**(REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS BY REVIVING **

**THE LAWS)**

By prof. L. Kaliambos T. E. Institute of Larissa Greece

This article was announced to many universities around the world (November 2012). Writing in Google scholar “Kaliambos"

one can see my paper “Impact of Maxwell’s …dipolic particles” (1993) which invalidates Maxwell’s fields and Special Relativity.

One can also find my paper of 2003 “ Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” which leads to the coherent nuclear structure , while the abandonment of laws led to many nuclear theories and models which cannot lead to any nuclear binding and structure.(See in "User Kaliambos " the above papers alog with my additional published paper " Spin-spin interactions of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures").

**THE REJECTION OF NEWTON’S PARTICLES OF LIGHT (1804) LED TO FALLACIOUS IDEAS OF ETHER, VACUUM, FIELDS, AND RELATIVITY, ALTHOUGH IN 1887 THE MICHELSON-MORLEY EXPERIMENT CONFIRMED THE NON EXISTENCE OF ETHER. THEN AFTER THE FRENCH-TESSMAN EXPERIMENT (1963) SHOWING THE FALLACY OF MAXWELL’S FIELDS, WE APPLIED THE NATURAL LAWS ON PHOTONS WHICH NOT ONLY UNIFY THE FORCES ACTING AT A DISTANCE BUT ALSO INVALIDATE BOTH SPECIAL AND GENERAL RELATIVITY. MOREOVER THE ORBITING ELECTRONS, THE RED SHIFT, AND THE BENDING OF LIGHT SHOWED THAT THESE THEORIES INVOLVE THE BIGGEST ERRORS IN THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS, LIKE THE RELATIVISTIC MASS AND THE MASS-ENERGY EQUIVALENCE, WHICH VIOLATE THE TWO CONSERVATION LAWS OF MASS AND ENERGY DEVELOPED BY ANAXIMANDER AND HERACLITUS. **

**THE CRISIS OF FIELDS AND VIRTUAL FORCE CARRIERS **

Historically Maxwell’s moving fields (1865) developed after the rejection of Newton’s particles of light (Young, 1804) in favor of Huygen’s theory (1690) of waves propagated through an ether, though Newton’s particles (1704) involved vibrations.

Especially Maxwell’s theory was based on the false concept of field introduced by Faraday (1831) who abandoned the fundamental forces of laws in favor of wrong fields. For example the laws of the electric force F_{e} (Coulomb, 1785) and the magnetic force F_{m} ( Ampere, 1820) were formulated after important experiments involving charges Q and q and currents (I and i) respectively which interact at a distance like the fundamental law of Newton’s gravity involving masses M and m. The forces F_{e} and F_{g} of Coulomb’s and Newton’s laws are given by simple relations as

F_{e} = KqQ/r^{2} and F_{g} = GmM/r^{2}

According to these laws the real forces F_{e} and F_{g} on q and m respectively are caused by the presence of Q or M at a distance r. Therefore in the absence of them such real forces cannot exist. Moreover for the simple solutions of the problems it was necessary to invent an electric force per unite charge (F_{e}/q) or the gravitational force per unite mass ( F_{g}/m), as a simple mathematical field, like the mass density, the energy density etc. Such a mathematical field due to Q, of course, is not real, but it is very useful, since it gives a real electric force when it is multiplied by q as

F_{e} = Eq = (KQ/r^{2})q = (F_{e}/q)q = F_{e}

However according to the field formulation of Faraday the charge Q was thought as producing an electric field

E = F_{e}/q = KQ/r^{2}

covering all space around the charge. In the same way Faraday introduced the magnetic field B around magnets and currents. Especially he went on to fill all space around magnets and coils with **strange stretched rubber bands called lines of force**, and believed that the space is basic to physical action by underestimating the laws of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere involving real fundamental forces acting at a distance, while the field of Faraday is an unreal mathematical quantity able to give the real electric force acting at a distance when we multiply it by q. In other words without the q nothing is in vacuum because the fundamental Coulomb law describes interactions between charges.

Such ideas led to the **wrong concept of fields** like the self propagating fields of Maxwell, Einstein’s field equations, the Higgs field, the Guth field for an isotropic inflation etc. and to the **wrong virtual** **force carriers**, because it was thought that the forces are mediated by Maxwell’s fields at the finite speed of light c, though the force per unite charge (F_{e}/q) or the force per unite mass (F_{g}/m) cannot mediate the same force. Of course such strange fields of Maxwell moving without the charges after the abandonment of natural laws with forces acting at a distance retarded the progress of physics.

Moreover Einstein in his general relativity (1916) introduced the **false gravitational waves** for mediating the gravitational forces because he believed that the electromagnetic force is mediated by Maxwell’s **fallacious self propagating fields**. Moreover later the Standard Model based on such fallacious ideas introduced the gravitons as force carriers of gravity, which have never been observed. For example in “Graviton-**WIKIPEDIA**”** **(Experimental observations) we read these words:* “ Although the experiments cannot detect individual gravitons, they might provide information about certain properties of the graviton”. *Also

*in “Unified field theory-*

**WIKIPEDIA**” we see that

*. In fact in nature there exist only the laws of gravity and the electromagnetism involving forces acting at a distance, while*

**all four of the known fundamental forces are mediated by fields****the strong and weak interactions are due to the electromagnetic forces**in the so- called dipole-dipole interactions of short range.

Besides, in “Electric field-**WIKIPEDIA**” one reads that the electric field also surrounds time-varying magnetic fields. In fact, we showed that according to the laws of the magnetic force **the changing magnetic field produces only a magnetic force**. For example in systems of capacitors and inductors the electric energy in the capacitor is due to the electric force under the changing electric field, while the magnetic energy in the inductor is due to a magnetic force under the changing magnetic field. Under this condition the electric energy (W_{e}) of the capacitor and the magnetic energy (W_{m}) of the inductor as given (per unit volume) lead to the E/B = c. Using the conservation law of energy one writes

W_{e}/vol = E^{2}ε_{ο}/2 = W_{m}/vol = B^{2}/2μ_{ο}

Or E^{2}/B^{2} = 1/ε_{ο}μ_{ο} = c^{2}. That is, E/B = c

Historically after the experiments of Weber (1856) who showed that K/k = c^{2}, where K =1/4πε_{ο}

and k = μ_{ο} /4π Maxwell in 1865 introducing fallacious postulations developed his wrong theory of fields propagated through the false immovable ether, (without the charge Q or the current I) though the fields of Faraday cannot exist without them. Maxwell recognized that the relation E/B = c is very important for light and tried to find proper relations for proving it by introducing the false postulations of the electric field (E ) in the Faraday emf (induction) and the displacement current (I_{d}) in the Ampere law. So in simple mathematics Maxwell used the following incorrect relations of wrong postulates as

emf = E(2πr) = (dB/dt) Α

and Β2πr = I_{d} μ_{ο} = (dQ/dt)μ_{ο} = dEε_{ο}Α/dt

Thus EdE/BdB = E^{2}/B^{2} =1 / ε_{ο}μ_{ο} = c^{2} or E/B = c

In fact, we showed that according to the law of the magnetic force a changing magnetic field produces an emf = (F_{m}/q) 2πr = (dB/dt)A. Whereas the I_{d} is a fallacious current, **since** **in 1963 the French-Tessman experiment showed that Maxwell’s displacement current I _{d}**

**involves misconceptions**.

Meanwhile, about the existence of the ether Maxwell wrote in these words: “* Whatever difficulty we may have in forming a consistent idea of the constitution of the ether, there can be no doubt that the interplanetary and interstellar spaces are not empty, but are occupied by a material substance or body which is certainly the largest and probably the more uniform body of which we have any knowledge*.”

Such an idea of **wrong** **field as a medium** connected with the strange properties of vacuum differs from a mathematical field defined as a force per unite charge. Thus it led not only to the wrong ideas of special relativity but also to those of general relativity with a **strange curvature of vacuum**. Einstein tried to justify it by saying that the gravitational field is more complex than the electromagnetic one, though the electric forces behave in the same way like the gravity.

It is of interest to notice that the Michelson-Morley experiment (1887) confirmed clearly the non existence of such a fallacious ether for the abandonment of Maxwell’s wrong assumptions and to revive Newton’s particles of light by introducing the electromagnetic mass recognized by Thomson in 1881. Such a useful idea could lead simply to the correct nature of photons after the development of the photon theory by Planck (1900), and Einstein (1905).

**REVOLUTION IN PHOTONS BY APPLYING THE LAWS OF COULOMB, BIOT-SAVART, AND NEWTON **

Under this obvious **CRISIS OF FIELDS** (1963), we presented in 1993 at the International conference “FRONTIERS OF FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS” our paper “Impact of Maxwell’s … dipolic particles” in which we developed the **model of dipolic particles** or **dipolic photons** according to which a spinning photon has a mass with opposite charges which produce electromagnetic forces at the speed of light c in terms of mathematical fields.

Since a photon behaves like a moving electric dipole, for simplicity we use the mathematical fields in the center of it when the velocity u is perpendicular to the dipole axis. The mathematical field E_{y} as a force per unite charge (along the dipole axis) produced by the two opposite charges +q and -q at a distance r from the center, is given by the Coulomb law as

E_{y} = 2Kq/r^{2}

Whereas the mathematical magnetic field B_{z} is given by applying the basic law of the Biot-Savart as

B_{z} = 2kqu/r^{2}. Therefore E_{y}/B_{z} = K/ku. Since K/k = c^{2} then for u = c we get E_{y}/B_{z} = c.

On the other hand the two opposite charges of the spinning photon interact with each other for producing the electromagnetic waves. Here we clear that when the dipole axis of the dipolic photon is perpendicular to c the attractive electric force between the charges is equal to the repulsive magnetic force, while in parallel direction to c the magnetic force disappears.

Surprisingly the dipolic photon not only explains the electromagnetic properties of photons involving electric and magnetic forces (or fields) produced by its charges but also the gravitational properties due to its mass m. Recall that the energy hν without mass cannot exist. For example in Newton’s second law the gravitational force F_{g} along the direction of the constant c is written as

F_{g} = dp/dt = dmc/dt

which explains the gravitational red shift. Under this condition the energy dW is written as

dW = F_{g}ds = (dp/dt) ds = (dmc/dt) ds = dmc^{2} = hν.

This simple formulation of the variable mass and energy of photon is similar to Einstein’s famous equation. However Einstein’s equation was incomplete, since his relativistic mass is due not to motions relative to a randomly moving observer but to the absorption of photons or of energies with non conservative forces.

**WRONG SPECIAL RELATIVITY IS REPLACED BY THE QUANTUM DYNAMICS OF THE PHOTON ABSORPTION **

Taking into account the French-Tessman experiment we analyzed carefully the basic errors of Maxwell’s fields showing that Einstein’s the basic assumption of his relativity (a moving magnet with respect to a conductor produces an electric field) is wrong. Under these difficulties we discovered that applications of laws on photon show that the increase of mass in the Kaufmann experiment (1902) is due to the quantum dynamics of the **Photon-Matter Transformation**

hν/m = ΔW/ΔM = c^{2}.

Therefore one concludes that Einstein’s relativistic mass in motion with respect to a randomly moving observer is the biggest error in the history of physics, because it violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass.

In this direction following Newton’s great work we applied the natural laws when a photon of variable mass with opposite charges interacts with an electron of charge (–e) as

E_{y}(-e)dy = dw and B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m}dt = dp

Since E_{y}/B_{z} = c and dp = dmc we get

dw/dm = c^{2} or hν/m = c^{2}

This equation means that the forces of laws are unified.

