By prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ( Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός ) T.E. Institute of Larissa, Greece.

This scientific article was announced to many universities around the world (January, 2014 )

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IN MY FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS CONCEPTS ONE WIIL SEE MY PAPERS :

PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION WITH MY DISCOVERY OF ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE OPPOSITE CHARGES OF DIPOLIC PHOTON WITH THE CHARGE OF ELECTRON. THE DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE SINCE 9 CHARGED QUARKS OF PROTON INTERACT WITH THE 12 CHARGED QUARKS OF NEUTRON FOR REVEALING THE NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND NUCLEAR BINDING. THE HELIUM ATOM IN WHICH THE CHARGES OF TWO ELECTRONS WITH ANTIPARALLEL SPIN GIVE MAGNETIC ATTRACTIONS STRONGER THAN THE ELECTRIC REPULSIONS, BECAUSE THE PERIPHERAL VELOCITY OF SPINNING ELECTRONS IS GREATER THAN THE SPEED OF LIGHT. ALSO IN MY PAPER QUARKS NEUTRINOS NUCLEONS AND NUCLEI ONE CAN SEE THAT THE OPPOSITE CHARGES OF THE SPINNING ANTINEUTRINO INTERACT WITH THE CHARGE OF THE SPINNING UP QUARK LIKE THE DIPOLIC PHOTON WHICH INTERACTS WITH THE ELECTRON CHARGE. SINCE THE PHOTON MASS INTERACTS ALSO WITH THE MASS OF A STAR THIS SITUATION LED TO MY DISCOVERY OF UNIFIED FORCES OF LAWS. (SEE MY UNIFIED FORCES SOLVE THE CRISIS OF PHYSICS ).

MOREOVER THE EXPERIMENTS OF THE QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT CALLED BY EINSTEIN “SPOOKY ACTION AT A DISTANCE” ALONG WITH THE EXPERIMENT OF FRENCH AND TESSMAN (1963) SHOWING THE FALLACY OF MAXWELL’S FIELDS INVALIDATE EINSTEIN’S RELATIVITY AND THE WRONG STANDARD MODEL OF STRONG AND WEAK INTERACTIONS. FINALLY DESPITE THE ENORMOUS SUCCESS OF THE SCHRODINGER EQUATION IN THREE DIMENSIONS THERE WERE DEVELOPED VARIOUS STRING THEORIES OF SEVERAL DIMENSIONS.(SEE MY BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN ).

Although Newton’s prediction for the gravitational properties of his particles of light (1704) was confirmed by Soldner (1801) and the Maxwellian ether (1865) was rejected by the Michelson experiment (1887) in favor of Newton’s particles of light , Einstein influenced by wrong Maxwell’s fields developed his massless quanta of fields (1905) which led to the invalid relativity. Later the discoveries of the assumed uncharged neutrons (1932) and neutrinos led to the abandonment of natural laws in favor of wrong nuclear theories developed by Heisenberg (1932), Fermi (1934), Yukawa (1935), Glashow (1968), and Gell-Mann (1973), which cannot lead to the nuclear structure. In 1963 the experiment of French and Tessman showed the fallacy of Maxwell’s fields in favor of Newton’s particles of light.

Under this condition I presented at the international conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” (Olympia 1993) my paper “Impact of Maxwell’s equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles ”. In that paper I presented my discovery of the dipolic particles or dipolic photons and I showed that LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS INVALIDATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY .

On the other hand after a detailed analysis of nuclear experiments I showed that the discoveries of the assumed uncharged neutrons and neutrinos led to the abandonment of the well-established electromagnetic laws in favor of wrong nuclear theories of the so-called strong and weak interactions.

So after 9 years I presented my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” at the 12th symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society (N.C.S.R. “Demokritos” ,2002). Then I published in Ind.J. Th. Phys. (2008) my paper “ Spin-spin interactions of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures”. You can see the original papers in User Kaliambos . In fact, all forces of atomic and nuclear phenomena are short-ranged forces of dipole-dipole interactions due to the electromagnetic interactions of the well-established electromagnetic laws.

