By Lefteris Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) Τ.Ε. Institute of Larissa Greece. ( May 2014)

Ironically, in 1887 the first facts leading to the photoelectric effect, and through that eventually to the recognition that Maxwell’s theory of fields moving through a fallacious ether (1865) had to be fundamentally revised, were by- products of the very same research that seemed at the time to furnish the proof for Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory-namely, Hertz’s experiments on the propagation of Maxwell’s waves.

In fact, after the confirmation of Soldner (1801) that Newton’s particles of light with mass have gravitational properties, the experiment of the two American physicists Michelson and Morley (1887) who rejected the Maxwellian ether in favor of Newton’s corpuscles, the experiment of Kaufmann (1902) who showed that the increase of the electron mass is due to an “electromagnetic mass” recognized by J. J. Thomson (1881), the experiment of Nichols and Hull (1903) that the particles of light have momentum, the Compton effect (1923) according to which light consists of particles having momentum p = hν/c or mass m =hν/c^{2}, the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement (1935), confirming accurately Newton’s action at a distance, and the experiment of the two American physicists French and Tessman (1963) who showed the fallacy of Maxwell’s fields, I presented in 1993 at the international conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics “ my paper ‘Impact of Maxwell’s equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles ”. In that paper taking into account the Faraday effect (1845) according to which Newton’s corpuscles have not only gravitational properties but also electromagnetic ones, I showed that photons of Lewis (1926) have not only mass but also opposite charges +q and –q like a moving dipole which at the speed of light c gives equal electric attractions F_{e }and magnetic repulsions F_{m} at the same time. For simplicity when the axis r of the dipole is perpendicular to the velocity u after the applications of the Coulomb and Ampere laws one gets

F_{e }= Kq^{2}/r^{2} and F_{m} = kq^{2}u^{2}/r^{2}

Since Weber in 1856 showed experimentally that K/k = c^{2} we get F_{e }= F_{m} when the dipole moves at a velocity u = c.

This situation led to my discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION according to which the opposite charges of the dipole photon in the photoelectric effect interact with the charge (-e ) of an electron in terms of electric and magnetic fields as

E_{y}(-e)dy = dW

and B_{z}(-e) (dy/dt) = F_{m} or Bz(-e)dy =F_{m}dt = dp = dmc

Since E_{y}/B_{z} = c we get dW/dm = c^{2}

Of course this result of quantum dynamics differs from the Newtonian mechanics because the increase of the electron mass occurs under a basic length contraction and time dilation. According to the well-established electromagnetic laws I discovered that a dipole photon behaves like an electric dipole moving at u = c with respect to its source of light having equal electric attraction and magnetic repulsion at the same time. However during the interaction of the photon charges with the charge (-e) of the electron the magnetic force F_{m} occurs after the electric force F_{e} = E_{y}(-e) because of the velocity dy/dt. To avoid this well-known situation which violates Newton’s third law of instantaneous simultaneity the velocity dy/dt always must approach to zero under a length contraction dy and time dilation dt. Under this condition of length contraction and time dilation and using the two conservation laws of energy and mass we write

hν /m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

Indeed, in the Bohr model (1913) and in the Schrodinger equation (1926) the energy ΔΕ of the charge-charge interaction turns into the energy hν of the generated photon ,while the mass defect ΔΜ turns into the mass m = hν/c^{2} of photon (matter-photon transformation). This is the reverse process of the Photon-Matter Transformation. (See my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN ).

So, when in 1993 I presented my DISCOVERY OF DIPOLE NATURE OF PHOTON according to which LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS INVALIDATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY , I discovered also the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION , according to which the absorption of both the photon energy hν and photon mass m = hν/c^{2} in the photoelectric effect contribute to the increase not only to the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ in accordance with the following fundamental equation of my New FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS CONCEPTS :

hν/m =ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

which rejects Einstein’s explanation of the photoelectric effect and his confusing equation

ΔΕ /ΔΜ = c^{2 }

Today it is well-known that the binding energy of both atomic and nuclear physics is characterized by the so-called mass defect . However Einstein under his fallacious massless quanta of fields believed incorrectly that the mass defect in nuclear binding turns into the energy of generated photons. So in “Nuclear binding-WIKIPEDIA” one reads this incorrect paragraph of the mass defect as: “This missing mass is known as the mass defect, and represents the energy released when the nucleus is formed.