This formula is also surprising because it leads to the photon-matter transformation. In this case a particle of mass M absorbs the photon mass m and increases its mass after the application of Newton’s second law which gives an energy dW as

dW = (dp/dt) ds = [d(Mu)/dt]ds = (dMu + duM)u

because M and u are variable quantities due to the absorption of both energy and mass of photon. It means that the mass of the particle increases under the absorption of the photon mass by applying Newton’s law, while Einstein believed (incorrectly) that Newton’s law is a limited case of his special and general relativity.

Here we clear that the photon mass absorption under the quantum dynamics modifies the newtonian space and time because the photon works when E and B occur at the same time. But according to the electromagnetic laws the magnetic force appears after the electric force which produces the velocity of the electron dy/dt . In this case the simultaneity must occur when dy/dt approaches to zero. Therefore this problem of simultaneity is solved under a length contraction (dy) and a time dilation (dt).

The first experiment which showed the increase of mass was that of Kaufmann (1902). Surprisingly he found that an electron has a variable mass M at a velocity u with respect to its constant mass M_{o} given by

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} = c^{2 }/(c^{2} – u^{2}) or M/M_{o} = c/(c^{2}- u^{2})^{0.5} = γ

Indeed the differentiation of this relation gives

dMc^{2} = (dMu +duM)u = dW

which leads to our discovery of the Photon-Matter Transformation. Here we see that the constant mass M_{o }before the photon absorption became a variable mass M due to the photon absorption. So it invalidates the concepts of rest mass and relativistic mass.

Kaufmann soon tried to interpret his results by using the so-called electromagnetic mass recognized by Thomson (1881) and other physicists. Especially Kaufmann assumed that there is no “real mechanical mass” but only the “apparent electromagnetic mass” which increases with a velocity. Of course such a useful interpretation could be able for revealing the photon mass which leads to the Photon-Matter Transformation.

However it is indeed unfortunate that Einstein did not follow the useful ideas of the electromagnetic mass but the wrong idea of the Lorentz ether. So he developed a **wrong relativistic mass in motion relative to a moving observer**, which violates the conservation laws of mass and energy.

In other words the absorption of photon increases the mass and the kinetic energy of the electron, in accordance with the conservation laws of mass and energy. Besides, our discovery of the Photon-Matter Transformation, invalidates all wrong concepts of special relativity, like the relativistic mass, the rest mass, the rest energy, the mass-energy equivalence, the mass-energy conservation etc. For example using the falling body on the earth we see that according to Einstein it appears with a relativistic mass, since it is the mass of a moving object relative to a stationary observer on the earth.

In fact, all objects on the earth or in a train moving with a constant velocity (reference frame of the Galilean relativity principle) under the gravity (but in the absence of any absorption of photons) have always not a relativistic mass but a constant mass M_{o}. That is, in the Newtonian mechanics the conservation law of energy under the correct Galilean relativity is given by

M_{o}gH = M_{o} u^{2}/2

Of course it is always correct, when the system is conservative, because all natural laws are the same in all inertial frames. Whereas Einstein’s a stationary observer on the earth will measure incorrectly an increase of mass on the moving body according to the fallacious Lorentz transformation. On the other hand, since in the Kaufmann experiment the increase of the electron mass is due to the absorption of energy of non conservative forces (due to the absorbed photons via the photosynthesis) an observer moving with the same speed of the electron will measure incorrectly a constant mass. That is, Einstein’s concept that the rest mass is the mass of the rest object with respect to a randomly moving observer is a fallacious idea, which retarded the progress of physics.** **

**WRONG GENERAL RELATIVITY IS REPLACED BY THE GRAVITATIONAL INTERACTION OF THE PHOTON MASS**

After a careful analysis of the gravitational red shift and the bending of light we discovered that the photon mass is a variable quantity when the force is parallel to the velocity c. Whereas when the velocity c is perpendicular to the force the photon accelerates with a constant mass m_{o} like the particles of constant mass M_{o}. Of course this fact invalidates the second postulation of Einstein that the velocity of light is always constant.