For example the antineutrino absorption by proton is due to electromagnetic forces between the opposite charges of the antineutrino and the charge of the up quark in proton. (See my QUARKS NEUTRINOS NUCLEONS AND NUCLEI ). Moreover it is indeed fortunate that the experiments of Michelson and Morley (1887) and the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement rejected the fallacious ether and the various force carriers respectively in favor of gravitational and electromagnetic forces of laws acting at a distance.

Historically Descartes in his Principles of Philosophy (1644) postulated that space is filled with pieces of matter that can interact only when they touch. What appear in Newton’s laws to be long –range forces acting across empty space, such as gravity (1687) would on Descartes’ view be explained by the propagation of impulses through an invisible ethereal matter that was imagined to fill the intervening space. With the words “I FEIGN NO HYPOTHESES” Newton in his Principia exempts himself from the obligation to account for the observed consequences of his law of gravity by additional hypotheses. On this basis Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820) formulated the laws of electric and magnetic forces respectively acting at a distance.

However Faraday in 1832 in order to explain his induction law introduced a wrong concept of fields. Although Neumann (1845) showed experimentally that the induction law is consistent with the force of the Ampere law, Maxwell in 1865 influenced by the wrong concept of field and based not on laws but on wrong postulations developed his electromagnetic theory of fields moving through the fallacious ether rejected by the Michelson experiment. Nevertheless Einstein in 1905 influenced by Maxwell’s wrong fields developed his massless quanta of fields for explaining incorrectly the photoelectric effect which led to his invalid relativity. In fact light consists of Newton’s particles of light which led to my discovery of dipolic photons. Thus the absorption of dipolic photons contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ in accordance with the Kaufmann experiment (1902).

**UNIFIED FORCES OF THE WELL-ESTABLISHED LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM **

Prior to 1820 electric and magnetic forces were regarded as two separate interactions . That year, Oersted demonstrated that an electric current generates a magnetic force . Later Weber (1856) found experimentally that the constants K and k of electric and magnetic forces respectively are given by the simple relation K/k = c^{2 }where c is the speed of light . Thus, for simplicity, when a dipole with opposite charges (+q and –q) moves at a velocity u, with respect to the source , and the dipole axis r is perpendicular to u, the two basic laws of Coulomb and Ampere give F_{e} and_{ } F_{m } acting at a distance as:

F_{e }= Kq^{2}/r^{2} and F_{m} = kq^{2}u^{2}/r^{2} . So F_{e}/F_{m} = c^{2}/u^{2} .

This simple result of unified forces of laws acting at a distance led me to develop the model of dipolic particles or dipolic photons, since for u = c the moving dipole gives time varying

E_{y}/B_{z} = c

like the results of Maxwell’s fallacious self-propagating fields. Today many physicists believe that Maxwell was the first who unified the electric and magnetic phenomena. In fact, he used Faraday’s wrong concepts of fields and Weber’s correct experiments on electromagnetism. Maxwell in his paper "* A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field*" goes on to discuss some of his results in the following paragraphs: “

**The conception of the propagation of transverse magnetic disturbances to the exclusion of normal ones is distinctly set forth by Professor Faraday in his**

*Thoughts on Ray Vibrations*... and that the velocity of propagation is the velocity υ found from experiments such as those of Weber...”Unfortunately though Newton’s particles of light were confirmed by Soldner (1801) at the beginning of the 20^{th} century Einstein after the abandonment of Newton’s particles of light and following Faraday’s and Maxwell’s wrong concepts of fields developed his massless quanta of fields which led to his invalid theories of special and general relativity by assuming that relative motions are responsible for the increase of the mass of particles and fields can produce curvatures of vacuum etc.

In fact, the increase of the electron mass in the photoelectric effect is due to the absorption of the photon mass, because the opposite charges of the dipolic photon interact with the charge of the electron. Hence, the so-called “*relativistic mass*” is a fallacious concept because the theory of relative motions with respect to a randomly moving observer leads to complications.(See my PHOTON OF LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS ).

