Prof. Lefteris Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) T.E. Institute of Larissa Greece (April 2014)

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The story of our universe , which is a part of an eternal cosmos characterized by the two conservation laws of energy and mass,  starts about 13.8 billion years ago with the Big Bang of laws . Under a primordial gravity of the well-established laws of Newton and according to the experiments at CERN , since energy cannot turn into mass, the quark triads (dud) were amongst the  first particles to appear. So the so-called quark epoch extends into the so-called Planck epoch.  Note that at such very hot conditions  of very large density the magnetic attractions between the quarks  approached to zero because of the non oriented spins.  However at  very short distances due to attractive gravity the quark triads exerted  enormous electric repulsions of the Coulomb law able to overcome the powerful gravity for creating  a rapid acceleration of our universe. Nevertheless the electric repulsions between the quark triads at the very short distance (near the quark size ) could not lead to the isolation of quarks, because the electric attractions between the quarks of a quark triad are always stronger than the triad-triad repulsions.  As the universe cooled the quark triads have never again existed in isolation because strong magnetic attractions under the orientation of the quark spins  were responsible for the structure of protons, neutrons and other hadrons for the last 13.8 billion years. Although these hadrons were formed in the first hundredth of a second, it took 378,000 years before there were any atoms.



Although LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS INVALIDATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY today cosmologists influenced by the wrong energy-mass conservation of the invalid fields and relativity keep on believing that time and space  had a finite beginning that corresponded to a fallacious origin of an unknown energy.  For example  in 1968 and 1970, Hawking and others  published papers in which they extended Einstein's  INVALID GENERAL RELATIVITY in order to support that the first moment of OUR EARLY UNIVERSE is related not with the two conservation laws of energy and mass of an eternal cosmos (developed by the Greek philosophers and confirmed by experiments)  but with a fallacious mathematical anomaly called Singularity. They also believed incorrectly that the singularity didn't appear in space; rather, space began inside of the singularity and prior to the singularity, nothing existed, not space, time, matter, or energy - nothing. So where and in what did the singularity appear if not in space?  Hawking claimed that this was the work of a Creator.

However in the Grand Design (2010) Hawking  changed his previous ideas by arguing that God is not necessary to explain the origins of the universe, and that the Big Bang is a consequence of the laws of physics alone. Nevertheless in his book he underestimates the natural laws of three dimensions and tried to explain the 11 dimension of a strange M-theory.

 Despite the two conservation laws of energy and mass and the enormous success of the Bohr model and the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions based on laws (See my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN )  the central claim of the book is that the theory of quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity together could help us understand how universe could have formed out of nothing. Moreover Hawking  invoking only the law of gravity which rejects relativity (see my NEWTON AND GALILEO REJECT EINSTEIN )  wrote:

“Because there is a law such as gravity, the universe can and will create itself from nothing. Spontaneous creation is the reason there is something rather than nothing, why the universe exists, why we exist. It is not necessary to invoke God to light the blue touch paper and set the universe going”.

In fact, there was a Big Bang matter (the matter of quark triads)  in accordance with the two conservation laws of mass and energy of an eternal cosmos including our universe.



It is well-known that in OUR EARLY UNIVERSE as a part of an Eternal Cosmos including the two conservation laws of energy and mass the energy could not turn into mass, in accordance with my discovery of PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION which invalidates Einstein’s ideas. Thus the so-called Quark Epoch of the “Chronology of the universe-WIKIPEDIA” extends well into the  so-called Planck Epoch (up to 10-43 sec) including the first moment (t = 0 of our universe) .  In other words,  the  BIG BANG MATTER of the BIG BANG OF LAWS was formed just at the first moment under a primordial gravity acting on neutral quark triads (dud). For example under the well-established laws of gravity and electromagnetism of an Eternal Cosmos  the primordial gravity of long range reduced the distance r between two neutral quark triads but when the distance r became very short  near the size,( a = diameter of quarks),  enormous electric repulsions at  r = a of short range  between the quark triads were able to overcome the attractive gravity for creating the Big Bang rapid acceleration called inflation. The Big bang matter was so hot that  the spins of quarks were non oriented and in the absence of an attractive magnetic force only isolated quark triads could exist because the electric attractions between the quarks of a quark triad were stronger than the electric repulsions between two quark triads. However cosmologists after the abandonment of the well-established laws today believe that  the very early universe was governed not by laws but by wrong theories. In the “Planck epoch-WIKIPEDIA” one reads:  “The Planck epoch is an era in traditional (non-inflationary) big bang cosmology wherein the temperature was so high that the four fundamental forces—electromagnetism, gravitation, weak nuclear interaction, and strong nuclear interaction—were one fundamental force”.

