By Prof.Lefteris Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) Τ.Ε. Institute of Larissa Greece. ( May 2014)
After my papers of 1993 and 2002 according to which laws and experiments invalidate fields and relativity today it is well-known that the energy in OUR UNIVERSE does not turn to mass, because Einstein’s concept of Mass-Energy Equivalence is invalid. (See my INVALID REST ENERGY in my FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS CONCEPTS ).
Indeed according to my DISCOVERY OF PHOTON MASS
m = hf/c2
which revealed the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION
hf/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c2
the photon absorption in both experiments of the photoelectric effect (1905) and of the Compton scattering (1923) contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ in accordance with the Kaufmann experiment (1902). (See my CORRECT COMPTON EFFECT ).
Historically, Newton in 1704 predicted the bending of his rectangular particles of light when they pass near the sun confirmed by Soldner in 1801. Although the famous experiment of Michelson and Morley (1887) rejected the Maxwellian ether (1865) in favor of Newton’s particles of light, Einstein influenced by Maxwell’s fallacious fields believed that light consists of his massless quanta of fields. So he explained incorrectly the photoelectric effect which led to his invalid relativity according to which the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ is due not to the real absorption of the photon mass m = hν/c2 but to the fallacious relative motion of the electron with respect to a randomly moving observer.
Moreover Einstein believed incorrectly that the mass is not simply a measure of the quantity of matter after all. In other words Einstein violated the conservation law of mass. Then in trying to understand such a fallacious change of mass with speed Einstein was led to the invalid concept that kinetic energy ΔE added to a ponderable object also adds inertia in an amount ΔE/c2 by assuming that energy has mass since the kinetic energy of a moving particle with respect to a randomly moving observer should be redefined incorrectly as
ΔE = ΔΜc2 = Mc2 – Moc2
In this fallacious idea Mo is the wrong rest mass as a stationary object with respect to a randomly moving observer. Also the so called-relativistic mass M is a fallacious concept leading to serious complications. For example according to Einstein’s wrong relativity an observer moving with an electron in the laboratory will measure the increase of mass of all stationary objects in the laboratory.
One of the important properties of mass is that it cannot be created or destroyed in accordance with my discovery of the Photon-Matter Interaction. Unfortunately Einstein under his confusing formula E = mc2 complicated more the problem by introducing his additional wrong assumption that energy turns to mass. Under this crisis of physics which did much to retard the progress of nuclear physics, Einstein himself pointed out:
“Pre-relativity physics contains two conservation laws of fundamental importance, namely, the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation of mass; these two appear there as completely independent of each other. Through relativity theory they melt together into one principle.”
It is of interest to note that the Bohr model (1913) and the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions (1926) based on natural laws showed that the energy hf of the generated photon in the formation of atoms is due not to the mass defect of the proton –electron system but to the energy of the charge-charge interaction between the electron and the proton. Thus the mass defect ΔΜ turns into the photon mass m = hf/c2 in accordance with my discovery of the Photon-Matter Interaction. (See my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN ). Nevertheless today physicists continue to believe that the nuclear binding energy is due to the nuclear mass defect. Under this crisis of nuclear physics in 2002 I presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” by showing that the energy of the generated photon is due not to the nuclear mass defect but to the electromagnetic energy between neutrons and protons, because I discovered that the proton and the neutron consist of 9 extra charged quarks and 12 ones respectively existing among 288 quarks in nucleons.(See my DISCOVERY OF QUARKS IN PROTON AND NEUTRON ).
Of course Einstein’s fallacious concepts of relativistic energy (Mc2) and rest energy Moc2) violate dramatically the well-established laws of nature according to which energy is due not to the mass but to the fundamental force of interaction. Under his confusion Einstein introduced the invalid Mass-energy equivalence. Unfortunately today physicists continue to believe that in OUR EARLY UNIVERSE the energy turned into mass and also in nuclear phenomena the mass defect turns into the energy of generated photons. Moreover in the so-called annihilation physicists believe that the mass of electron and positron turns to the energy of the two generated gamma rays. So in the “Annihilation-WIKIPEDIA” one reads the following wrong paragraph:
“When an electron and a positron collide to annihilate and create gamma rays, energy is given off. Both particles have a rest energy of 0.511 mega electron volts (MeV). When the mass of the two particles is converted entirely into energy, this rest energy is what is given off. The energy is given off in the form of the aforementioned gamma rays. Each of the gamma rays has an energy of 0.511 MeV.".
Of course in this false idea which did much to retard the progress of physics Einstein influenced by his fallacious massless quanta of fields did not use the successful idea of the Bohr model according to which the energy E of the charge-charge interaction between the negative electron and the positive proton turns into the energy hf of the generated photon. So he avoided to write the very obvious energy E of the charge-charge interaction between the positive positron and the negative electron which turns into the energy 2hf of the two generated two photons.
In fact, after my papers of 1993 and 2002 which led to my discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION the energy E of the charge-charge interaction turns into the energy 2hf of the two gamma rays, while the mass 2M of the two particles turns into the mass 2m of the two photons as
E/2M = 2hf/m = c2
Under this discovery which confirms the two conservation laws of energy and mass developed by the Greek philosophers, the energy does not turn to mass. (See my GREEK PHILOSOPHERS REJECT EINSTEIN and NEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS ).