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This is a part of my book COSMOGONY IN HOMER'S METER involving stories and poems of  55 pages which can be found  in the Library of Larissa (Greece). In my book I describe in Greek a brief history from the Greek mythology and philosophy to the crisis of modern nuclear physics and cosmology, because I proved that according to natural laws energy cannot turn into mass. So our early universe could start  with neutal quark triads under a primordial gravity.


HOMER’S METER IN ENGLISH BY L.KALIAMBOS
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GREEK MYTHOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY IN HOMER’S METER LIKE THE FIRST LINES OF ILIAD AND ODYSSEY 


By Prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ( Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός  T. E. Institute of Larissa –Greece . Kaliamboslef@Yahoo.gr

This scientific article with poems in Homer’s meter was presented at the 22nd World congress of poets 29 June – 3 July 2011 in Larissa - Greece and the UNITED POETS LAUREATE INTERNATIONAL awarded me "FOR EXCELLENCE IN POETRY" a "Certificate of Merit".

It is well-known that Homer is the poet of the two earliest and greatest European epics , the Iliad and the Odyssey. He was traditionally said to be blind, and perhaps he was born in Greek island Chios during the 8th century B.C. Many critics of the three last centuries believed that the poems were not composed by a single poet. However these theories have been generally abandoned in the light of new evidence. It has been shown, for instance, that even in our own day very long poems or songs like the traditional songs of the Greek island Crete have been orally composed by poets or singers unable to read or write.  In view of the careful construction of the Iliad and the Odyssey it seems probable that Homer actually composed his poems in writing while using oral techniques. On the other hand inconsistencies and anachronisms in the poems could be explained by the fact that Homer used customs for gods etc. of an age extending 4 centuries before the earliest possible date of his life. Note that the Trojan war took place at 1184 B.C. Thus, many critics believed that in those early days people did not worship the Olympian gods. However after the excavations of Mycenae and the decipherment of the linear B script by Ventris in 1953 it was shown that the history of Greek language with Olympian gods was extended by several centuries before the days of Homer.  The principal question remaining today is whether Homer composed both poems of Iliad and Odyssey. It is of interest to note that the similarities between the two compositions outweigh the differences. It has often been said that Homer’s emphasis on the Olympian gods created classical Greek religion. His heroes or gods were worshiped throughout Greece, and his poetry formed the basis of Greek literature and education. Homer’s meter or dactylic hexameter is a form of meter in poetry or a rhythmic scheme. It is traditionally associated with the quantitative meter of epic poetry in both Greek and Latin and was considered to be the Grand Style of classical poetry. The meter consists of lines made of six feet. Each foot is a unit of rhythm in which there are usually three syllables except for the last foot which has two syllables, as shown in the first line of Iliad.

( Μήνιν ά ) (ειδε θε ) ( ά, Πη ) ( ληιά) δεω Αχι ) ( λήος )

“ Sing goddess the wrath, of Peleus’ son Achilles”

Here we see that each foot has a long syllable ( L ) followed by two short syllables ( U U ) except the last foot called trochee which always contains two syllables. However in many cases this classical meter allows for the third foot called spondee to have only two long syllables ( L L ). Since the line is great, a break or comma is needed in the third foot. When the comma is after the first stressed syllable it expresses a war and it is called masculine caesura. Under this condition this quantitative meter looks as follows: 

( L U U ) ( L U U ) ( L , L ) ( L U U ) ( L U U ) ( L U )

Note that there is a great difficulty for us to construct this quantitative meter in modern Greek and English because both languages have stressed and unstressed syllables. On the other hand the first line of Odyssey expresses a peace, since the break follows an unstressed syllable. It is called feminine caesura as shown in the original first line:

( Άνδρα μοι ) (ένεπε) ( μούσα, πο) ( λύτροπον) ( Ός μάλα) ( πολλά )

On this basis we can construct an analogous rhythm by using only stressed ( S ) and unstressed ( u ) syllables in a so- called Stress meter, which looks as follows :

( S u u ) ( S u u ) ( S u u ) ( S u u ) ( S u u ) ( S u ) 

In this stress meter if we use a break after the second syllable of the third foot we express a peace with feminine caesura. Note that I constructed many poems in Greek and in English in this peaceful rhythm . For example you can see the following line taken from my philosophical poem about the Apeiron of the Greek philosopher Anaximander:

