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*FORCE *

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** by L. Kaliambos '**

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This article was announced to many universities around the world ( July 2013).

By Prof. L. Kaliambos ( Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός ) T. E. Institute of Larissa. Greece

Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paper " Impact of Maxwell's....dipolic particles " presented at the International conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics”

(Olympia,1993). The paper invalidates Einstein’s relativity and Maxwell’s moving fields by using the forces of the well-established laws acting at a distance. Note that Einstein explained incorrectly the photoelectric effect because he believed that light consists of massless quanta of fields. In fact the absorption of our dipolic photon by electron contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ in accordance with the experiment of Kaufmann (1902) who explained his experiment by using the so-called electromagnetic mass recognized by J.J. Thomson in 1881, which led to our discovery of dipolic photons. For example in 1845 Faraday found that the plane of plarization of light rotates when the magnetic field is parallel to the plane of polarization. This fact is explained in case in which light behaves like a moving dipole. (See my PHOTON OF LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS).One can also see my paper NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM presented at the 12th Symposium of the

Hellenic nuclear physics society (N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", 2002). The paper reveals the nuclear structure by using the electromagnetic forces of the well-established laws and invalidates both Einstein’s relativity and the theories of the Standard model developed after the abandonment of natural laws. (See in User Kaliambos the above papers along with my paper “Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures” published in Ind.J.Th. Phys. in 2008).** **

**FORCES ACTING AT A DISTANCE OF THE WELL-ESTABLISHED LAWS CANNOT BE REPLACED BY THEORIES**

It is indeed unfortunate that in the “Force-WIKIPEDIA” one can see a number of invalid ideas about the nature of forces based not on the well-established laws involving forces of gravity and electromagnetism acting continuously at a distance but on various wrong theories like Maxwell’s fields, Einstein’s relativity, and the so-called Standard model developed after the abandonment of natural laws, because in atomic and nuclear physics it was assumed that photons, neutrons, and neutrinos are neutral particles. Under this confusion Einstein sought to unify the electromagnetic and the gravitational interactions, but without success. In fact, the assumed uncharged particles have mass of opposite charges which interact electromagnetically of short range for giving the so-called strong and weak interactions and our photon-matter interaction . Also a careful analysis of forces led to the unification of the laws of gravity and electromagnetism. (See my NEW IDEAS IN QUANTUM PHYSICS )..

Though the WIKIPEDIA starts with Newton’s laws of motion and the universal gravity, then, after the influence of Einstein’s invalid theories of relativity it notices that general relativity has been acknowledged as the theory which best explains gravity. So it is believed that gravitation is not a simple force as the electric and magnetic forces acting at a distance of the well-established laws, but a strange force mediated by fields like the wrong electric and magnetic fields of Maxwell moving through the fallacious ether. Note that the electric field is, in fact, the electric force per unit charge. So the force per unit charge cannot carry the same force. Under this confusion one also reads Einstein’s various hypotheses like the false gravitational fields, the wrong gravitational waves, the fallacious “ether structure” or the strange “curved space-time”. (See my CRISIS OF FIELDS AND RELATIVITY ).

Unfortunately Einstein’s wrong relativity did much to retard not only the progress of nuclear binding ( by assuming that it is due to the mass defect) but also the progress of atomic and molecular physics by assuming that the electron spin cannot give a peripheral velocity greater than light. In 1925 the two physicists Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck found that the peripheral velocity of the electron spin is greater than the speed of light, but under the influence of wrong relativity Pauli and many physicists did not accept the discovery of such a mechanical spin. Under this successful discovery I revealed d that the two electrons of opposite spin give a magnetic attraction stronger than the electric repulsion which is responsible for the atomic structure of many- electron atoms and of molecular structure. In other words for spinning particles like electrons and quarks under orientations of spins the magnetic attraction is greater than the electric repulsion responsible also of the quark binding. However during the Big bang a high temperature led to non oriented spins and the quark triads exerted only electric repulsions of short range under the long-ranged primordial gravity. (See my OUR EARLY UNIVERSE ).

