This paper was announced to many universities around the world (September 2013).

By Prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ( Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός ) T. E. Institute of Larissa. Greece

**CRITICISMS OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY**

In Google you can see my papers according to which the laws and experiments of great physicists like Galileo, Newton, Coulomb, Ampere, Thomson, Michelson, Bohr, and Schrodinger, invalidate Einstein’s relativity which violates not only the two conservation laws of mass but also the principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s laws. Especially the concept of “mass-energy equivalence” was the biggest error in the history of physics, because Einstein violated the fundamental concept of the potential energy due to interactions. Moreover for the progress of physics you can see my papers in User Kaliambos , according to which laws and experiments invalidate not only Maxwell’s fields but also Einstein’s relativity, which led to the crisis of nuclear physics For the solution of this physics crisis I presented at the international conference "Frontiers of fundamental physics" (Olympia ,1993) my paper Impact of Maxwell's equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles .

In that paper I proved that Maxwell for the formulation of his theory (1865) was based not on the fundamental electromagnetic forces acting at a distance of the well-established laws of Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820) but using the false concept of the Faraday field (1832) he introduced a wrong postulation of a hypothetical electric field, which violates not only Newton's third law of instantaneous action and reaction but also the principle of relativity in the Faraday induction law. Note that in 1845 F. Neumann proved experimentally that the induction of electric currents is consistent with the magnetic force of the Ampere law (1820). Also the experiment of French and Tessmann (1963 showed that Maxwell’s second postulation, the so-called “displacement current”, involves misconceptions.Unfortunately Einstein in 1905 for the formulation of his incorrect special relativity (experiments reject relativity) was based not on the well-established laws but on Maxwell’s hypothetical electric field introduced in the induction law. In other words Einstein’s ideas of special relativity violate not only the two conservation laws of energy and mass but also the principle of relativity. (See my original paper in user Kaliambos ). On the other hand since Einstein’s incorrect concept of “mass-energy equivalence” led to the crisis of nuclear binding and nuclear structure, in 2002 I presented at the 12th symposium of the Hellemic nuclear physics society ( N.C.S. R. "Demokritos") my paper

“Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism" (2003).</p></p>In that paper I showed that the nuclear binding energy is due not to Einstein’s false concept that the energy is equivalent to the mass defect of nucleons but like the binding energy of the atoms it is due to the electromagnetic forces of short range acting at a distance between 9 extra charged quarks of protons and 12 charged quarks of neutrons existing among 288 quarks in nucleons.(New structure of protons and neutrons). Moreover under the application of natural laws of Coulomb and Ampere I revealed the nuclear structure by using a large number of integral equations, while all various theories and models of the so-called Standard Model could not lead to any nuclear structure. (See the original paper in User Kaliambos ).Nevertheless under the influence of Einstein’s invalid relativity and the various theories and models of the so-called Standard Model today physicists believe that special relativity is treated as a universal law for developing various theories like the assumed correct Quantum Electrodynamics and the theories of the Standard Model . Note that according to Einstein’s wrong assumptions the well-established laws have limited application. So there is room for developing various incorrect theories. For example in the “Criticism of the theory of relativity-Wikipedia” one reads:**“**

**Criticism of the theory of relativity**of Albert Einstein was mainly expressed in the early years after its publication in the early 1900s, on scientific, pseudoscientific,philosophical, or ideological bases. Though some of these criticisms had the support of reputable scientists, Einstein's theory of relativity is now recognized as self-consistent, in accordance with many experiments, and moreover serves as the basis of many successful theories such as quantum electrodynamics.”</p>

In fact, we showed that all experiments assumed to be interpreted by Einstein are explained accurately by the application of the well-established laws of nature, while a number of developed theories based on Einstein’s relativity do much to retard the progress of physics.