In fact,  in nature exist only the fundamental forces of the well-established laws of gravity and electromagnetism acting at a distance in accordance with the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement. According to the accelerator experiments which have probed energies to reveal the quark plasma and using  the  fundamental laws of Coulomb and Ampere one may conclude that during the Big Bang the universe under an attractive gravity was characterized by the mass of  neutral (dud) quark triads of very large density, because the gravity of long range became very powerful  on nearly neutral particles of opposite charges, like the gravity in neutron stars. But the quantum effects were very important at very short distances (r  = a).  In such  a small distance, which is much more smaller than the size of nucleons, the enormous electric repulsions between the quark triads could overcome the powerful gravity for creating the rapid acceleration. Note that in such a very hot and chaotic universe the magnetic forces could not operate under the quantum dynamics of non oriented spins of quarks. Then, as the universe cooled the spins of quarks were partially oriented for the formation of the quark plasma, and later when the spins were oriented, very strong magnetic attractions were able to overcome the electric repulsions between the quark triads responsible for the formation of neutrons and protons. (See my NEW STRUCTURE OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS and DISCOVERY OF UNIFIED FORCES ).



To avoid confusions with fallacious forces of the so-called strong and weak interactions we modify the confusing "Chronology of the universe-WIKIPEDIA" as


Epoch of (dud) quark triads (Up to 1/1012 seconds)

In this very hot epoch under the quantum dynamics of not oriented spins the magnetic attraction was zero. So, initially the primordial gravity of long range could overcome the weak electric repulsions of short range between the nearly neutral (dud) quark triads. Of course, in this epoch of a dominant gravity the fallacious epochs of Planck, GUT, and electroweak could not exist because they violate the fundamental laws of gravity and electromagnetism. Also Guth’s idea of very small inflationary epoch during the so-called very early universe based on a wrong inflationary field and false vacuum energy is an incorrect idea.  In fact, a primordial tattractive gravity of long range reduced the disatnce r of the quark triads. Thus when r = a at the size of quarks , The quark triads exerted enormous electric repulsions responsible for the rapid acceleration. . Here I describe not Einstein’s WONG GRAVITATIONAL WAVES but the primordial gravity of Newton’s law and the electric repulsions of the triad-triad interactions  involving forces of the Coulomb law acting at a distance. Note that the magnetic attraction between the quarks could not exist because the very high energy of very early universe contributed to non-oriented spins of spinning quarks.  In fact, the primordial gravitational attraction of long range acting at a distance on the quark triads caused the electric repulsions of short range between the quark triads when the quark triads were at very short distances. Using the triad-triad interaction of two triads of the following scheme

D2 (-e/3)…U2(+2e/3)…D2(-e/3)

D1 (-e/3)…U1(+2e/3)…D1(-e/3)

one may conclude approximately that  when the r = D1D2  between the two quark triads D1U1D1 and D2U2D2 is much more greater  than the quark size  a = D1U1  that is, when  r >> a  the two quark triads behave like neutral particles. Thus the primordial gravitational attraction of long range acting at a distance reduces the distance r. However when r = a the two quark triads exert a very strong electric repulsion of short range in the triad-triad interaction of the Coulomb law. Here for r = a the  electric repulsions as  D1D2, U1U2 and D1D2  are stronger than the  electric attractions acting along the diagonals like D1U2   of quarks having fractional charges of (-e/3) and (+2e/3) respectively.