**ELECTROMAGNETIC AND GRAVITATIONAL PROPERTIES OF PHOTONS LED TO MY DISCOVERY OF UNIFIED FORCES OF LAWS**

It is of interest to note that Newton’s predictions of gravitational interactions of his particles of light led to my discovery of the photon mass m = hν/c^{2} which invalidates Einstein’s relativity with a fallacious curvature of vacuum. For example in quantum dynamics when the gravitational force F_{g }acting on the photon mass is parallel to the velocity c, the mass of the dipolic photon increases under the applications of Newton’s second law. That is, in this direction of gravitational interactions a photon has a variable mass which differs fundamentally from the constant inerial mass of particles. However, when F_{g }acts in perpendicular direction to the velocity c the mass of the dipolic photon is accelerated and remains constant like the constant inertial mass of all particles. (bending of light). Einstein under his massless quanta of fields sought to unify the electromagnetic and gravitational interactions in terms of fields , but without success.

Later the assumed uncharged neutrons, photons, neutrinos, and antineutrinos complicated more the problem, because theoretical physicists abandoned the basic laws of electromagnetism in favor of unknown strong and weak forces mediated by virtual photons, gravitons, mesons, gluons, and bosons (W ,Z).

In fact, as in atoms and molecules, the nuclear structure is due to simple electromagnetic forces between the spinning nucleons having extra charged quarks able to interact electromagnetically for making the nuclear structure. Also the neutrinos and antineutrinos are absorbed by quarks like the absorptions of photons, because they have apposite charges and interact electromagnetically with the charged quarks . Of course these two simple cases invalidate the so-called strong and weak interactions. (See my NEW ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS ).

That is, in the simple fundamental laws of gravity and electromagnetism providing forces acting at a distance physicists added complicated strong and weak forces mediated by fallacious fields, curved vacuum, and virtual photons with more false force carriers, like the Aristotelian geometry of motions and the fifth element, the ether. Under this confusion, physicists have proposed several variants of theories called Grand Unified Theories and String theories in order to reduce the additional incorrect number of forces with their false mediators.

In my paper "Nuclear structure...." (2002) I showed with a large number of differential equations that the so-called strong interaction is due to the electromagnetic forces of the basic laws of Coulomb and Ampere acting at a distance. This action leads correctly to the nuclear structure, while the wrong nuclear theories cannot lead to the nuclear structure. (See my FORCE AND STRUCTURE OF NUCLEUS ).

Moreover the spinning photons of opposite charges give the same electromagnetic interactions like the neutrinos and antineutrinos which have opposite charges and interact electromagnetically with the spinning quarks in nucleons. Notice that fundamental particles like the spinning electrons, positrons, neutrinos, antineutrinos, up and down quarks, have peripheral velocities greater than the speed of light for giving magnetic attractions greater than the electric repulsions.

Until about 1980 it was assumed that unification of forces required that gravity be reformulated within the context of Einstein’s relativity but all attempts to construct a relativistic theory of gravity failed dismally.

In a correct way (without using fallacious theories) I found a relationship between electromagnetic and gravitational forces by using the PHOTON OF LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS since a photon has a mass m of opposite charges. For example when the opposite charges of such a photon interact with an electron we get dw/dm = c^{2} by using the interaction in terms of fields as:

E_{y} (-e) dy = dw and B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m} dt = dp = cdm.

Since E_{y}/B_{z} = c we get dw/dm = c^{2} = hν/m

Surprisingly we see that the gravitational force F_{g }due to the mass m of photons interacting with a mass M of a massive star is able to give the same result dw/dm = c^{2} which means that, under the quantum physics, gravity and electromagnetism are unified correctly.

This is the well-known gravitational blue shift when a photon moves toward a massive star. That is, because of the **variable photon mass**, which differs fundamentally from the constant inertial mass of particles, one observes a blue shift energy hδν. Of course it is similar to the kinetic energy of a simple particle of constant mass accelerated in a gravitational field. Note that Einstein in his general relativity used incorrectly his relativistic accelerations of particles which lead to complications, because he believed that in nature there is a universal principle of relativity giving always his relativistic accelerations. So, under such wrong axioms he thought that the fundamental Newtonian accelerations in gravity are a limited case of his conclusions.(See my INVALID GENERAL RELATIVITY ). In fact, we can see just the opposite situation, because applications of Newton’s laws give the general correct results of both the kinetic energy of particles and the gravitational frequency shift of photons as:

F_{g}ds = dw = ( dp/dt) ds = [d(mu)/dt]ds = [m(du/dt) +u(dm/dt)]ds

In Newton's own formulation of the second law, he states that the force acting on a body is equal to the change of its momentum F = d(mu)/dt. But it was far more convinient to use the rate of change of motion. It is a very simple version F = m(du/dt) formalized by the Swiss mathematician Euler(1750), because physicists did not know that Newton's particles of light have a variable mass able to give an energy of blue shift similar to the kinetic energy of particles having a constant inertial mass.