Historically in 1928 Dirac influenced by Einstein’s invalid relativity developed the so-called “Relativistic Quantum Mechanics.” He devised an equation for a quantum system by using Einstein’s E = pc of his massless photons. Also accepting Einstein’s false concepts of rest mass, rest energy, and relativistic energy, he believed that for particles with rest mass M_{o} the total relativistic energy is not pc but is given incorrectly by

E^{2} = M_{o}^{2}c^{4 }+ p^{2}c^{2 } or E = + (M_{o}^{2}c^{4 }+ p^{2}c^{2})^{0.5} or E = - (M_{o}^{2}c^{4} + p^{2}c^{2})^{0.5}

Normally he would discard the negative-energy solutions as being “unphysical”. Since the negative- energy states extent to infinity all matter should vanish as electrons drop into this infinite energy pit. Dirac extricated himself from this morass by postulating that all negative-energy states are already filled. Like the hole in the valence band of a semiconductor, the absence of an electron in the previously filled infinite sea of negative-energy states should manifest itself as a positively charged particle “antielectron”. Note that Dirac’s theory was assumed to be the triumph of Einstein’s relativity, since in 1932 such positively charged particles, called positrons, were discovered by Anderson in cosmic ray tracks.

However, after a careful analysis of Einstein’s wrong rest and relativistic energy we will clarify here that the math of the derivation of the above formula is correct but the result is wrong, because it is based on wrong concepts of Einstein who did much to retard the progress of physics by violating the fundamental concept of potential energy due to interactions.

In 1902 Kaufmann showed experimentally that when an electron of constant inertial mass M_{o} absorbs energy its inertial mass at a velocity u becomes a variable mass M as

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2 }= c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2}) (1)

This experiment is explained not by Einstein’s special relativity but by our discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION

hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

because the energy hν and the mass m = hν/c^{2} of the photon during the interaction turns into the energy ΔΕ and the mass ΔΜ of the electron.

Although the experiment of Michelson and Morley in 1887 rejected the Maxwellian ether in favor of Newton’s particles of light_{ }having mass, Einstein in 1905 influenced by Maxwell’s wrong fields used the same math of the Lorentz ether theory (1904) and developed his incorrect special relativity according to which the constant inertial mass of Newton’s well-established laws became a fallacious rest mass which could change into a hypothetical relativistic mass M of an electron moving with a velocity u relative to a randomly moving observer. That is, Einstein replaced the Lorentz ether by a hypothetical observer complicating more the problem. For example when the observer moves with an electron he will measure a relativistic mass of the stationary objects in the laboratory. In fact, we revealed that the above increase of the electron mass is due not to the velocity u relative to an observer but to the absorption of energy hν and mass m = hν/c^{2} of photons.

Note that Einstein’s concept “mass-energy conservation” violates the fundamental concept of the potential energy due to interactions. For example the electric potential energy of the Coulomb law refers to work done by virtue of a change of position of a charged particle along a distance parallel to the electric force. Since the photon behaves like a moving dipole the energy due to the photon interaction with the charge (-e) of the electron is described in terms of E_{y} and B_{z} as

E_{y}(-e) dy = dW and B_{z}(-e)(dy/dt) = F_{m} or B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m}dt = dp = dmc

Since Weber found that E_{y}/B_{z }= c we get dW/dm = c^{2}

Here we see that dW is due not to the mass dm but to the electromagnetic interaction which leads to hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

It is surprising that the differentiation of the formula ( 1) gives

2MdM c^{2} = 2MdM u^{2} + 2uduM^{2 } or dMc^{2} = d(Mu)u (3)

Indeed since the absorption of the photon increases both the mass M and ta he velocity u of the electron the application of Newton’s second law gives

Fds = dW = (dp/dt)ds = [d(Mu)/dt]ds = d(Mu)u (4)

