By prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) T.E. Institute of Larissa, Greece

**HISTORICAL DISCOVERIES OF THE ELECTRON**

In 1896, J. J. Thomson, performed experiments indicating that cathode rays really were unique particles (electrons) , rather than atoms or molecules as was believed earlier. Thomson showed that their charge to mass ratio, e/m, was independent of cathode material. He further showed that the electrons are negatively charged particles produced by radioactive materials. <p class="MsoNormal">Becquerel (1896) while studying naturally fluorescing minerals discovered that they emitted radiation without any exposure to an external energy source. These radioactive materials became the subject of much interest by scientists, including the physicist Rutherford who discovered they emitted particles. In 1900, Becquerel showed that the beta rays (electrons) emitted by radium could be deflected by an electric field, and that their mass-to-charge ratio was the same as for cathode rays. Under Thomson’s recognition (1881) that an electromagnetic energy is characterized also by an “electromagnetic mass” Kaufmann in 1902 showed experimentally that the energy of light absorbed by electrons contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ in accordance with my discovery of the PHOTON - MATTER INTERACTION . Unfortunately Einstein in 1905 under his fallacious massless quanta of fields explained incorrectly he photoelectric effect which led to his invalid relativity according to which the increase of the electron mass is due not to the absorption of light but to a relative motion of the electron with respect to a randomly moving observer. (See my THOMSON AND MICHELSON REJECT EINSTEIN ).The electron's charge (-e ) = -1.602/10^{19} Cb ) was measured by Millikan and Fletcher in their oil-drop experiment of 1909, the results of which were published in 1911. Thus from the ratio e/m it was found that the electron mass is m = 0.9109/10^{30} Kg. In 1913 Bohr in his model showed that an electron dropping to a lower orbit emits a photon equal to the energy difference between the orbits. Since the binding energy of atoms and nuclei is characterized by a mass defect this situation led to my discovery of MATTER-PHOTON TRANSFORMATION which led to the INVALIDITY OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY under my DISCOVERY OF PHOTON MASS . (See my Impact of Maxwell’s equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles . In 1926 Schrodinger in his famous equation in three dimensions under the application of electromagnetic laws found the quantum mechanical rules for describing correctly the detailed features of the circulating electron in one-electron atoms.Meanwhile in 1925 Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck discovered the electron spin s = 0.5(h/2π) according to which the peripheral velocity of the electron spin is greatwer than the speed og flight c.</p>

**THE CHARGE OF SPINNING ELECTRON IS DISTRIBUTED ALONG THE PERIPHERY WITH A VELOCITY GREATER THAN THE SPEED OF LIGHT GIVING AT A`SHORT DISTANCE MAGNETIC ATTRACTION STRONGER THAN THE ELECTRIC REPULSION RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ELECTRON COUPLING**

It is indeed unfortunate that the discovery of the peripheral velocity (u >>c) of the electron spin which invalidates Einstein’s theory of relativity and the discoveries of the assumed uncharged neutron (1932) and neutrino led to the abandonment of the well-established electromagnetic laws.** **Under this physics crisis great theoretical physicists like Pauli (1925) , Dirac (1928), Heisenberg (1932), Fermi (1934), Yukawa (1935), Weinberg (1967), and Gell-Mann (1971) developed fallacious theories which cannot lead to the two-electron atoms and to the nuclear structure. For example in the Wrong Standard Model of particle physics the electron has no substructure. Hence, it is assumed to be a point particle with a point charge and no spatial extent. Under such fallacious assumptions there is a physical constant called the "classical electron radius", with the large value of 2.8179/10^{15} m, which is greater than the proton radius R_{p} = 0.8768/ 10^{15} m. The terminology comes from a simplistic calculation that ignores the effects of quantum mechanics; in reality, the so-called classical electron radius has little to do with the true fundamental structure of the electron.

In fact, electrons behave like spinning oblate spheroids and belong to the first-generation of fundamental particles producing two-electron pairs under a magnetic attraction of short range which is stronger than the electric repulsion at very short interelectron separations. The second and third generation contain charged leptons, the muon and the tau, which are identical to the electron in charge, spin and interactions, but are more massive. Also according to the wrong Standard Model leptons differ from the other basic constituent of matter, because it is believed incorrectly that the quark-quark interaction is due not to their fractional charges but to a fallacious “color force” of the wrong strong interaction. In fact, both electrons and quarks have charges and interact according to the well-established laws of electromagnetism.