When the velocity c of a photon is parallel to the gravity, we showed that the gravitational force F_{g} acts on the variable photon mass m at a distance and gives an energy dW = dmc^{2} by applying the second law of Newton. Here we see that the photon mass is a variable quantity because along the direction of the velocity c the force is unable to change the constant velocity c. Unfortunately the photon of Einstein was treated as a light pulse with a virtual mass equivalent to hν/c^{2} .Thus Einstein believed that a photon is a massless particle which led to the wrong Higgs boson which is assumed to give off mass to particles. In fact the universe started off with a primordial gravity on the mass of quark triads which were transformed into the masses of leptons, hadrons, and photons.

Surprisingly, when the velocity c of a photon is perpendicular to the gravity the photon mass behaves like the constant mass M_{o} of a particle. In this case following Galileo’s analysis on projectile motion, we applied Newton’s second law on photon in which the constant photon mass m_{o} cannot be affected by the force along the perpendicular direction to the velocity c, since in such a direction the force is able to produce an acceleration with a constant mass m_{o}. In this case the energy is given by

F_{g}ds = dW = (dp/dt)ds = (m_{o}du/dt)ds = m_{o}udu.

This is the bending of light which predicted by Newton. At the conclusion of his Opticks in 1704 Newton proposed the following query: * “Do not bodies act upon Light at a distance, and by their action bend its Rays, and is not this action strongest at the least distance?” *Note that such a prediction of the photon mass was confirmed by Soldner (1804) and Eddington (1919). Unfortunately under the influence of the fallacious Maxwell’s fields Einstein believed that the photon is a massless particle. So he could not accept a gravitational mass able to interact with the mass of stars.

In the absence of such a detailed knowledge Einstein also introduced his principle of equivalence involving inertial properties of mass which were recognized many years ago by Newton. So under these difficulties he proposed the strange idea that the bending of light is due to the curvature of vacuum.

Under Einstein’s ideas in “Photon-**WIKIPEDIA**” (Experimental checks of photon mass) one reads this question: If the photon is not a strictly massless particle, it would not move at the exact speed of light in vacuum.

In fact, as we showed the speed c of a photon is due to its electric and magnetic forces, since the photons behave like dipoles moving at the speed c of light. Consequently by applying the conservation law of mass the absorption of the photon variable mass cannot allow motions of particles to be equal to c.

Of course, here the fundamental forces acting at a distance of the well-established laws invalidate not only the special relativity (1905) but also the general relativity (1916) with the strange hypothesis of curvature of vacuum, which seems to be similar to Aristotle’s wrong ether moving in circles. Under this condition one can conclude that Einstein’s postulates cannot replace the fundamental laws.

However in “History of general relativity**-WIKIPEDIA**” it is written that the bending of light predicted by Einstein though in the same **WIKIPEDIA** we see that Johann Georg von Soldner calculated the amount of deflection of a light ray by a star in a paper published in 1804.

In the same **WIKIPEDIA**” we also see that in Einstein’s a published paper of 1908 for a free falling observer the rules of special relativity must apply. In fact, we showed that when the gravitational potential turns into a kinetic one the mass of a body remains always constant, since the force affects only the velocity according to the correct relation F = M_{o}α.

Note that Einstein for formulating his results of gravitational red shift did not use the Doppler effect of his wrong relativity because for gravitation (without any absorption of photons) it leads to complications. Therefore he used the non relativistic Doppler effect, that is, the effect of the Newtonian mechanics as

δν/ν = u/c = gH/c^{2} (because u = gt and t =H/c ).

In **WIKIPEDIA** we see that this effect cannot be explained by Newton’s law, though Einstein did not use his ideas of relativity but the Newtonian mechanics. On the other hand one reads in “Gravitational red shift- **WIKIPEDIA**” that the gravitational red shift was predicted by Michel (1783) and Laplace (1796) by using Newton’s particles of light.