Thus comparing (3) with (4) we see that dW/dM = c^{2}

That is, hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

Unfortunately Einstein believed that the energy ΔΕ is due not to the interaction of the photons with the electron but to the mass of the electron moving with a relative velocity u with respect to a hypothetical observer. Thus he assumed that the hypothetical rest mass M_{o }has an energy called rest energy, while the mass M of the moving electron with respect to a hypothetical observer has a hypothetical energy E = Mc^{2} called relativistic energy. Now using these wrong ideas we can apply the math leading to a wrong result. According to the invalid relativity we may write

E^{2} = M^{2}c^{4} . Since M^{2} = M_{o}^{2}c^{4} [c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})] one gets

E^{2} = M_{o}^{2}c^{2} [c^{4}/(c^{2} – u^{2} )] But c^{4 }can be written as c^{4} = c^{4} – u^{2}c^{2 }+ u^{2 }c^{2 }That is

E^{2} = M_{o}^{2}c^{2}[ (c^{4}-u^{2}c^{2} + u^{2}c^{2})/(c^{2}-u^{2}) = M_{o}^{2}c^{2}[c^{2}(c^{2} -u^{2})/(c^{2}-u^{2}) + u^{2}c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})] or

E^{2} = M_{o}^{2}c^{2}[ c^{2} + u^{2}c^{2}/(c^{2} –u^{2}) ] = M_{o}^{2}c^{4} + M_{o}^{2}c^{2}u^{2}c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})

Since M_{o}^{2}c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2}) = M^{2} we get E^{2 }= M_{o}^{2}c^{4} + M^{2}u^{2}c^{2}

And because Mu = p we write E^{2} = M_{o}^{2}c^{4 }+ p^{2}c^{2 }

That is, using a correct math one arrives at a wrong result when the assumptions are incorrect. In the same way Maxwell’s math was correct but his theory was wrong because he was based not on the well-established laws of electromagnetism.

Writing in Google “Criticism of special relativity” we see a large number of articles based not on the well-established natural laws and experiments of great physicists, but on various hypotheses and philosophical speculations which lead to confusion . It is indeed unfortunate that such articles influenced by Maxwell’s fields Einstein’s relativity and the various theories of the so-called Standard Model mislead the readers. Unfortunately physicists today believe that Einstein’s special relativity is a universal law able to explain the experiments of modern physics under Einstein’s assumptions that the well-established laws of nature have limited applications.

**CRITICISM OF GENERAL RELATIVITY**

Einstein in his general relativity influenced by Maxwell’s fields and philosophical speculations tried to modify the well-established law of gravity by introducing various hypotheses, like the Ptolemaic system with the complicated epicyclic motions. Einstein believed that Science is not the collection of Laws but of Theories. Influenced by philosophical speculations Einstein could not distinguish that science may be divided into the first part of the well-established laws and the second part including new ideas and experiments in the so-called “Frontiers of fundamental physics”. Such new ideas are correct when they lead to the well-established laws like the Bohr model or the Schrodinger equations in three dimensions. Therefore he tried to modify the universal law of gravity by rejecting the fundamental action at a distance and despite the famous experiment of Michelson and Morley who rejected the ether Einstein used gravitational waves and fields in a fallacious “ether structure" or a strange “curvature of vacuum” like the vacuum of Faraday, who in 1832 imagined that the space surrounding the magnets and the currents was in a state of tension, like stretched rubber bands, called “lines of force”. Einstein in the chapter “The first serious difficulty” of his book “The evolution of physics” (1938) described the magnetic phenomena in terms of such strange lines of force, which are incorrect under the magnetic force of the well-established law of Ampere. (See my AMPERE AND COULOMB REJECT EINSTEIN ) .

