**EINSTEIN’S WRONG MASSLESS QUANTA OF FIELDS LED TO THE INVALID RELATIVITY WITH THE CONFUSING E = mc ^{2}**

After the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement (1935) confirming the fundamental action at a distance and the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) showing the fallacy of Maxwell’s fields, today it is well-known that the photons of Lewis (1926) provide both the gravitational and electromagnetic properties, because they have mass m = hν/c^{2} with opposite charges. (See my DISCOVERY OF PHOTON MASS and DISCOVERY OF DIPOLE NATURE OF PHOTON ) . The dipole nature of photons interprets also the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ and the electron mass ΔΜ during the absorption of photon energy hν and photon mass m = hν/c^{2}, while Einstein’s massless quanta of fields led to the INVALID RELATIVITY which violates dramatically the two conservation laws of energy and mass. Thus the derivation of the equation E = mc^{2} is incomplete which did much to retard the progress of physics. According to the well-established natural laws the incomplete equation E = mc^{2} leads to confusing ideas. So it is replaced here by the correct equation

hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

which, in the quantum dynamics, reveals the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION under a length contraction and a time dilation.

**BRIEF HISTORY OF EINSTEIN’S INVALID RELATIVITY**

Historically Newton in his Opticks (1704) using his universal law of gravity (1687) and the projectile motion of Galileo predicted the gravitational properties of his rectangular particles of light confirmed by Soldner in 1801. In 1845 Faraday showed experimentally the electromagnetic properties of light which revealed the dipole nature of photons. But unfortunately it led to Maxwell’s invalid electromagnetic fields moving through a fallacious ether (1865). Although Michelson and Morley in 1887 rejected experimentally the ether, Lorentz in 1904 tried to interpret the Kaufmann experiment (1902) by using the fallacious ether. Especially Kaufmann showed that an electron under the absorption of electric and magnetic energies increases not only its energy ΔΕ but also its mass ΔΜ . So under the conservation laws of energy and mass he tried to interpret his experiment by using not the fields of Maxell but the so-called electromagnetic mass recognized by J.J. Thomson (1881). (See my THOMSON AND MICHELSON REJECT EINSTEIN ). Under this condition the electron in the Photoelectric Effect increases not only its energy ΔΕ but also its mass ΔΜ in accordance with the two conservation laws of energy and mass.

Although Soldner confirmed the gravitational properties of light and Michelson rejected the Maxwellian ether, unfortunately Einstein in his first paper of 1905 under his massless quanta of fields interpreted incorrectly the photoelectric effect ( See my PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT OF LAWS ). Under this physics crisis in his second paper of special relativity (1905) he tried to interpret the increase of the electron mass by using the math of the Lorentz ether theory, which violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass. Note that Einstein complicated more the problem by replacing the ether by a randomly moving observer . For example according to his fallacious idea when an observer moves with the electron in a laboratory he will measure an increase of mass of the stationary objects in the laboratory.

Moreover Einstein using his false relativistic ideas in his third paper (1905) derived his equation of E = mc^{2} which leads to complications and confusions. Surprisingly Einstein used a correct math but the result is an incomplete equation based on the fallacious idea of relative motion which violates the two conservation laws of energy an mass. So the derivation of E = mc^{2} did much to retard the progress of physics. For example the Kaufmann experiment showed that the variable mass M of an electron is due to an electromagnetic mass, which in fact is the mass m = hν/c^{2} of the absorption of photons. It is given by

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} = c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})

Here M_{o} is the mass of the electron before the absorption and u is the velocity of the electron after the absorption. Differentiating this equation one gets

M^{2}c^{2} = M^{2}u^{2 } or 2MdMc^{2} =MdMu^{2 }+ uduM^{2} or dMc^{2} = (Mdu + uDM )u = d(Mu)u

That is, d(Mu)u = dMc^{2}

According to Newton’s law

Fds = dW = (dp/dt)ds = [d(Mu)/dt]ds = d(Mu)u

Thus, one gets dW = dMc^{2} or E = mc^{2}

This simple equation under a wrong interpretation leads to the fallacious idea that the mass defect in nuclear binding could contribute to the generation of the energy hν of photons because Einstein believed that his quanta of fields are massless particles.

**ACCORDING TO NATURAL LAWS THE MASS DEFECT IN ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS CANNOT TURN INTO THE ENERGY OF PHOTONS, WHILE EINSTEIN’S CONTRADICTING THEORIES OF SPECIAL AND GENERAL RELATIVITY LEAD TO COMPLICATIONS**

In my paper of 2002 I showed that the relativistic interpretation of the incomplete E = mc^{2 } leads to complications, because for the formation of deuteron the energy of the generated photon is due not to the mass defect but to the electromagnetic interaction of 9 charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron.(See my DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE ). Also Einstein believed incorrectly that M_{o} is not the constant inertial mass of Newton but a rest mass as a stationary mass with respect to a randomly moving observer. So for the variable mass M which is due to the absorption of mass of photons he believed incorrectly that it is due to the relative velocity u with respect to a randomly moving observer. In other words he believed that it is a relativistic mass moving with a relative motion u by violating the two conservation laws of energy and mass. In the same way he also believed incorrectly that the small increase of mass (dM) is due to the same relative velocity u of the electron with respect to a randomly moving observer. In other words he believed incorrectly that Newton’s laws have limited applications. Nevertheless he applied Newton’s second law as