Under this physics crisis in my paper of 2003 I showed the DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE according to which the nuclear binding is due to the electromagnetic interaction of 9 charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron existing among 288 quarks in nucleons. Therefore the energy of charge-charge interaction in Deuteron turns into the energy hν of the generated photon, while the mass defect ΔΜ turns into the photon mass m = hν/c^{2}. In the same way the ionization of the Hydrogen occurs in accordance with the discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION.

Thus, according to the experiment of Kaufmann in the photoelectric effect the absorption of dipole photon contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy but also to the increase of the electron mass. Therefore under the absorption of dipolar photons at a velocity u the experiment of Kaufmann showed that Newton’s inertial mass M_{o} of the electron becomes a variable mass M as

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} = c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})

Indeed differentiating the above equation under Newton’s second law one gets

hν/m = ΔE/ΔM = c^{2}

This situation tells us that the photoelectric effect is based on the two conservation laws of energy and mass, because the dipole photons have both energy hν and mass m , while Einstein under his massless quanta of fields developed his invalid relativity, according to which the increase of the electron mass is due not to the absorption of the photon mass m = hν/c^{2} but to the false relative motion of the electron with respect to a randomly moving observer. Such fallacious ideas did much to retard the progress of atomic and nuclear physics, because Einstein believed incorrectly that the mass defect in atomic and nuclear structures turns into the energy of photons.

**EINSTEIN’S INCORRECT EXPLANATION OF THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT LED TO HIS INVALID RELATIVITY**

Unfortunately today physicists believe that a complete resolution of this problem came in the first paper of Einstein (1905) entitled simply “ On a heuristic point of view concerning the generation and transformation of light.” Although the photoelectric effect along with the experiments of Michelson and Morley confirm Newton’s particles of light, Einstein influenced by Maxwell’s wrong fields moving through a fallacious ether in his explanation of the photoelectric effect begins by paying tribute to Maxwell’s theory; it “has proved itself excellently suited for the description of purely optical phenomena [reflection, refraction, interference, polarization, etc.] and will probably never be replaced by another theory.”

In fact, Newton concluded correctly that light might have to be somehow assigned also periodic properties in order to account for the phenomena of colors. Moreover Newton concluded that the polarization could be explained only by assuming that the ray of light has “sides” so that its properties depend on its orientation with respect to the axis (direction of propagation ) of the ray. This could be easy enough to understand if the ray is a stream of rectangular particles, (which led to my model of dipolic photons), but rather more difficult if light is a wave disturbance in a medium. Of course Newton’s useful ideas compared with the Faraday effect (1845) led to my DISCOVERY OF PHOTON MASS under my discovery of dipole photon which rejects Einstein’s massless quanta of fields.

Einstein under the strong influence of wrong Maxwell’s fields and following the Planck work (1900) according to which the energy E of light is equal to hν, proposed that the energy (E = hν) of light during the interaction with electrons is not distributed evenly over the whole wave front, but rather is concentrated in discrete small regions like the wave of water giving the cork energy only at certain spots along the wave front. Although this picture leads to Newton's particles of light, Einstein under the fallacious Maxwellian fields tried to explain Maxwell's fields in terms of particles. Roughly speaking according to Einstein’s massless quanta of fields, Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory remained completely dominant and led to the invalid relativity which violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass. Also Einstein in his invalid general relativity tried to intrperet the bending of light ( predicted by Newton) by using not the mass of photons but the fallacious idea of a strange curvature of vacuum.