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'''**I DISCOVERED THAT THE SO-CALLED STRONG AND WEAK INTERACTIONS ARE DUE TO THE BASIC ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCES **

In the “Force- WIKIPEDIA” one also reads the wrong strong and weak interactions because it is believed that today the strong and weak forces are understood not by the well-established laws of the basic electromagnetism but by the wrong quantum theory of chromodynamics and the false electroweak theory. (See my NEW ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS ).

Historically, the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron (1932) led to the abandonment of the electromagnetic laws in favor of various wrong theories. So in the absence of a detailed knowledge about thenew structure of protons and neutrons Heisenberg in the same year (1932) tried to explain the nuclear binding by suggesting that the exchange of one electron is responsible for such a strong binding. Then, Yukawa (1935) following Heisenberg's idea introduced his meson theory and finally Gel-man (1973) introduced the hypothesis of strange “color forces” between false gluons in his theory of chromodynamics. Under this confusion in my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” published in Ind. J. Th. Phys. (2003) I discovered that the so-called strong interaction is due to the electromagnetic interaction between the 9 extra charged quarks in protons and the 12 extra charged quarks in neutrons which led to our discovery of 288 quarks in nucleons. The extra charged quarks among the 288 quarks exert strong forces of short range in a strong interaction, because it behaves like the dipole-dipole interactions. (See my NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND FORCE ).

Meanwhile Fermi in 1933 in order to explain the beta decay developed the theory of the weak interaction involving a contact force with no range, because he believed that such a reaction could not be related with the electromagnetic forces of the well-established laws. Later Glashow, Salam, and Weinberg (1968) suggested the unification of the wrong weak interaction with electromagnetism into another hypothetical electroweak force which complicated more the problem. Under this confusion I discovered that the so-called weak interaction of Fermi’s theory is related with the unstable neutron (n) which has 92 quark triads (dud). So it decays into the stable proton (p) with 93 quark triads after the emission of an electron (e) and an antineutrino (ν) according to the reaction

n = p + e + ν

After our discovery of the structure of protons and neutrons (see my NEW STRUCTURE OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS ) the above reaction is written as

[ 92(dud) +4u +8d] = [ 93(dud) +4u +5d] + e + ν

Here one sees that one (d ) quark among 3 (d ) quarks is transformed into an (u) quark to give a (dud) quark triad.

In this case we observe d-u attraction and also u-d attraction, of electromagnetic forces while the one d-d repulsion is weaker than the two attractions. This situation involves the two conservation laws of mass and energy and is similar to the creation of the hydrogen in which the binding energy is characterized as a stable structure after the emission of a photon which has the mass of the mass defect of the electron and energy hν which is equal to the energy of the electron – proton interaction. This phenomenon of the quantum jump invalidates Einstein’s two hypotheses of the rest mass energy and the massless photons. Note that such hypotheses used by Dirac in 1928 for developing his theory of quantum electrodynamics.

In fact, all these forces of short range between the quarks are the result of electromagnetic forces like the forces of dipole-dipole interactions, since the change in geometry at short distances leads to compound forces in which the attraction is stronger than the repulsion and vice versa. For example during the Big Bang the gravity of long range led to electric repulsions of short range between the primordial quark triads, since the great temperature led to the non oriented spins.

In our universe in which energy cannot turn into mass at far distances such quark triads could not interact, because the electric repulsions are equal to attractions. But under the primordial gravity of long range such triads were able to make rectangles in which the d-d and the u-u repulsions were stronger than the u-d attractions directed along the diagonals of the following rectangles:

d….u….d (-e/3)…(+2e/3)…(-e/3)

d….u….d (-e/3)…(+2e/3)…(-e/3)

However it is unfortunate that today under Einstein’s wrong hypothesis that energy turns into mass, cosmologists like Hawking and Kaku believe incorrectly that our universe created itself out of nothing under the fallacious hypothesis that mass has a positive energy while gravity has a negative one.