In fact, the red shift is derived by using the gravitational forces of Newton on the real mass m of photon. For example when a photon moves along the level difference H like a falling body the energy is given by

ΔW = Δmc^{2 } or mgH = Δmc^{2}

Since Δm = hδν/c^{2} and m = hν/c^{2} we get

Δm/m = gH/c^{2} = δν/ν

Here one can see that this changing is similar to the opposite well-known gravitational red shift confirmed by the Pound – Rebka experiment (1959). Of course it is derived simply by the application of Newton’s second law and invalidates the idea that it is a result of Einstein’s special relativity.

Finally in **WIKIPEDIA** we see also that Einstein proposed the gravitational waves confirmed by experiment, while in the “Gravitational wave-**WIKIPEDIA**” we see that various gravitational detectors exist but they remain unsuccessful in detecting such phenomena.

**HOW WRONG IDEAS OF ETHER, VACUUM, AND FIELDS LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF FALSE RELATIVITY**

Although the Michelson-Morley experiment showed clearly the non existence of an immovable medium (the ether) Lorentz (1904) and Einstein1905) for interpreting the Kaufmann experiment (1902) did not accept the non existence of ether but under the influence of Maxwell’s self propagating fields tried to justify the null result by assuming that the length L of the interferometer of Michelson contracts along the motion of an ether or a vacuum with strange properties.

Though Einstein in his special relativity did not use the ether, here it is of interest to describe the **confusing ideas of Einstein **between the ether the vacuum and the fields. In his well-known paper “Concerning the eather” (1924) Einstein wrote: “** Instead of eather one could equally well speak of the physical quantities of space”**. Also in another paragraph he wrote: “

*”. Finally for the fields he wrote: “*

**Thus the eather of general relativity differs from those of classical mechanics and special relativity in that it is not absolute but determined in each locally variable characteristics, by ponderable matter***”.*

**But every theory of local action assumes continuous fields , and thus also the existence of an eather**It is well-known that Michelson and Morley in 1887 attempted to measure the difference in the speed of light c parallel and perpendicular to the earth’s velocity (u) through the ether as just the velocity of sound is modified by motion of the air as wind. So they used beams of light traveling along a parallel length L to u and along a perpendicular length L_{o}. According to the Galilean transformation based on relative motions the total time T required for the round trip along the L is

T = L/(c-u) + L/(c+u) = 2Lc/(c^{2}-u^{2})^{0.5}

Whereas along the L_{o} the total time T_{o} is

T_{o} = 2L_{o}/(c^{2}-u^{2})^{0.5}

Since L = L_{o} one gets

T/T_{o} = c/(c^{2}- u^{2})^{0.5} = γ

So they should get T/T_{o} > 1 but they found that T/T_{o} =1 which means that **the ether cannot exist**, since u = 0.

Unfortunately under the influence of Maxwell’s equations Lorentz in 1904 in order to interpret the Kaufmann experiment compared it with the experiment of Michelson, which, by chance, involves the same factor γ under the assumption that the length L of the interferometer contracts along the hypothetical velocity u of an assumed ether. After such a similarity Lorentz suggested that the values of mass and time intervals in the moving system through the ether are dilated by the similar factor γ.

In 1905 Einstein under the influence of Faraday’s wrong concept of field and of Maxwell’s false moving fields tried to replace the ether by strange properties of vacuum and used the same mathematics of Lorentz including the same factor γ. In his book “Evolution of physics” Einstein noticed that the vacuum has the properties for transmitting Maxwell’s fields. Therefore he replaced the immovable fallacious ether by a relative motion with respect to a randomly moving observer in a vacuum with strange properties.

Of course the applications of natural laws on photons which led to our discovery of the “**Quantum dynamics of photon-matter transformation**” invalidate the “**special relativity**” which violates not only all natural laws but also Galileo’s relativity principle.

Therefore the Michelson experiment (which confirmed the non existence of a fallacious ether or a vacuum as a medium for transmitting the wrong fields of Maxwell) could not be related with the increase of mass. In 1931 when Michelson met Einstein remarked that his experiment was responsible for giving birth to such a “monster” referring to relativity.

Unfortunately for a first time in the history of modern physics theoretical physicists did not accept detailed results of an important experiment which showed the non existence of ether. Under this condition reading the “history of special relativity** -WIKIPEDIA**” one cannot see whether the concept of ether is correct or wrong.

**EINSTEIN’S SIGNIFICANT ERRORS IN HIS RELATIVITY DID MUCH TO RETARD THE PROGRESS OF PHYSICS**

In our paper “Impact of Maxwell’s … dipolic particles” we showed that a new idea for the interpretations of experiments is correct when it leads to the applications of natural laws. Under this fundamental process** the concepts of rest mass and relativistic mass of special relativity are wrong**, because they lead to many complications. For example we showed that the photon has a constant mass m_{o} (not rest mass) when the gravitational force is perpendicular to the speed c, while it has a variable mass m (not relativistic mass) when the force is parallel to c. In the same way in gravity with conservative forces a particle has a constant mass M_{o } (not rest mass), since under conservative forces the mass remains constant according to the correct relation F = M_{o}α of Newton’s well-established laws. Unfortunately Einstein underestimated this fundamental law by introducing wrong ideas. So the **false** “**rest mass M _{o}”**

**with respect to an observer**is here replaced by the “

**constant mass M**”

_{o}**before the photon absorption.**Also the

**false “relativistic mass M” in motion with respect to an observer**is here replaced by the “

**variable mass M”**

**after the absorption of photons**, because the increase of mass is not a kinematic but a dynamical phenomenon.

A reverse process occurs, in the generation of hydrogen atom during the transformation of the potential energy into the kinetic one of 27.2 eV. In this case the mass M_{o} of the electron remains constant but under the Bohr quantum jump it drops to a velocity around the proton with a kinetic energy of 13.6 eV. Note that during the quantum jump we observe a difference in energies as

ΔΕ = 27.2 - 13.6 = 13.6 eV

which turns into the energy hν = 13.6 eV. It is of interest to note that Bohr (1913) recognized this quantum dynamics by postulating that in in a transition from one stationary state to another an energy ΔΕ is equak to the energy of light hν. That is, ΔΕ = hν . **However the Bohr model is not a complete theory, because it does not contain the mass defect ΔΜ** which turns into the mass m of photon according to** **our discovery of** Photon-Matter Transformation**

ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c^{2}

That is, in energies of non conservative forces when energy is removed from a system, mass is always removed along with energy. Here the energy ΔΕ is due to the fundamental charge-charge interaction which turns into the energy hν while the mass defect ΔΜ turns into the mass m of photon. In other words the electron decreases its mass, though it moves with a velocity around a rest proton in a laboratory with a stationary observer in it. So, all orbiting electrons in atoms invalidate dramatically the special relativity.

Unfortunately Einstein using his incomplete equation ΔE = ΔΜc^{2 }believed that the kinetic energy ΔE with respect to an observer adds an inertia in an amount ΔE/c^{2}. In other words he assumed that energy has mass. So he introduced false ideas of rest energy M_{o}c^{2 }and relativistic energy Mc^{2} given incorrectly by

ΔE = ΔΜc^{2} = (M – M_{o})c^{2} = Mc^{2} - M_{o}c^{2}

This equation of course includes the biggest errors in the history of physics which did much to retard the progress of physics, because Einstein underestimating the energies due to forces of natural laws suggested that even a mass of a motionless particle has energy called rest energy. Consequently **the concepts of rest energy or relativistic energy are false ideas** because **the energy is due not to masses but to Coulomb’s charge-charge interaction**. Therefore in the case of the hydrogen atom for the mass defect one writes incorrectly

ΔΜc^{2} =( M_{o }– M)c^{2} = hν or M_{o}c^{2} – Mc^{2 }= hν =13.6 eV

That is, Einstein believed that the energy of photon is due to the change in the rest energy of the system called **Mass-Energy Equivalence which is a false idea**. In fact, the energy of photons is due not to the mass defect but to the energy of the Coulomb law.