Amorphous matter of Chaos, immortal was in the darkness 

On the other hand if we wand to express a war  we must modify this feminine caesura in order to construct a masculine one. An example of such a war rhythm you can see in one line of my poems of cosmogony:

During the horror-war,  of Titans into the smokes

That is, the difficult rhythm of classical quantitative meter can be written in modern Greek or in English by using the stress meter like the first line of Iliad ( masculine caesura ) or like the first line of Odyssey ( feminine caesura )    



COSMOGONY IN HOMER’S METER ( It expresses a war like the first line of Iliad ) 

Chaos in primitive dark, created Gaea in Cosmos. 


Over blue seas and lands, big Titans formed by Gaea


ruled all mysterious gods, and monsters at crags of Olympus.


During the horror-war, of Titans into the smokes 


huge Hecatonchires shot, big rocks from Olympus to Othrys


damaging castles and forts, in flashes filled up with thunders.

Free Cyclopes then rushed, from Tartarus into the darkness 


brought out thunder and flash, for helping the gods in the flames


burning all creatures of earth, in glory of dominant Zeus. 


Fierce then Giants come, from gales of frightened skies


trying to overturn gods, but strong flash has punished them harshly. 


Now at Delphi of Greeks, Olympians bright eternal.



GREEK MYTHOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY  ( In Homer’s meter like the first line of Odyssey)


The 3 dominant Olympian Gods of Homer

Glorious feats in the struggles, promoted gods to the skies. 


Zeus became the ruler, of gods on the rocks of Olympus 


lord of the heavens and clouds, to scare all mortals with thunders.


Pluto then governed the darkness, of Hades into grim prisons


bringing the souls of mortals from colorful life to black hell


under the depths of waters, and storms in Poseidon’s anger.


Neptune in arms like steel wool, was shaking trident great 


over winds and waves, for bringing the storms in disaster. 


The deluge of Deucalion

During a primitive epoch, a king sacrificed the people 


offering blood to the heavens, in flames of flesh into smokes


giving an odor to Zeus, whose anger filled clouds with rain.


Rushing waters in torrents, became tumultuous rivers


filling up plains and foothills, and rainfalls turned to a deluge.


All the Pelasgians died, but only Deucalion lived on. 


Sooner Prometheus told him, for building an ark to survive 


only with his wife, in durable boat in rains 


crossing a lot of waters, that covered all mountains round.


After torrential rains, poured down for several days 


cheerful the fortunate couple, walked on the summit of Othrys. 


Repopulation of Greeks

Calm then Deucalion dug up, an oracle secret of Themis


how to repopulate, the land with new human race.


So they threw back the stones, that turned into Greeks of a glory


like the heroes of Hellas, in army of great Achilles 


formed by Myrmidons' crowd, in Trojan war for achievements


whose the big gallantry lived on, in Homer's the primitive poems.



The Apeiron of Anaximander

Amorphous matter of Chaos, immortal was in the darkness 


covering depths of the skies, as Apeiron over the heavens


giving the face of Cosmos, beyond of the primitive ethers. 


Apeiron gave the sparkle, for making opposite games


Cold and hot in the darkness, created stars of the nights


Light of sun in the seas, created clouds of rain


Genesis formed all the pleasures, of colorful life in creatures


however death of a smile, brought storms and decay forever. 


Several laws of seas, do not stop winds and waves.


INTERPETATION IN GREEK LANGUAGE 



ΚΟΣΜΟΓΟΝΙΑ

( Σε πολεμικό ρυθμό όπως ο πρώτος στίχος της Ιλιάδας )


Χάος στις φλόγες πυρός, γεννούσε τη Γαία του κόσμου.

Κι άμα η Γαία με μιας, σχημάτισε όψεις Τιτάνων 


φάνηκαν τέρατα μπρος, και πυρ των θεών του Ολύμπου.


Σ’ άγριες μάχες θεών, φριχτές στων καπνών τα σημάδια 


Τρεις Εκατόγχειρες μπρος, στην Όθρη τους βράχους σκορπούσαν 


κι έκαψαν κάστρα λαμπρά, στο πυρ αστραπών του Ολύμπου 

Ύστερα Κύκλωπες τρεις, σκληροί απ' τα τάρταρα βγήκαν


μέσα σ' αντάρες βροντής, με φλόγες θεών οργισμένων


κι έβαλαν πυρ αστραπών, στη δόξα του άρχοντα Δία.