Fds = dW =(dp/dt)ds = [d(Mu)/dt]ds = d(Mu)u

In Newton’s own formulation of the second law, it is well-known that the force acting on a body is equal to the rate of change of momentum. That is F = dp/dt. This is a simple generalization arising naturally from observations on collisions in which a sudden blow produces a finite change of momentum in a short period of time. Bur for continuously acting forces, such as gravity, it was far more convenient to define force differently, i.e, to use the rate of change of motion, which thus brings in Galileo’s concept of acceleration α = du/dt ; it is this version of the second law, formalized by Euler in 1750 as

F/α = M_{o }where M_{o} is Newton’s constant inertial mass.

Note that Einstein using this equation in his INVALID GENERAL RELATIVITY introduced his EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE which invalidates his concepts of rest and relativistic mass.

Another fallacious idea of Einstein’s derivation of E = mc^{2} is his introduction of the concept REST ENERGT. Einstein in his invalid Mass-Energy Equivalence (which must be replaced by the Mass-Energy Relation) believed incorrectly that the stationary mass of a body with respect to a randomly moving observer has an anergy callad *Rest Energy. *Thus* *he wrote incorrectly : "If a body gives off the energy ΔΕ in the form of radiation its mass diminishes by ΔΕ/c2 .... The mass of a body is a measure of its energy content". In fact, after my discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION one sees that in atomic and nuclear physics, the energy is due not to the mass defect but to the charge-charge interaction of the well-established electromagnetic laws. (See my invalid resthe energy in my FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS CONCEPTS ) . Thus in the so-called “Annihilation-WIKIPEDIA” one reads this wrong paragraph:

“When an electron and a positron collide to annihilate and create gamma rays, energy is given off. Both particles have a rest energy of 0.511 mega electron volts (MeV).** When the mass of the two particles is converted entirely into energy**, this rest energy is what is given off. The energy is given off in the form of the aforementioned gamma rays. Each of the gamma rays has an energy of 0.511 MeV”.

In fact, according to natural laws the energy of the charge-charge interaction between the positive and negative charges of pasitron and electron turns into the energy hν of the two gamma rays, while the mass of the particles turns into the mass of photons.

**ACCORDING TO NATURAL LAWS E= mc ^{2} IS REPLACED BY hν/m =ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2} **

In my paper of 1993 I showed the dipole nature of photons which led to my discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION. In fact, when a photon of opposite charges interacts with an electron it gives off both the energy hν and mass m for the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ and the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ as

hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

On this basis under the applications of the well-established laws of Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820) I showed that a photon behaves like a moving dipole with +q and –q. For simplicity when the dipole axis r is perpendicular to the velocity u the dipole operates with electric attractions F_{e }and magnetic repulsions F_{m} occurring at the same time as

F_{e} = Kq^{2}/r^{2} and F_{m }= kq^{2}u^{2}/r^{2}

Since Weber in 1856 showed that K/k = c^{2} one sees that F_{e}/F_{m} = c^{2}/u^{2} .

That is for u = c we get F_{e }= F_{m} . In other words such a dipole at the velocity c operates with equal electric and magnetic forces occurring at the same time in accordance with Newton’s third law.

For simplicity when the photon charges interact with the charge (-e) of an electron we apply the laws of electromagnetism in terms of E_{y }and B_{z} as

E_{y}(-e) dy = dW

and B_{z}(-e)(dy/dt) = F_{m } or B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m}dt = dp = dmc

Since E_{y}/B_{z} = c we get dW = dmc^{2} or hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

That is, when the photon charges interact with the charge of the electron the energy hν and the mass m of the photon turn into the energy ΔΕ and the mass ΔΜ of the electron respectively. However here one sees that the magnetic force F_{m} occurs after the electric force F_{e} = E_{y}(-e) because of the velocity dy/dt which should violate Newton’s third law. To avoid such situation the velocity dy/dt always approaches to zero under the contraction of the dy and the dilation of the dt. That is, this transformation of energy and mass of the quantum dynamics differs fundamentally from the Newtonian mechanics because the transformation of energy and mass occurs under a length contraction and a time dilation.

We also observe an analogous situation in the reverse case, when an electron and a positron interact for the formation of two gamma rays. In this case the transformation can be written as

ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c^{2}

That is, in the so-called annihilation the energy of the charge-charge interaction turns into the energy hν of the two generated photons, while the mass of both electron and positron turns into the mass of the two photons. In the same way in the Bohr model the energy of the coulomb law turns into the energy of the generated photon, while the very small mass defect of the electron-proton system turns into the mass of photon. (See my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN ).