By prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) T.E. Institute of Larissa, Greece

This paper was announced to many universities around the world ( February 2014 )

**NEWTON PREDICTED THAT HIS RECTANGULAR PARTICLES OF LIGHT HAVE MASS WITH GRAVITATIONAL AND WAVE PROPERIES CONFIRMED BY SOLDNER (1801) AND YOUNG (1803)**

Descartes in his *Optics* (1637) proposed that light is associated with a medium called “ether”. Although it had a considerable influence on the ideas of physicists Newton in his* Opticks* (1704) concluded that the Cartesian theory of light could not account for* polarization*. This would be easy enough to understand if light is a stream of** rectangular particles moving in vacuum** but** **rather more difficult if light is a wave disturbance in a medium. In spite of Newton’s criticism, other scientists such as Hooke and Huygens continued to think of light in terms of impulses in a medium. This was not yet the “wave theory” in the modern sense, because the periodic nature of the pulses had not yet been recognized; ironically it was Newton who suggested that light might have to be somehow assigned also periodic properties in order to account for the phenomena of colors. Unfortunately Young (1803) who confirmed the wave nature of light abandoned Newton’s corpuscular theory in favor of the Huygens theory which led to Maxwell’s wrong fields moving through an ether (1865) rejected by the experiment of Michelson and Morley (1887) in favor of Newton’s rectangular particles. Newton also predicted that his** **particles of light have gravitational properties confirmed by Soldner in 1801. Nevertheless later (1905 and 1916) Einstein under his fallacious massless quanta fields of Maxwell developed his invalid theories of relativity. (See myCONTRADICTING RELATIVITY THEORIES ).

**DIPOLE NATURE OF NEWTON’S CORPUSCLES HAVING MASS WHILE EINSTEIN’S MASSLESS QUANTA OF FIELDS LED TO HIS INVALID RELATIVITY**

In 1845 Faraday discovered the magnetic rotation of the plane of polarized light (Faraday effect). In other words Newton’s rectangular particles have not only mass with gravitational properties but also positive and negative charges like the opposite charges of an electric dipole providing the electromagnetic properties of light. This situation supports Newton’s rectangular particles of light having mass because charges without mass cannot exist. Under this condition Faraday believed that gravitation and electromagnetism were somehow related, but he failed to find any connection because in 1932 in order to explain his induction law introduced the fallacious concept of field. Faraday imagined that the space surrounding the magnet and the coil was in a state of tension like stretched rubber bands and he called these bands “lines of force”. Although Neumann in 1845 discovered that the induction law is consistent with the magnetic force of the Ampere law, Maxwell in 1865 developed his electromagnetic theory with wrong fields moving through a fallacious ether.

On the other hand in 1902 Kaufmann showed experimentally that the absorption of energy by an electron contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ. Although in 1903 the two American physicists Nichols and Hull showed experimentally that light consists of particles having not only energy E but also momentum p given by the relation p = E/c, Einstein under his massless quanta of fields based on Maxwell’s waves believed that the increase of the electron mass is due not to the absorption of the particles of light but to the relative motion of the electron with respect to a randomly moving observer. Such fallacious ideas of moving fields which led to the invalid relativity could not be explained by the work of Planck (1900) who discovered that E = hν.

** **

** PHOTONS OF LAWS DO NOT CARRY ANY FORCE **

Under the work of Planck the American physicist Compton (1923) showed that p = hν/c . Then, since p = mc using the idea of Newton’s rectangular particles of light one could determine the mass m = hν/c^{2} . Especially Compton discovered that the frequency ν of X rays decreases by collision with electrons. So he showed that light consists of particles possessing both corpuscular and wave properties. It was therefore a confirmation of Newton’s corpuscles having wave properties. In the same way the two American physicists Davisson and Germer showed experimentally that also electrons produce waves. That is, one observes that matter as well as light possesses both wave and corpuscular properties.

After the Compton effect Lewis in 1926 replaced Einstein’s massless quanta of fields by his photons which cannot carry the electromagnetic forces. Nevertheless today many physicists under the influence of Einstein’s massless quanta of fields believe that Maxwell’s fields are able to carry the forces. It is of interest to note that in 1963 the basic postulation (displacement current) for the development of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory was rejected by the experiment of the two American physicists French and Tessman who showed that the application of Maxwell’s equation of displacement current involves misconceptions. Particularly during the motion in the ionized air in a capacitor the changing electric field of the discharged plates cannot produce any magnetic resultant. So it confirmed the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere according to which forces act at a distance in accordance with the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement.