Moreover I discovered that the opposite charges of the neutrinos invalidate the so-called weak interaction because they have mass with opposite charges like neutrons and interact electromagnetically with charged quarks like the dipole photons which interact electromagnetically with electrons. (See my QUARKS NEUTRINOS NUCLEONS AND NUCLEI and INVALIDITY OF HIGGS BOSON ) . As the symbol (e) is used for the elementary charge, the electron is also commonly symbolized by e. The positron is symbolized by e^{+} because it has the same properties as the electron but with a positive rather than negative charge. There are elementary particles that spontaneously decay into less massive particles. An example is the muon, which decays into an electron, a neutrino and an antineutrino, with a mean lifetime of 2.2×10^{−6}seconds. However, the electron is thought to be stable on theoretical grounds.

Under the discovery of the electron mass a realistic approach for estimating the electron radius R_{e} is to take the proton mass M to the electron mass m which is M/m = 1836. This ratio would set the electron’s radius R_{e} = 0.73/10^{16} m at approximately 12 times smaller than the proton radius which has the internationally-accepted value of 0.8768/10^{15} m.

In 2002 using the discovery of proton radius I presented my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of
electromagnetism” at the 12th symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society . (NCSR “Demokritos” ). In that paper I showed not only my DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE but also the DISCOVERY OF TWO-ELECTRON ATOMS by using the experimental relation for the magnetic moment μ of spinning electron:μ/s = - 1.00116 (e/m). Since a hypothetical uniform charge distribution of (-e) in
electron leads to complications this puzzle was resolved under a reasonable
assumption that the charge (-e) is distributed along the periphery 2πR_{e} of the electron radius R_{e} = 0.73/10^{16} m. In a simple discussion, the
picture of electron could be as a rather oblate spheroid associated with the
spin S = [ s(s+1)]^{0.5} (h/2π) where s = 0.5( h/2π) .

So it is necessary to re-examine the discovery of the electron spin that the electron is an oblate spheroid with 0.4 < t < 0.5 spinning with an angular velocity ω. It is well-known that for a spinning sphere t = 0.4 and for a spinning disk t = 0.5. Since μ = (-e)ν πR_{e}^{2} = (-e)(ω/2)R_{e}^{2} And s = tmωR_{e}^{2} we may write

μ/s = (-e)ωR_{e}^{2}/2tmωR_{e}^{2} = -1.00116(e/m)

Then solving for t we get t = 0.49942

That is, the electron is treated as a rather spinning disk in which the peripheral velocity u = ωR can be calculated by using the following simple relation

s = 0.5 (h/2π) = tmuR_{e }

Thus u = s/tmR_{e.} Since s = 0.5(1.054/10^{34}) and tmR_{e }0.4942(0.9109/10^{30})(0.73/10^{16})

one gets u = ( 1.6 ) 10^{12} m/sec which means that u >> c .

Under this condition the charges of two electrons at an electron separation r with opposite spin give the simple electric repulsion F_{e} of the Coulomb law as

F_{e} = Ke^{2}/r^{2}

Since the charges of spinning electrons behave like two spinning charged rings and since Weber discovered that K/k = c^{2} a detailed analysis under the application of the Biot-Savart law led to my discovery of the magnetic attraction Fm of short range given by

F_{m} = (Ke^{2}/r^{4}) ( 9h^{2}/16π^{2}m^{2}c^{2})

Therefore the electromagnetic force F_{em} is given by

F_{em} = Ke^{2}/r^{2} – (Ke^{2}/r^{4}) (9h^{2}/16π^{2}m^{2}c^{2})

Of course for F_{e} = F_{m} one gets the equilibrium separation r_{o} as

r_{o} = 3h/4πmc = 578.8/10^{15} m .