On the other hand after the influence of the Yukawa wrong meson theory the question arises as to whether there are particles analogous to mesons that carry the weak interactions. So in the absence of a detailed knowledge about thenew structure of protons and neutrons in 1968 Salam, Glashow and Weinberg suggested a new theory, the electroweak interaction, under the experiments of high energy accelerators which led to the discovery of W and Z bosons. Note that the electroweak theory was developed along with the experimental search for the particles at CERN (See my[http:// CONFUSING CERN RESULTS AND IDEAS CONFUSING CERN RESULTS AND IDEAS] ). Of course the participation of such heavy particles in the neutron decay violates the two conservation laws of mass and energy. Nevertheless in the “electroweak interaction-WIKIPEDIA” one reads the following wrong ideas:

“ In particle physics, the **electroweak interaction** is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction. Although these two forces appear very different at everyday low energies, the theory models them as two different aspects of the same force. Above the unification energy, on the order of 100 GeV, they would merge into a single **electroweak force”**.

Spurred by such assumed successes, physicists have proposed several variants of a theory that would unify the false electroweak and wrong strong interactions. A common feature of the Grand Unified Theories is that the wrong ‘massless photons” and the fallacious gluons should be appear as components of a single multicomponent field.

Under these fallacious ideas the WIKIPEDIA also for the problem of unification of the false strong and weak interactions under the invalid Higgs boson ( see myINVALIDITY OF HIGGS BOSON ) describes the following complications of hypothetical massless virtual particles:

“ In the 20th century, the development of quantum mechanics led to a modern understanding that the first three fundamental forces (all except gravity) are manifestations of matter (fermions) interacting by exchanging virtual particles called gauge bosons.^{[28]} This standard model of particle physics posits a similarity between the forces and led scientists to predict the unification of the weak and electromagnetic forces in electroweak theory subsequently confirmed by observation. The complete formulation of the standard model predicts an as yet unobserved Higgs mechanism, but observations such as neutrino oscillations indicate that the standard model is incomplete. A grand unified theory allowing for the combination of the electroweak interaction with the strong force is held out as a possibility with candidate theories such as supersymmetry proposed to accommodate some of the outstanding unsolved problems in physics. Physicists are still attempting to develop self-consistent unification models that would combine all four fundamental interactions into a theory of everything. Einstein tried and failed at this endeavor, but currently the most popular approach to answering this question is string theory”.

**THE DEFINITION OF FORCE IN MECHANICAL ENERGIES UNDER THE CONSTANT INERTIAL MASS**

Newton in his PRINCIPIA (1687) begins with a set of definitions: mass, M, momentum, P = Mu, inertia mass M_{o}, force, F, centripetal force F = Mu^{2}/r. For understanding the origin of the concept of force in a conserved mechanical energy of a system subject to conservative forces one can read Newton’s first law of inertia. But there is implied only the definition of force as the “cause” of change of velocity. Then in Newton’s own formulation of the second law he states that the force acting on a body is equal to the rate of change of its momentum . That is

F = dp/dt = d(Mu)/dt

This formula of Newton is a simple generalization arising naturally from observations of collisions in which there are contact forces of short time. Note that though such forces cannot be transmitted to an observer, in fact, they are due to electromagnetic forces between molecules, atoms, and nucleons acting at a distance. ( See my RELATIVITY by L. Kaliambos ). Also for the continuously acting at a distance gravity it was far more convenient to define force differently by using the constant inertial mass M_{o} and Galileo’s acceleration α. That is

F = M_{o}α. or F = M_{o} (du/dt)

It is this version of Newton’s second law formalized by Euler in 1750, that was eventually adopted in Newtonian mechanics. Note that Einstein in his special relativity rejected the constant inertial mass M_{o} which is responsible for the conservation law of mechanical energy according to which a potential energy turns into a kinetic one under the constant inertial mass M_{o}, when the isolated system is only subject to conservative forces. It is well-known that

Fds = dW = M_{o }udu or FΔs = Δw = M_{o}u^{2}/2

Instead, Einstein suggested the fallacious rest mass M_{o} which could increase during the transformation of the potential energy into the kinetic one. So he violated this conservation law by suggesting incorrectly that Newton’s laws under his invalid relativity should be modified. Ironically Einstein in his invalid general relativity applied the constant inertial mass M_{o} of Newtonian mechanics which invalidates his relativistic mass of his special relativity. On the other hand the bending of light not only invalidates his second postulation of special relativity but also it led to the wrong hypothesis that it is due to a fallacious “curvature of space-time”. In fact, the bending of light was predicted by Newton and confirmed by Soldner in 1801. On this basis I revealed that when a photon moves in perpendicular direction to gravity its mass behaves like the inertial mass M_{o} of Galileo’s projectile according to which the gravity cannot affect the horizontal velocity and produces only an acceleration along the direction of gravity. So for photons we may apply Euler’s formula as

F = m_{o}(du/dt)

Here the photon has a constant inertial mass m_{o}= hν/c^{2 } at a given frequency ν.

