experiments of atomic and nuclear physics reject Einstein's relativity, because during the absorption of photons we observe that the photon contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy but also to the increase of the electron mass . In other words under my discovery of the law of energy and mass the space time ripples of the quantum gravitational waves cannot be related with Einstein's gravitational waves. Whereas in the Newtonian mechanics of conservativce forces the inertial mass of a moving body remains always constant. Moreover according to the Galilean principle of relativity the three dimensions of space are the same in all inertial frames with a separated time. However according to the invalid Einstein's relativistic simultaneity the time is not separated. Such a false idea led to the development of various string theories with many dimensions including the time in the system of dimensions. Of course these theories with dimensions more than those of the Cartesian system contradict the well-established Time - Independent Schrodinger Equation in three dimensions , which describes accurately the features of the hydrogen spectrum and of other one-electron atomic systems. **