In general for r/a = x applying the Coulomb law we can find the three dominant electric repulsions (+3F) of charges of (D1D2) , (U1U2),  and (D1D2)  as

+3F = 2K(-e/3)(-e/3)/a2x2  + K (+2e/3)(+2e/3)/a2x2 = (6/9x2)(Ke2/a2

Also the two electric repulsions ( +2f ) of charges along the diagonals are given by

+2f  = [2K(-e/3)(-e/3)][ax/(a2x2+4a2)0.5][1/(a2x2+4a2)]

Or   +2f  = (2Ke2/9)[x/(x2+4)0.5][1/a2(x2+4)] = [2x/9(x2 +4)1.5](Ke2/a2)

However the four electric attractions (-4f ) of charges along the diagonals can be written as

-4f = 4K(-e/3)(+2e/3) [ax/(a2x2 + a2)0.5][1/(a2x2 + a2)]

Or  -4f =  ( -8Ke2/9)[x/(x2+1)0.5][1/a2(x2+1)] =  [-8x/9(x2+1)1.5](Ke2/a2)

 Thus the net electric repulsion Fe  =  +3F +2f  -4f is given by

Fe = [6/9x2 + 2x/9(x2+4)1.5 - 8x/9(x2 + 1)1.5](ke2/a2)

Since the total repulsive force is of short range here for  x >> 1 the value in brackets becomes zero and the two quark triads behave like neutral particles. Under this condition the primordial gravitational attraction between the quark triads could overcome the very small electric repulsions and contributed to the reduction of the distance r. Note that according to my DISCOVERY OF QUARKS IN PROTON AND NEUTRON  the mass of the quark triad is

(d + u +  d)  = 3.69 +2.4 +3.69  = 9.78 MeV

 which is 19.14 times greater than the electron mass ( m = 0.511 MeV) 

However when r = a or x = 1 we can find the very strong electric repulsion Fe as

Fe = [(6/9 +2/9(5)1.5 -8/9(2)1.5]( Ke2/a2 )  =  0.37Ke2/a2

Since here a < 1 fm one concludes that the triad-triad repulsion (+Fe) is much more stronger than the proton-proton repulsions in the enormous nuclear fission. However such very strong repulsions cannot lead to the isolation of quarks  because at the distance r = a between the two quark triads  the electric attractions (–Fe) between the quarks of a quark triad are so strong that always overcome the triad-triad repulsions. Using the quark size  a  of  the scheme


we write

 –Fe = 2K(-e/3)(+2e/3)/a2 + K(-e/3)(-e/3)/4a2 = (-4/9) (Ke2/a2) (+1/36)(Ke2/a2)

That is,     -Fe  = -0.42Ke2/a2

This very strong quark-quark  attraction between the quarks of a quark triad tells us that our early universe started off with quark triads  behaving at large distances with respect to the size of quarks as neutral particles able to receive the attractive gravity of long range. However they exert very strong electric repulsions at very short separations near the size of quarks for creating the rapid acceleration of our very early universe. Then, as the universe cooled the spins of the quarks were partially oriented and the magnetic attractions between the quarks were responsible for the creation of the so-called quark plasma.

Epoch of quark plasma (1/1012 - 1/106 seconds)

This is the epoch of long-ranged gravity and the short-ranged electromagnetic forces of the quark plasma which was unable to form nucleons under the quantum dynamics of partially oriented spins. It is well-known that at such high energies of partially oriented spins the accelerators produce a large number of unstable particles. It is also known that a quark plasma (which at lower energies form baryons, leptons, and photons), has been created in the lab by stamping nuclei together at extremely high speeds at Brookhaven RHIC. However under the wrong theory of quantum chromodynamics the physicists at CERN believe that the quark plasma is a quark –gluon plasma having the hypothetical massless gluons of energy, though energy without mass cannot exist. Note that despite the fact that energy cannot turn into mass, this epoch in WIKIPEDIA begins after the end of a false electroweak epoch in which all the fundamental particles acquire a mass from massless particles via the wrong Higgs field, though massless particles are the results of false theories, since energy without mass cannot exist. (See my  INVALIDITY OF HIGGS BOSON ).  At the end of this epoch the spins of the quarks were oriented  and the magnetic attractions between the quark triads were able to overcome the electric repulsions.  In this case since the size of quarks is a little greater than the size of an electron the peripheral velocity of the spinning quarks is greater than the speed  c of light. So the magnetic attractions at very short separations are stronger than the electric repulsions. That is under the orientation of spins the triad-triad interaction is characterized by  a very strong attractive electromagnetic force responsible for the creation of neutrons and protons.( See my QUARKS NEUTRINOS NUCLEONS AND NUCLEI ).