For a particle with a constant inertial mass m_{o} we use the well-known first term, because the gravitational interaction affects the velocity u. This leads to the fundamental formula F_{g }= m_{o}a = GmM/r^{2 }which covers all accelerations, no matter what is the velocity of the particle. Whereas Einstein’s the so-called relativistic accelerations are due to the limited case. In fact, in quantum dynamcs when the photons are absorbed by the particles they give off their mass to particles under my discovery of the Photon-Matter Interacrion.

Note that for a dipolic photon operating at c with electric attraction equal to magnetic repulsion that is F_{e} = F_{m }the velocity c in free space cannot be affected by F_{g} and remains constant. In the direction of the velocity c the speed of light is the result of the attractive F_{e} which is equal to the repulsive F_{m }. This equality gives the velocity c which is always perpendicular to the vectors of F_{e} and F_{m} . Whereas the speed c of a photon moving through the air is reduced, because the opposite charges of photons cause a polarization of molecules, which reduce the attractive electric forces of photons. In general, for a photon moving in free space since u = c we use the second term as:

F_{g}ds = dw = c(dm/dt)ds = dmc^{2} or dw/dm = c^{2 }= hν/m

This formula is very important because it unifies the gravity with the forces of electromagnetism. Moreover it leads us to calculate the gravitational frequency shift δν by using the height H of a homogeneous field . Since the **photon has a variable mass** the potential energy mgH can be transformed into the energy hδν. Thus we write:

mgH = hδν. Then comparing it with mc^{2 }= hν one gets δν/ν = gH/c^{2}

That is, the gravitational interaction explains the gravitational frequency shift, by using the second term of Newton’s second law.

Under this condition the gravitational frequency shift δν/ν for light emitted at the surface of a massive star, like a **NEUTRON STAR **or a **BLACK HOLE** **,** is very important because in general gH leads to the GM/R, where M is the great mass of the neutron star and R is its radius. In this case it is well-known that M of a neutron star is greater than the mass of our sun, while the R is much smaller. Note that Einstein in his general relativity ptoposed that such a sufficiently compact mass will deform space and time to form a neutron star or a black hole. Moreover Einstein suggested incorrectly that on the cosmic scale his curvuture of vacuum might have the effect of making the universe finite though unbounded. In fact, the formation of a neutron star is due to the characteristic long-ranged gravitational attractions which are very important in very massive stars. In our paper "Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism" we showed that the neutron stars are formed when the long-ranged gravitational attraction overcomes the short-ranged repulsions between neutrons. The opposite situation is observed in very heavy nuclei, where the long-ranged electric repulsions of protons overcome the short-ranged electromagnetic attractions of the proton-neutron systems and lead to the decay.

We conclude also that all basic laws of Newton, Coulomb and Ampere providing forces acting at a distance lead to the law of *Photon-Matter Transformation*. For example in this case the applications of Newton’s second law give:

Fds = dw = (dp/dt)ds = [d(mu)/dt]ds = u(mdu +udm)

Since the experiments of Kaufmann showed that m^{2}/m_{o}^{2} = c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})

differentiation gives 2mdmc^{2} = 2udum^{2} + 2mdmu^{2}

or dmc^{2} = u(mdu +udm) = dw

Of course all these equal results of the applications of electromagnetism and Newton’s laws under the quantum physics led me to discover not only the unification of all forces but also the fundamental principle of “*Matter –Photon Transformation*” expressed by ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c^{2} which invalidates relativity.

Under this condition we analyze historically the wrong concepts of special and general theories of relativity with very simple mathematics in order to present carefully with understandable examples all the false assumptions of Einstein.