In the same way for the so-called annihilation of electron and positron Einstein’s incomplete equation is written as

2M_{o} c^{2} = 2hν

which means that the mass of the two particles is converted into the energy hν. **Such a false idea of course violates the two conservation laws of mass and energy developed by Anaximander and Heraclitus.** Unfortunately in “Annihilation –**WIKIPEDIA**” (Electron-positron annihilation) we see these wrong ideas written as: **Both particles have a rest energy of 0.51 MeV** **when the mass of the two particles are converted entirely into energy. This rest energy is what is given off**.

In fact according to our discovery of the Matter- Photon Transformation we may write correctly

ΔΕ/2M_{o} = 2hν/2m = c^{2 }in reaction (e + e^{+} = γ +γ)

According to this complete relation as in the case of Hydrogen the energy ΔΕ = 1.022 MeV of the fundamental charge-charge interaction of the two particles is transformed into the energy 2hν = 1.022 MeV οf 2γ. Similarly the mass 2M_{o} of the particles is transformed into the mass 2m of the two photons in accordance with the two conservation laws of mass and energy. In other words **all concepts of rest mass, rest energy, relativistic mass, and relativistic energy are fallacious ideas**.

Moreover these two examples tell us that **the mass cannot be converted into energy**, because the energy hν of photons is due (not to the rest mass or to the false rest energy of particles) but to the energy of charge-charge interaction. That is, Einstein’s **Mass-Energy Equivalence is invalid**. Note that the Dirac theory (1928) is based on the wrong relativistic energy E = Mc^{2} which was also derived by using simple mathematics as

E = ( M_{o}^{2}c^{4} + P^{2}c^{2 })^{0.5}

It is indeed unfortunate that in “**Mass-energy equivalence**-**WIKIPEDIA**” one can read confusing ideas about the rest mass or invariant mass, because it is believed that the energy of gamma ray is compared with the mass defect. Of course to avoid such confusions the above wrong article must be replaced by the “**Photon-Matter Transformation” **since in our paper (2002) we showed that in all cases of atomic and nuclear physics the energy of generated photons is just the same energy of the fundamental charge-charge interaction.

Under his incomplete equation Einstein also introduced another **wrong concept of Mass-Energy conservation**. Einstein himself pointed out: “**Pre-relativistic physics contains two conservation laws of fundamental importance, namely the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation of mass; these two appear there as completely independent of each other. Through relativity they melt together into one principle”.**

Such a false idea did much to retard the progress of nuclear binding because it is believed that the nuclear binding of deuterium is due to the change in the false rest mass energies between the isolated nucleons and the stable deuterium. Under these difficulties in 2002 we showed that the binding energy is due to the electromagnetic interaction of the charged 9 quarks in proton and 12 charged quarks in neutron. Moreover in “Dark energy-**WIKIPEDIA**” one can see the false idea of a dark energy due to Einstein’s **wrong mass-energy conservation**. It is believed that it accounts for 73% of the total **mass-energy **of universe. However writing in Google “False ideas in dark energy” one can understand the false ideas.

Unfortunately, writing in Google “Limitations of Newton’s second law in special relativity” one can see that in the first four articles of **WIKIPEDIA** there are (incorrectly) such limitations, because Einstein believed that in all cases of motions relative to a randomly moving observer the mass of a particle increases according to the wrong Lorentz ideas.

Another false idea of relativity which retarded the progress of physics is the idea that the peripheral velocity of spinning electrons, quarks, and neutrinos cannot overcome the speed of light. In our paper “Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures”(1908) we showed that the coupling of two electrons in orbitals is due to the peripheral velocities of spinning electrons which are greater than c , since the photons cannot affect the peripheral velocity. Especially this situation explains the coupling of opposite spinning electrons for making the covalent bonds in molecules, and the binding of spinning quarks, since the magnetic attraction of opposite spin is stronger than the electric repulsion.

It is indeed unfortunate that after the abandonment of electromagnetic laws due to the assumed uncharged neutron and neutrinos theoretical physicists following Einstein’s wrong ideas of mass-energy conservation and Maxwell’s wrong fields developed the fallacious strong and weak interactions mediated by wrong force carriers.