Epoch  of short-lived neutrons, protons, antineutrinos, electrons, and positrons, which created long-lived photons (10-6 – 10-1 seconds )

This epoch begins with an energy of about 103 MeV. At such a temperature the quarks should have acquired oriented spins according to which the very strong magnetic attractions formed the neutron (n). In 2002 using the nuclear experiments of the magnetic moments and the deep inelastic scattering we discovered 9 extra quarks in proton (p) and 12 ones in neutron which led to the discovery of 288 quarks. In this epoch we see that the 288 quarks in nucleons are able to give off the mass of short-lived neutrons, protons, and antineutrinos ( ν ). They gave also the masses of short-lived electrons (e) and positrons (e+), which were transformed into the masses of long-lived photons (2γ). That is, it is consistent with the fundamental conservation lawof mass, since the decrease of particle masses is due to the creation of photon masses.

Under this condition we write the rest masses in terms of MeV for the structure of neutron and proton as

Mn = [92(dud) + 4u +8d] = 939.57 MeV

Mp = [93(dud) +4u + 5d] = 938.26 MeV

Such structures of nucleons can explain not only the decay of neutron with 92 (dud) triads but also the nuclear binding after the electromagnetic interaction of the charges of extra quarks.

For the binding of spinning quarks the magnetic force between the neutral (dud) quarks is very important, since the peripheral velocity of the spinning quarks is greater than the speed of light. Under this condition in that epoch the formation of the energetic neutron (n ) is given by

288 quarks = 96(dud) triads = [92(dud) + 4u +8d] = n

As a result free neutrons with 92 (dud) quarks are unstable, because we discovered that d - u = 1.29 MeV. Whereas in the neutron-proton bonds, when the binding energy is greater than 1.29 MeV, the neutrons cannot decay to protons. So, the free neutrons immediately decay to protons with 93(dud) stable quark triads after the emission of electrons and antineutrinos as

n = p + e +ν

or [92(dud) +4u +8d] = [93(dud) +4u + 5d] + e + ν

Also in terms of quarks we write

d = u + e +ν

Note that the reverse reaction is written as

ν + p = n + e+ or ν + u = d + e+

Moreover for particles with  mass under the conservation laws of energy or mass this reaction can be written in terms of MeV, because we calculated the detailed  masses of up quarks (u = 2.4 MeV and down quarks (d = 3.69 MeV). Thus

1.8 + 2.4 = 3.69 + 0.51

Of course, all particles at the primordial time were very energetic, because of the great kinetic energies. Thus, an energetic antineutrino (ν) of mass or energy greater than 1.8 MeV is always absorbed by a proton to transform it into a neutron and a positron.

It is surprising that these reactions at very high energies led to the short- lived neutrons and charged protons, whose the electric forces of long range could overcome the attractive gravity and led to an isotropic inflation. Also the formation of short-lived electrons and positrons led to the generation of long-lived photons. So the universe was dominated by long-lived photons, whose the masses could not be transformed into the masses of electrons and positrons, since they are neutral particles (without a net charge ). Therefore, they cannot interact to each other in vacuum. (Note that photons could interact later only with nuclei for creating electrons and positrons).

For example at 0.01 second after the Big Bang the average energy was about 8.6 MeV with short- lived (p+n) nucleons. Consequently according to the Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions the minimum energy should be greater than the binding energy of deuterium with 2.2246 MeV. As a result all neutrons always decay to protons and also the protons are always transformed into neutrons in a neutron-proton equilibrium, since 8.6 MeV is greater than 1.8 MeV. Therefore at high energies under a neutron-proton equilibrium due to energetic antineutrinos, electrons and positrons are short-lived particles giving long-lived photons. Also, neutrons and protons are short-lived particles with the ratio n/p =1. Taking into account that at the lower energies of the epoch of nucleosynthesis the ratio n/p =1/7, one can conclude that for a very small volume of only 8 nucleons we get 4n/4p =1 . Or    4(p+n) = 8 = 100% with the equal abundances of 4n = 50% and 4p = 50%. Hence, at this mean energy of 8.6 MeV in the large width of the energy distributions the 8 short-lived nucleons or 4(p+n) =100% are distributed as

0.01 Second : 2(p+n) > 8.6 > 2(p+n)

Especially under the fundamental charge-charge interaction at such high energies the energetic mass of electrons and positrons was transformed into the mass of energetic photons according to the relation

e + e+ = γ + γ since ΔW/ΔM = hν/m = c2

Note that the hypothetical reverse reaction

γ + γ = e + e+

cannot occur in vacuum, because photons are neutral particles having mass with opposite charges.

However many physicists believe that this hypothetical reaction always occurs leading to many false ideas which did much to retard the progress of physics. In that case of energetic particles we see that the mass of electrons and positrons ΔΜ was transformed into the mass m of photons. As a result the universe begun to be dominated by energetic long-lived photons, while the masses of the short- lived neutrons, protons, and antineutrinos were decreased. However under the wrong relativity many physicists believe that electrons and positrons or protons and antiprotons were in equilibrium with photons, under the false idea of mass-energy conservation. In fact, not only the photon-photon interaction cannot occur, but also mass cannot turn into energy.

They also believe that neutrinos (ν+) were combining with neutrons to form protons and electrons, though the neutrino was absent in the evolution of early universe. Here, the neutrino is written as (ν+), because we revealed that it has a positive charge along the periphery and a negative one in the center. Also it has a positive magnetic moment (+μ) like the positron (e+). It is well-known that the neutrino emission can occur only in nuclei and inside the stars because of the Coulomb energy gained in the replacement of a proton by a neutron . It can also occur in orbital electron capture.

Of course, at the end of that epoch (0.1 second) when the average energy has dropped at the average energy of 2.6 MeV the minimum energy of the energy distribution was smaller than the 1.8 MeV . So the following reaction did not occur

ν + p = n + e+ .

While n = p + e +ν   occurred for giving permanent particles without photons. That is, at lower energies than 1.8 MeV the decay of neutrons led to permanent protons, electrons, and antineutrinos. Unfortunately many physicists believe that the increase of photons took place after this epoch by using the wrong photon-photon interaction or the photon-matter equilibrium, which leads to complications providing a confusing history of early universe. ( See in WIKIPEDIA “Chronology of the universe”).

 In the absence of such a detailed knowledge and under the influence of wrong nuclear theories cosmologist today believe that our early universe was governed not by the natural laws but by fallacious forces of wrong theories and by a strange inflation field introduced by Guth in 1980,  who believed that just before the Big Bang space was filled with an unknown unstable form of energy transformed into the fundamental particles.

For example in the “Chronology of the universe-WIKIPEDIA” one reads:  “As the universe expanded and cooled, it crossed transition temperatures at which forces separate from each other. These are phase transitions much like condensation and freezing. The grand unification epoch began when gravitation separated from the other forces of nature, which are collectively known as gauge forces. The non-gravitational physics in this epoch would be described by a so-called grand unified theory (GUT). The grand unification epoch ended when the GUT forces further separate into the strong and electroweak forces. This transition should produce magnetic monopoles in large quantities, which are not observed. The lack of magnetic monopoles was one problem solved by the introduction of inflation”.

Furthermore under the influence of wrong mass-energy conservation of  theINVALID RELATIVITY cosmologists believe that our universe started off with only energy without mass formed after the initial expansion. In the "Big Bang-WIKIPEDIA" one reads :

" After the initial expansion, the universe cooled sufficiently to allow energy to be converted into various subatomic particles, including protons, neutrons, and electrons".

Accepting such fallacious ideas on 17 March 2014, astronomers at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center announced a confusing detection of Einstein’s wrong gravitational waves.  (See my CONFUSING B-MODES andFUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS CONCEPTS ).