By Lefteris Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) Τ.Ε. Institute of Larissa Greece. ( May 2014)

After the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement (1935) confirming accurately the fundamental action at a distance of natural laws, and the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) who showed the fallacy of Maxwell’s fields, in my papers of 1993, and 2002, I showed the incorrectness of the massless quanta of fields of Einstein (1905) which led to the **false Feynman diagrams**.

Note that my dipole photons in my FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS CONCEPTS have not only momentum p = hf/c but also mass

m = hf/c^{2}

which led to my discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION

Δhf/Δm = ΔE/ΔΜ = c^{2} or ΔE/Δm = Δhf/Δm = c^{2}

This discovery means that the energy ΔE of the charge-charge interaction of the electron-proton, in the Bohr model and in the Schrodinger equation as well as the energy of electromagnetic interaction between the 9 charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron in the nuclear binding, turns into the energy Δhf of generated photons, while the mass defect ΔΜ of the atomic or nuclear binding turns into the mass Δm of the same photons.

Unfortunately Einstein under his fallacious massless quanta of fields and his confusing E = mc2 believed incorrectly that the photon energy Δhf is due not to the energy of interaction but to the mass defect ΔM. ( See my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN and DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE in my FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS CONCEPTS ).

In the same way in the so-called annihilation the energy of the charge-charge interaction turns into the energy of the two generated photons, while the mass of the electron and positron turns into the mass of the two generated photons. Today it is well-known that after my discovery of the DIPOLE NATURE OF PHOTON which showed that LAWS AND EXPERIMETS INVALIDATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY the so-called fields represent forces on unit charges acting at a distance in accordance with the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement .(Notice that Einstein called it SPOOKY ACTION AT A DISTANCE because it rejected his theories of relativity). For example in the well-established Coulomb law of force, the electric field E represents the electric force F_{e} per unit charge acting at a distance. Thus, the force per unit charge cannot be a carrier of the same force. Under this condition the so-called massless virtual photons of Feynman (1950), the massless gluons, and the gravitons of the WRONG STANDARD MODEL cannot be the force carriers of fundamental forces of natural laws of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere, acting at a distance. Furthermore particles without mass cannot exist in nature.

It is indeed unfortunate that Feynman under the influence of Einstein’s INVALID RELATIVITY believed incorrectly that the photon as a quantum of Maxwell’s invalid fields is able to carry the electric and magnetic forces, which did much to retard the progress of physics. Also for developing his diagrams he believed that electrons and positrons when they move are able to emit photons without the fundamental charge-charge interaction. Note that in the Bohr model (1913) a photon is not emitted by the moving electron but is generated as a result of the charge-charge interaction of the positive proton and the negative electron. Also in the so-called annihilation the energy hf of the two generated photons is just the energy of the charge-charge interaction of the Coulomb forces acting at a distance.

Although two photons cannot interact for creating charged particles, Feynman in a hypothetical space time believed that photons after the annihilation of electrons and positrons can decay into electrons and positrons . In fact, in the so called pair production the electrons and positrons appear after the interaction of photons with nuclei. In my discovery of dipole photons I showed that they can interact electromagnetically with a charged particle. For example the opposite charges of a dipole photon can interact with the charge (-e) of an electron in terms of E_{y} and B_{z} as

E_{y}(-e)dy = dW and B_{z}(-e)(dy/dt) = F_{m } or B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m}dt = dp = dmc

Since E_{y}/E_{z} = c one gets dw = dmc^{2}

This means that during the electromagnetic interaction both the energy hf and the mass m = hf/c^{2} of a photon contribute to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ and the increase of the electron mass ΔM as

hf/Δm = ΔE/ΔM = c^{2}

In the absence of such a detailed knowledge Feynman proposed incorrectly an interpretation of the positron as if it were an electron moving backward in time. Thus, antiparticles are represented as moving backward along the time axis in Feynman diagrams. The calculation of probability amplitudes in theoretical particle physics requires the use of rather large and complicated integrals over a large number of variables. These integrals do, however, have a strange structure, and may be represented graphically as Feynman diagrams.

Feynman believed also that the fallacious field itself consists of photons which cause a force on a charged particle by being absorbed by it or simply colliding with it. So leaving out the well-established action at a distance of the Coulomb law he believed incorrectly that the electric repulsion between two electrons could then be understood as follows: One electron emits a virtual photon and recoils, while the second electron absorbs the photon and acquires its momentum. This hypothetical process could be pictured with a simple diagram in which the well-established law of the charge-charge force acting at a distance is absent. So, it was believed incorrectly that the recoil of the first electron and the impact of the second electron with the photon drive the electrons away from each other. Under such a fallacious idea which led to the invalid weak and strong interactions one could say how can attraction of the well-established natural laws be represented in this way? Feynman believed that the attraction between an electron and a positron occurs under the fallacious hypothesis that the electron could emit a virtual photon with momentum directed away from the positron and thus recoils towards the positron.

From his diagrams of a small number of particles interacting in spacetime, Feynman tried then model all of physics in terms of the spins of those particles and the range of coupling of the fallacious weak and strong forces. Feynman attempted an explanation of the false strong interactions governing nucleons scattering called the parton model. The parton model emerged as a complement to the quark model developed by Gell-Mann. The relationship between the two models was murky; Gell-Mann referred to Feynman's partons derisively as "put-ons".

In the mid-1960s, physicists believed that quarks were just a bookkeeping device for symmetry numbers, not real particles, as the statistics of the Omega-minus particle, if it were interpreted as three identical strange quarks bound together, seemed impossible if quarks were real. The Stanford linear accelerator deep inelastic scattering experiments of the late 1960s showed, analogously to Ernest Rutherford's experiment of scattering alpha particles on gold nuclei in 1911, that nucleons (protons and neutrons) contained point-like particles which scattered electrons. It was natural to identify these with quarks, which led to my discovery of NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE. But Feynman's parton model attempted to interpret the experimental data in a way which did not introduce additional hypotheses. For example, the data showed that some 45% of the energy momentum was carried by electrically-neutral particles in the nucleon. These electrically-neutral particles are now seen to be the fallacious gluons which carry the wrong strong forces between the quarks and carry also the strange color forces of the invalid Quantum Chromodynamics (1973).

After the false quantum electrodynamics based on the invalid relativity , Feynman turned to quantum gravity. By analogy with the fallacious virtual photon, which has spin 1, he hypothesized the consequences of a free massless spin 2 field.

Unfortunately Feynman false diagrams are now used for string theory and M-theory, and have even been extended topologically. The world-lines of the diagrams have developed to become tubes to allow better modeling of more complicated objects such as strings and membranes. But shortly before his death, Feynman criticized string theory in an interview: "I don't like that they're not calculating anything," he said. "I don't like that they don't check their ideas. I don't like that for anything that disagrees with an experiment, they cook up an explanation—a fix-up to say, ‘Well, it still might be true.'" These words have since been much-quoted by opponents of the string-theoretic direction for particle physics.