Taking into account all these experiments showing that Newton’s rectangular particles of light have not only gravitational properties but also electromagnetic ones, I analyzed carefully the Faraday effect by adding equal positive and negative charges to Newton’s rectangular particles which behave like a moving dipole. In the Cartesian system xy a dipole with two opposite charges +q and –q could move with a velocity u < c along the x direction when the dipole axis r is parallel to y. In this simple case the applications of the Coulomb and Ampere laws give electric attraction F_{e} stronger that the magnetic repulsion F_{m} as

F_{e} = Kq^{2}/r^{2 }and F_{m} = kq^{2}u^{2}/r^{2 }

Since Weber in 1856 showed experimentally that K/k = c^{2} one gets

F_{e} /F_{m }= u^{2}/c^{2} that is F_{e} > F_{m }

However such a dipole at the speed (u =c ) operates with equal electric attractions and magnetic repulsions. This situation of course leads to the conclusion that the photon of Lewis interprets the Faraday effect. According to the laws of electromagnetism a magnetic field in the direction of y can exert a torque to any electric dipole moving along the x direction. Also such dipoles moving at c interact with an electron of charge (-e) in terms of varying E_{y} and B_{z }because of the spin of the dipole (dipolic photon). Such a situation also led to my discovery ofPhoton-Matter Interaction as

Ey(-e) dy = dw and Bz(-e) dy = F_{m}dt =dp =dmc.

Since the experiment of Weber leads to E_{y}/B_{z }= c one gets dw/dm = c^{2}

That is the absorption of a photon by an electron is given by hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

Under these discoveries of photons having mass with opposite charges I presented at the international conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics (Olympia 1993) my paper “Impact of Maxwell’s equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles”.

In that paper I showed that the invalid hypothesis of self-propagating fields in Maxwell’s theory is modified by my dipolic particles or dipolic photons having mass with opposite charges. Also such a rotating dipole (spinning photon) can produce varying E_{y} and B_{z } like the self-propagating fields of Maxwell. In a transparent medium ( radiation in matter ) the electric attraction between the charges of the dipolic photon cause in matter some distortion of the atomic electronic cloud. Hence under a dielectric permittivity the electric force is reduced and the dipolic photon moves at a velocity smaller than c. Furthermore I showed that in the induction law the motion of a magnet with respect to a coil gives always a magnetic force, while the fallacious electric field of Maxwell violates the principle of relativity. In other words Einstein’s assumption of his special relativity that a moving magnet with respect to a coil produces electric field violates the principle of relativity. To conclude I emphasize that laws and experiments invalidate fields and relativity and a clear answer to the photon-wave dilemma is given by the dipolic photon. Note that a low frequency photon exposed to a magnetic field was split into a separate positive charge and a separate negative charge. These charges were exposed to an electric field which changes its position. This position was measured using a charge meter described by Hans W Giertz (2010). In other words the positive and negative charges of a dipolar photon have mass because charges without mass cannot exist. Nevertheless today many physicists under the influence of Einstein’s massless quanta of fields believe that photon has no mass because it moves at the speed of light while all particles having mass cannot move at the speed of light. Here I clear that the absorption of photon mass m by a particle of mass M_{o } increases to a variable mass M and this situation is responsible for giving velocity u<c to particles. According to the experiment of Kaufmann we write

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} = c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})

Then, differentiation of this led to my discovery of the Photon – Matter Interaction given by

hν//m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

That is, in case in which photon had no mass all particles under the absorption of photon energy hν could move faster than the speed of light . In fact a photon has mass m = hν /c^{2} and energy hν Therefore it is not a quantum of fields and it cannot carry a force. According to the well-established law of the Coulomb involving electric forces F acting at a distance the electric field E = F/q is just a force per unite charge. So the force per unit charge cannot carry the same force. (See my PHOTONS OF LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS). Nevertheless in the “Photon-Wikipedia” one reads:

“A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force, even when static via virtual photons. The effects of this force are easily observable at both the microscopic and macroscopic level, because the photon has zero rest mass; this allows long distance interactions”.