Όμως γιγάντων καπνοί, πυκνοί από θύελλες βρόντων


ήρθαν να κάψουν θεούς, μα νίκες του Δία αντηχούσαν.


Τώρα το φως των Δελφών, αιώνιοι θεοί το σκορπίζουν.


Η ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΜΥΘΟΛΟΓΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΙΑ ( Σε ειρηνικό ρυθμό όπως ο πρώτος στίχος της Οδύσσειας) 


Οι τρεις κυρίαρχοι θεοί του Ομήρου


Μ' ένδοξους άθλους αγώνων, θεοί στα ουράνια υμνούνταν.


Πρώτος ο Ζευς κυβερνούσε, στα ύψη γκρεμών του Ολύμπου 


όταν σ' ουράνια νέφη, με βρόντους θνητούς απειλούσε.


Μέγας κι ο Πλούτων κατείχε, το άφθονο σκότος του Άδη 


όπου ψυχές των Ελλήνων, φυλάκιζε μ' άγρυπνο μίσος


πέρα απ' τα βάθη υδάτων, φριχτών στην οργή Ποσειδώνος


που 'χε την τρίαινα τρόμου, σε χέρια σκληρά ατσαλένια


σ’ άγρια κύματα ανέμων, που φέρνουν φουρτούνες ολέθρου.


Ο κατακλυσμός του Δευκαλίωνα

Όταν αρχέγονος άρχων, θυσίαζε νέους στις φλόγες


βρώμιες οσμές από σάρκες, εξόργισαν σφόδρα το Δία 


κι έσμιξε νέφη μ' ανέμους, στο μένος σφοδρών καταιγίδων.


Χείμαρροι μ' όγκους υδάτων, ξεχείλισαν σ' άσωτους κάμπους


κι έγιναν θάλασσα χάους, που σκέπασε ράχες ορέων. 

Όμως ο γιός Δευκαλίων, του πιο ξακουστού Προμηθέα


έφτιαξε πλοίο γενναίο, σ' ορμές ανεμόβροχων σκότους


κι έσωσε τότε την Πύρα, την πιο λατρευτή του γυναίκα


σχίζοντας ύδατα βάθους, που σκέπαζαν όρη στα ύψη.


Κι όταν βροχές στους ανέμους, σταμάτησαν πια να το σέρνουν


βγήκε το ζεύγος στην Όθρη, στην άγια Γη των Ελλήνων. 


Η αναγέννηση των Ελλήνων


Τότε ο νιος Δευκαλίων, χρησμό απ' τη Θέμιδα αρπάζει

πώς απ' αρχέγονους λίθους, το γένος Ελλήνων να λάμψει. 


Κι όπως το ζεύγος σκορπούσε, τους λίθους στους έρημους τόπους 


έλαμψε πλήθος ηρώων, λαμπρών Αχαιών δοξασμένων


σ' όλη τη Γη Μυρμιδόνων, του άτρωτου πια Αχιλλέα 


όπως στην Τροία την τόλμη, ο Όμηρος πάντα υμνούσε.


Το Άπειρον του Αναξίμανδρου

Άμορφη μάζα του χάους, αθάνατη υπήρξε στο σκότος


σ’ άσωτα βάθη ουράνια, με βρόντους γαλάζιων ανέμων 


κι έκαμε όψεις συμπάντων, στα βάθη αρχέγονων άστρων.


Τ' άπειρον έδωσε σπίθα, να λάμψουν αχτίδες των ήλιων


Ψύχος στο άπειρο σκότος, φανέρωσε τ' άστρα της νύχτας


κι άστατος ήλιος σ’ ανέμους, τα σύννεφα έσπειρε σφόδρα.


Γέννες φανέρωσαν όψεις, χαρούμενες μέσ' στις ανταύγειες


κι όμως ο θάνατος γέλιου, τρανή τρικυμία ζητούσε


Βάναυσοι νόμοι πελάγων, ανέμους και κύματα σπέρνουν.