To conclude, in all mechanical energies the Euler formula applies not only on bodies with constant inertial mass but also on photons when they move in perpendicular direction to the gravitational force F.

**FOR THE EXPLANATION OF GRAVITATIONAL RED SHIFT I REVEALED THAT THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE F IS EQUAL TO THE RATE OF CHANGE OF MASS UNDER A LENGTH CONTRACTION AND A TIME DILATION WHEN F IS PARALLEL TO c**

In my model of dipolic photons (1993), which behave like moving dipoles, a photon operates at the velocity c with equal electric and magnetic forces. That is, a photon cannot move faster than c because the repulsive magnetic force becomes greater than the electric attraction. So under the constant velocity c of photons I used Newton’s formula F = dp/dt of his second law as

F = dp/dt = c(dm/dt)

This formula in terms of energy can be written

Fds = dw = (cdm/dt)ds = dmc^{2} = hdν.

In other words, the force here affects not the velocity but the mass and since the photon cannot accelerate along the c direction the acceleration during this gravitational interaction must approach to zero under a length contraction and a time dilation. To conclude for all photons when interact with gravitational forces parallel to c one must apply my formula according to which the photon mass changes under a length contraction and a time dilation. Since dm = hdν/c^{2}_{ }one can explain the experiments of gravitational red shift.

In other words this application of the well-established laws invalidates Einstein's ideas that the gravitational red shift is due to his strange "curvature of space time" under his principle of equivalence which cannot be applied here because the mass of photon is changing due to the constant velocity c.

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**I DISCOVERED THE UNIFIED LAWS OF GRAVITY AND ELECTROMAGNETISM WHEN A PHOTON INTERACTS WITH A CHARGED PARTICLE**

After the French-Tessman experiment (1963) which showed the fallacy of Maxwell’s moving fields, in 1993 I presented at the International conference “Frontiers of Fundamental Physics” my model of dipolic photons of mass m and opposite charges which explain the gravitational and electromagnetic properties of photons.

In this case a photon behaves like a moving electric dipole of charges +q and – q. For simplicity when the distance R between the charges is perpendicular to the velocity u, applications of the Coulomb and Ampere laws (without using fields) give electric attraction F_{e} and magnetic repulsion F_{m} as

F_{e} = Kq^{2}/R^{2} and F_{m} = kq^{2}u^{2}/R^{2 }

Since in 1856 Weber found that K/k = c^{2 }and for u = c one concludes that the photon operates at c when F_{e} = F_{m}.

According to Newton’s third law they appear at the same time.

Today physicists believe that Maxwell in his fallacious theory of electromagnetism unified the wrong electric and magnetic fields. In the “Electromagnetism-WIKIPEDIA” one reads:

“A theory of electromagnetism, known as classical electromagnetism, was developed by various physicists over the course of the 19th century, culminating in the work of James Clerk Maxwell, who unified the preceding developments into a single theory and discovered the electromagnetic nature of light”.

In fact, the electromagnetic nature of light was discovered by Faraday in 1845 and the connection of electric and magnetic forces with the velocity of light was discovered by Weber. Therefore Maxwell in the introduction of his electromagnetic theory wrote: “…and that the velocity of propagation υ, found from experiments such as those of Weber, which expresses the number of electrostatic units of electricity which are contained in one electromagnetic unit”.