**EINSTEIN’S FALLACIOUS GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS**

Under Faraday’s wrong ideas (1832) that the free space surrounding magnets and coils was in a state of tension like curved stretched rubber bands (field concept), Einstein in his formulation of the theory of general relativity ( 1915) tried to modify Newton’s law of universal gravitation (action at a distance) by filling the space between interacting bodies with gravitational fields like the fallacious fields of Maxwell. (See my “New revolution in physics ”). According to Maxwell and Faraday the force F_{e} of the Coulomb law F_{e} = KqQ/r^{2} should be transmitted by the field F_{e}/q = KQ/r^{2} which is a fallacious idea because the force F_{e} cannot be transmitted by the same force per unit charge.

In the same way using Newton’s laws F_{g} = ma = GmM/r^{2}

we see that the problem becomes more complicated because the field is given by using the identity of inertial and gravitational mass as

F_{g}/m = a = GM/r^{2}

In other words, Einstein should suppose that the field F_{g}/m is also an acceleration (F_{g}/m = a) of nothing (empty space) which should act with m to produce the sameacceleration on a test mass m. Also his new assumptions of curvature of vacuum (curvature of nothing) led to more complications.

It is well-known that such concepts with fields and force carriers like mesons, gluons, and heavy bosons led to serious complications, while our applications of electromagnetic forces acting at a distance led to the correct nuclear structure and binding.

'* '***LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS REJECT STRING THEORIES**

Historically string theories developed** **for replacing the very small particles of physics by one-dimensional objects called strings. So String theorists tried to find another way for replacing the nuclear theories which seemed to unify gravity with the fallacious forces (the strong nuclear and the weak nuclear force). In the 1960's a new string theory was developed by theorists in order to understand the plethora of hadronic and mesonic particles which had been found around that time, but it was soon replaced, in the 1970's, by the false theory of Gell-Mann called Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This early string theory had major deficiencies. It contained imaginary mass particles or "tachyons", leading to problems in the quantum theory, the closed strings (loops) contained fallacious massless gravitons which were not observed because I showed that in nature massless photons or massless particles cannot exist. For example the massless photons of Einstein led to his invalid relativity. (See EINSTEIN by L. Kaliambos ). Finally the theory was inconsistent unless the number of Einstein’s spacetime dimensions was 26.

Though the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions solved all the problems of atomic physics for the hydrogen atom, another string theory was developed in the early 1980's, when Michael Green (Queen Mary) and John Schwarz (CalTech) proposed supersymmetric strings, or superstrings. Superstrings had no tachyons and had a quantum theory. Unfortunately, they believed that they predicted a "gauge group" for the fallacious forces of strong and weak interactions. They proposed energy limits as supergravities, or supersymmetric quantum theories living in ten spacetime dimensions.

On the other hand, though nature works in one way under the well-established laws of gravity and of electromagnetism, another** **string theory** **developed around 1995 due to the work of Chris Hull (Queen Mary), Paul Townsend (Cambridge) and Edward Witten (Princeton). "Duality" symmetries between the different string theories were found, which led to the proposal that five theories are different aspects of one theory, called "M theory", whose low-energy limit is eleven-dimensional supergravity. Furthermore, the M-theory was supposed to include higher dimensional surfaces called "branes" as well as strings. The study of these has led to major complications in many areas in the past ten years. Although the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement confirmed accurately the fundamental action at a distance of the well-established laws of gravity and of electric and magnetic forces, theoretical physicists like Hawking, Wikken, and Maldacena believed that string theory is a step for a correct description of universe, because it allows for the combination of a strange quantum field theory and the general relativithttp://lefteris-kaliambos.wikia.com/wiki/INVALID_GENERAL_RELATIVITY invalid general relativity . Other physicists such as Feynman, Penrose, and Glashow have criticized string theory for non providing novel experimental predictions at accessible energy scales and wrote that it is a failure as a theory of everything. In fact since energy cannot turn into mass and according to the experiments at CERN OUR UNIVERSE started off with a primordial gravitational attraction of long range overcoming the short-ranged electric repulsions between the quark triads. Therefore under the natural laws during the first 0.1 second such primordial quark triads created neutrons, protons, electrons, antineutrinos, positrons, and photons.