Although nature works in only one way, as early as 1907 Einstein was showing dissatisfaction with his wrong special relativity in which he used velocities with respect to a randomly moving observer, while we proved that the explanation of the Kaufmann experiment is based only on the quantum dynamics of the absorption of photons under the applications of the well-established laws of nature. So under the influence of philosophical speculations (see my EINSTEIN BY LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ) he tried to find a better way for the solution of hypothetical problems by saying: Why was only uniform motion relative with respect to a hypothetical moving observer ? Why was only acceleration absolute? At the same time he wanted to modify Newton’s well-established universal law of gravity. So at first he assumed that there is a problem of gravitation which must be linked with the problem of acceleration. On this basis he starts with Newton’s fundamental gravity F_{g} on an object with constant inertial mass m_{o} and gravitational mass m on the earth having mass M and radius R. That is

F_{g} = m_{o}g = GmM/R^{2}

Since Galileo showed experimentally that the acceleration g is the same for all objects, then Newton concluded that m_{o }= m. Under this universal law when a photon of mass m_{o} = hν/c^{2} moves in perpendicular direction to gravity the gravitational force according to Galileo’s projectiles will cause an acceleration along the direction of gravity. So we will observe a curved trajectory as a result of the combined two separate motions like the constant velocity c and the acceleration along the gravity in accordance with Newton’s first law or law of inertia. This situation was predicted by Newton confirmed by Soldner in 1801. However, Einstein believed that his theory of general relativity interprets it under a fallacious “ether structure” or a strange “curvature of space-time with four dimensions.” Note that later Schrodinger (1926) did not follow Einstein’s hypotheses of "ether structure" or "curvature of space-time" in four dimensions. It is well-known that Schrodinger based on the real three dimensions formulated his time- independent equation in three dimensions with enormous success in the atomic physics. (See my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN ).

Since Newton and Galileo discovered that mass has the two properties of inertia and gravity. Einstein using this discovery introduced his “equivalence principle”, which states that it is impossible to distinguish between acceleration and gravity. However this statement is incomplete because Newton found that all kinds of forces like electric and magnetic ones cause the same acceleration under a constant inertial mass of his first law. Furthermore this invalidates dramatically the two concepts of rest and relativistic mass. Einstein also believed incorrectly that the most transparent prediction of his “equivalence principle” is the gravitational red shift while we revealed that this effect invalidates the so-called “equivalence principle” For example when the velocity c of the photon is parallel to gravity F_{g} we cannot use Newton’s first law or law of inertia. In this case we revealed that the photon cannot behave like a particle with a constant inertial mass, because the gravitational force cannot cause any acceleration along the constant velocity c . So after the application of Newton’s second law we get

F_{g}ds = dW = (dp/dt)ds = (cdm/dt)ds = dmc^{2}

Here acceleration approaches always to zero under a basic length contraction and a time dilation because the photon with a dipolar nature operates with equal electric attraction and magnetic repulsion with instantaneous simultaneity in accordance with Newton’s third law, which is the same in all inertial frames. Note that any velocity greater than c will produce stronger magnetic forces than the electric ones which should violate Newton’s well-established third law. Thus Einstein’s relativistic simultaneity of two events is a fallacious concept.

Einstein also believed that he solved the problem of Mercury’s Precession by using his wrong hypotheses of special relativity that energy is associated with mass. In fact, the observation that the orbit of Mercury slowly rotates around the sun at the perihelion is due to the Newtonian sun-tide. (See my UNIFIED FORCES SOLVE THE CRISIS OF PHYSICS ). Finally Einstein influenced by the wrong fields of Maxwell moving through a fallacious ether believed that there are also gravitational fields or gravitational waves able to carry the gravitational forces at the speed of light though the electric field was defined as a force per unit charge unable to curry the same force. Thus Einstein’s gravitational waves or gravitons of the wrong standard model will never be observed. Note that detailed experiments of the Quantum Entanglement confirmed accurately Newton’s fundamental action at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity. Since it invalidates Einstein’s ideas Einstein himself called it “Spooky action at a distance.” Finally since Einstein could not unify his fallacious fields in 1954 he expressed his frustration to his fiend Besso by writing:

“**I consider it quite possible that physics cannot be based on the field concept, i.e., on continuous structures.”**

Finally, since nature works in only one way in nature exists a fundamental relativity including both uniform linear motions due to forces of short time and gravitational accelerations.