Then, for understanding the interaction of a photon with the charge –e of an electron we do not use the concept of fields which did much retard the progress of physics. Instead we use the electric and magnetic intensities E_{y} and B_{z} at the center of the dipole given by

E_{y} = 2Kq/r^{2} and B_{z } = 2kqc/r^{2}

where r = R/2. Since K/k = c^{2} one gets E_{y }/ B_{z } = c

Note that the two opposite charges interact with (-e) at a distance in terms of E_{y} and B_{z} . In this case we observe the same increase of mass under a length contraction and a time dilation since the magnetic force on the electron is directed in parallel direction to the velocity c. Here the opposite charges of photon interact with (-e) in terms of E_{y} and B_{z} as

E_{y} (-e) dy = dw and B_{z}(-e) (dy/dt) = F_{m } = or B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m}dt

Since F_{m}dt = dp we can write dp = dmc because the F_{m}dt is directed along the direction of the c due to the velocity dy/dt which appears after the electric interaction. However this violates Newton’s third law. Under this condition the velocity dy/dt must approach to zero under a length contraction and a time dilation.

That is, since E_{y}/B_{z} = c one gets dw = dmc^{2}.

This gives the same result as that of the photon gravitational interaction.

To conclude we revealed that the laws of gravity and electromagnetism acting at a distance are unified, because the gravitational and electromagnetic properties of a photon give the same results under a length contraction and a time dilation. This situation based on the well-established laws invalidates both special and general relativity according to which the length contraction and the time dilation are based on wrong hypotheses violating not only the forces of laws acting at a distance but also the two conservation laws of mass and energy under a fallacious “ether structure” or a strange “curvature of spacetime”.

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**FOR THE EXPLANATION OF THE KAUFMANN EXPERIMENT I DISCOVERED THAT DURING THE INTERACTION OF A PHOTON WITH A PARTICLE THE FORCE IS EQUAL TO THE CHANGE OF BOTH THE MASS AND VELOCITY OF THE PARTICLE WHICH INVALIDATES EINSTEIN'S IDEAS **

According to our discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION when photons interact with electrons the photons are absorbed to give both their energy hν and mass m as

hν/m = ΔW/ΔΜ = c^{2}

It is indeed unfortunate that Einstein for the explanation of the photoelectric effect under the influence of wrong Maxwell’s fields suggested that photons are only quanta of energy. Under this false idea he formulated his incomplete formula E = mc^{2} which did much to retard the progress of physics, because it violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass. In fact, in the Bohr model the energy Δw of the charge-charge interaction of 13.6 eV turns into the energy hν of the generation of photon, while the mass defect ΔΜ of the electron during the binding energy turns into the mass m of the photon. This situation invalidates dramatically the special relativity according to which the orbiting electron around the nucleus should have greater mass.

In the opposite reaction during the absorption of the photon energy both the mass M and the velocity u of an electron are changed under the application of Newton’s formula of his second law as

Fds = dw = [d(Mu)/dt]ds = d(Mu)u = (Mdu + udM)u = dMc^{2}

If one applies my formula which says that the force changes not only the velocity u of the particle but also its mass M he will explain the result of the Kaufmann experiment given by

M^{2 }/ M_{o}^{2 } = c^{2}/ (c^{2}- u^{2})

Here M_{o} is the constant inertial mass before the interaction and M is the increasing mass during the interaction. Note that in the Kaufmann experiment the electron absorbs a non mechanical energy on our earth which is due to the photons of sun. In other words under the photosynthesis the energy of the sun’s rays is the source of all non mechanical energies on our earth.

Now differentiating the above equation we get

M^{2}c^{2} = M^{2}u^{2 } or 2MdMc^{2} = 2MdM u^{2} + 2udu M^{2}

Or dMc^{2} = ( Mdu + udM ) u

Here one concludes that the Kaufmann experiment cannot be explained by the wrong theories of Lorentz and Einstein which led to the crisis of physics (under the violation of the two conservation laws of mass and energy) but by the well-established laws. In the same way the three fundamental interactions of electric, magnetic, and gravitational forces acting at a distance cannot be replaced by the theories which complicated the interactions and then in vain tried to unify the complications. In other words in our universe the energy cannot turn into mass and all forces like contact forces and the so-called weak and strong interactions are due to the acting at a distance gravitational, electric, and magnetic forces of the well-established laws of Newton Coulomb and Ampere. It is fortunate that the Bohr model and the Schrodinger equations are based on the well-established laws. I hope that soon all those fallacious theories which are not consistent with the well-established laws should be demolished never to reappear in scientific circles.