That is, for r < r_{o} the electrons exert an attractive electromagnetic force F_{em} because F_{m }> Fe . Here F_{m } is a spin dependent force of short range. As a consequence this situation provides the physical basis for understanding the pairing of two electrons not by using the qualitative Pauli principle which in the case of deuteron cannot be applicable. Note that in the presence of an external magnetic field the two electrons operate with parallel spin giving by

F_{em } = F_{e} + F_{m}

In my paper “Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures” published in Ind. J. Th. Phys. ( 2008) I discovered also that two electrons of opposite spin at r < r_{o} under a motional EMF produce a vibration energy E_{v} in eV which depends on the nuclear charge Ze as

E_{v} = 16.95 Z - 4.1

Such a vibration energy combined with the simple binding energy E = -27.2 Z^{2} of the Bohr model led to my discovery of the ground state energy of two electron atoms given by

E = -27.2 Z^{2} + 16.95 Z - 4.1.

To conclude one sees that the electromagnetic energy of spinning electrons based on the applications of the fundamental electromagnetic laws is the basis for understanding the energies of many-electron atoms in which the two paired electrons behave like one particle circulating about the nucleus under the rules of quantum mechanics. The chemical bond between atoms occurs as a result of electromagnetic interactions, as described by the laws of quantum mechanics. The strongest bonds are formed by the sharing or transfer of electrons between atoms, allowing the formation of molecules. Within a molecule, electrons move under the influence of several nuclei, and occupy molecular orbitals; much as they can occupy atomic orbitals in isolated atoms. A fundamental factor in these molecular structures is the existence of electron pairs. These are electrons with opposed spins, allowing them to occupy the same molecular orbital. Different molecular orbitals have different spatial distribution of the electron density. For instance, in bonded pairs (i.e. in the pairs that actually bind atoms together) electrons can be found with the maximal probability in a relatively small volume between the nuclei. On the contrary, in non-bonded pairs electrons are distributed in a large volume around nuclei.

**QUANTUM PROPERTIES OF ELECTRON**

As photons, electrons can act as waves. This is called the wave–particle duality and can be demonstrated using the double-slit experiment. The wave-like nature of the electron allows it to pass through two parallel slits simultaneously, rather than just one slit as would be the case for a classical particle. In quantum mechanics, the wave-like property of one particle can be described mathematically as a complex-valued function, the wave function, commonly denoted by the Greek letter psi (ψ). When the absolute value of this function is squared, it gives the probability that a particle will be observed near a location—a probability density.

**QUALITATIVE APPROACHES TO EXPLAIN THE TWO-ELECTRON COUPLING**

In the absence of a knowledge about the strong magnetic attraction between two electrons of opposite spin theoretical physicists developed qualitative approaches according to which electrons cannot be distinguished from each other. This means that a pair of interacting electrons must be able to swap positions without an observable change to the state of the system. The wave function of fermions, including electrons, is assumed to be antisymmetric by changing sign when two electrons are swapped; that is, ψ(r_{1}, r_{2}) = −ψ(r_{2}, r_{1}), where the variables r_{1} and r_{2} correspond to the first and second electrons, respectively. Since the absolute value is not changed by a sign swap, this corresponds to equal probabilities. In this case of the qualitative antisymmetry, it was assumed that the wave equation for interacting electrons result in a zero probability that each pair will occupy the same location or state. This is responsible for the development of the qualitative Pauli exclusion principle, which precludes any two electrons from occupying the same quantum state. This principle was assumed to explain many of the properties of electrons. For example, it causes groups of bound electrons to occupy different orbitals in an atom, rather than all overlapping each other in the same orbit. However this qualitative approach of the so-called Pauli principle cannot be applicable in the case of the simplest deuteron.

**WRONG IDEA OF ANNIHILATION UNDER THE INVALID RELATIVITY**

Under the influence of Einstein’s wrong equation E = mc^{2} physicists believe that during the interaction of an electron and positron the mass of two particles turns into the energy of two gamma ray massless quanta of fields. That is, when electrons and positrons interact, they believe that the particles annihilate each other, giving rise to the energy of two or more gamma ray massless quanta of fields violating the two conservation laws of energy and mass developed by the Greek philosophers Heraclitus and Anaximander respectively. In fact, as in the case of the generation of a photon in the Bohr model the energy ΔΕ of the charge-charge interaction between the electron and the positron turns into the energy hν of the dipole photons, while the mass ΔΜ of the two particles turns into the mass m = hν/c^{2} of the photons in accordance with my discovery of the MATTER-PHOTON TRANSFORMATION

ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c^{2}

On the other hand, the mass of high-energy photons may transform into the masses of an electron and a positron by a process called pair production, but only in the presence of a nearby charged particle, such as a nucleus.