**EINSTEIN’S INVALID REST ENERGY (1905) LED TO THE WRONG RELATIVISTIC MECHANICS OF DIRAC (1928) WHILE MY DISCOVERY OF THE NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE LED TO MY DISCOVERY OF THE PHOTON MASS **

The Schrodinger equation in three dimensions is the quantum analog of the well-established second law of Newton. It correctly describes the behavior of particles by using the application of the well-established laws of nature. In 1928 Dirac devised incorrectly an equation for a quantum system by using Einstein’s INVALID REST ENERGY. Dirac also believed that the relation E = pc is correct not for the corpuscles of Newton having mass but for the massless quanta of Einstein. Thus for an electron with a mass M_{o} the fallacious relativistic energy E should be given by

E^{2} = p^{2}c^{2 }+ M_{o}^{2}c^{4 }

Note that here the math is correct but the result is wrong due to the false concept that energy is due to the mass which violates the fundamental potential energy due to the forces of interaction acting at a distance. Also Einstein used the invalid relativistic energy due to a wrong relativistic mass M. In fact, according to our discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION in the Kaufmann experiment the mass M is not a fallacious relativistic mass but a variable mass due to the absorption of the photon mass. Also the energy is due not to the fallacious relativistic mass but to the absorption of photon energy. Under this confusion we write here the correct math by using Einstein’s wrong relativistic energy E = Mc^{2} . Therefore the math is correct but it is based on wrong hypothesis which gives fallacious results in the following process:

E^{2} = M^{2}c^{4} . Since M^{2} = M_{o}^{2}c^{4} [c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})] one gets

E^{2 }= M_{o}^{2}c^{2} [c^{4}/(c^{2} – u^{2} )] But c^{4} can be written as c^{4} = c^{4} – u^{2}c^{2} + u^{2} c^{2} That is

E^{2} = M_{o}^{2}c^{2}[ (c^{4}-u^{2}c^{2} + u^{2}c^{2})/(c^{2}-u^{2}) = M_{o}^{2}c^{2}[c^{2}(c^{2} -u^{2})/(c^{2}-u^{2}) + u^{2}c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})] or

E^{2} = M_{o}^{2}c^{2}[ c^{2} + u^{2}c^{2}/(c^{2} –u^{2}) ] = M_{o}^{2}c^{4} + M_{o}^{2}c^{2}u^{2}c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})

Since M_{o}^{2}c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2}) = M^{2} we get E^{2} = M_{o}^{2}c^{4 }+ M^{2}u^{2}c^{2}

And because Mu = p we write E^{2} = M_{o}^{2}c^{4} + p^{2}c^{2}

which is the biggest error in the history of physics. It is indeed unfortunate that in “photon-WIKIPEDIA” one reads the following fallacious paragraph:

“In empty space, the photon moves at c (the speed of light) and its energy and momentum are related by E = pc, where p is the magnitude of the momentum vector p. This derives from the following relativistic relation, with m = 0:"

This wrong idea led to thephysics crisis , because it violates the fundamental potential energy due to the forces of interaction at a distance.

For example in the Bohr model the energy hν of the generated photon is due not to the mass defect but to the energy Δw of the charge-charge interaction of 13.6 eV which turns into the energy hν of the generation of photon, while the mass defect ΔΜ of the electron during the binding energy turns into the mass m = hν/c^{2}of the photon. In the same way using the electromagnetic laws for the nuclear structure and force I presented my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” at the 12th symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society (NCSR “Demokritos”, 2002) In that symposium I presented not only my DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE but also my discovery of the photon mass m = hν/c

^{2}since during the formation of deuteron the electromagnetic interaction between the extra 9 charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron existing among 288 quarks in nucleons give strong electromagnetic energy ΔΕ = 2.2246 MeV which turns into the energy hν of the generated photon. Whereas the mass defect ΔΜ = 2.2246 MeV/c2 of proton and neutron turns into the real mass m = hν/c

^{2}= 2.2246 MeV/c

^{2 }of photon in accordance with my discovery of the Matter-Photon Transformation

ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c^{2}