By Lefteris Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) Τ.Ε. Institute of Larissa Greece. ( May 2014)

The Compton effect (1923) showed that a photon has not only momentum p = hf/c but also mass

m = p/c = hf/c^{2}

which led to my discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION . However Compton himself under the influence of Einstein’s INVALID RELATIVITY believed that the scattering of x-rays is a consequence of only the energy and momentum. So he did not mention the conservation law of mass according to which the mass of the photon turns into the mass of electron. For example under the fallacious massless quantum of fields (proposed by Einstein in 1905 for the explanation of photoelectric effect), Compton believed that when x-rays are incident on a thin foil of metal only some of the energy of the x-ray can be given to an electron and cause it to be rejected from the metal with a kinetic energy KE. It can happen that not all the energy is transformed to the electron and as a result, the x-ray proceeds with less than its original energy (and therefore has a lower frequency f ). But under the two conservation laws of energy and mass which led to my discovery of the PHOTON MATTER INTERACTION the lower frequency f of the photon means that the photon has not only less energy but also less mass, because the mass defect Δm of photon contributes to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ in accordance with the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTIOM given by

Δhf/Δm = KE/ΔΜ = c^{2}

It is indeed unfortunate that Compton under the influence of Einstein’s wrong relativity believed incorrectly that the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ is due not to the mass defect Δm of photon but to the relative motion of the electron with respect to a randomly moving observer. Such fallacious ideas not only violate the two conservation laws of energy and mass but also did much to retard the progress of physics with confusing results. Although the photoelectric effect is similar to the Compton scattering, one sees that Einstein’s explanation differs fundamentally from the CORRECT EXPLANATION OF PHOTOELECRIC EFFECT . Ironically Compton explained the x-ray scattering not in the same way of the explanation of the photoelectric effect introduced by Einstein. Instead, he explained it by adding the fallacious relativistic mass of the electron, because (like Einstein) he believed incorrectly that photons are massless particles. In other words, in both cases of the Photoelectric Effect and the Compton Scattering one observes errors due to the false idea that photon is a massless particle. Unfortunately today physicists continue to believe that light consists not of Newton’s rectangular particles of light which led to my dipole photons but to Einstein's fallacious massless quanta of fields. Under this physics crisis in the “Compton scattering -WIKIPEDIA” one reads the following confusing paragraph:

“Compton allowed for the possibility that the interaction would sometimes accelerate the electron to speeds sufficiently close to the velocity of light and would require the application of** Einstein's special relativity theory** to properly describe its energy and momentum. At the conclusion of Compton's 1923 paper, he reported results of experiments confirming the predictions of his scattering formula thus supporting the assumption that photons carry directed momentum as well as quantized energy. At the start of his derivation, he had postulated an expression for the momentum of a photon from equating **Einstein's already established mass-energy relationship** of E = mc^{2} to the quantized photon energies of hf which Einstein has separately postulated. If mc^{2 } = hf, the equivalent photon mass must be hf/c^{2} . The photon's momentum is then simply this effective mass times the photon's frame-invariant velocity c”.

In fact, after the confirmation of Soldner (1801) that Newton’s particles of light with mass have gravitational properties, the experiment of Faraday (1845) who showed that light has electromagnetic properties, the experiment of the two American physicists Michelson and Morley (1887) who rejected the Maxwellian ether in favor of Newton’s corpuscles, the work of Planck (1900) who sowed that the energy E of a photon is E = hf, the experiment of Kaufmann (1902) who showed that the increase of the electron mass is due to an “electromagnetic mass” recognized by J. J. Thomson (1881), the experiment of Nichols and Hull (1903) that the particles of light have momentum, the Compton effect (1923) according to which light consists of particles having momentum p = hf/c or mass m = hf/c^{2} , the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement (1935), confirming accurately Newton’s action at a distance, and the experiment of the two American physicists French and Tessman (1963) who showed the fallacy of Maxwell’s fields, I presented in 1993 at the international conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics “ my paper ‘Impact of Maxwell’s equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles ”. In that paper I took into account the Faraday effect (1845) according to which Newton’s corpuscles have not only gravitational properties but also electromagnetic ones. In other words photons of Lewis (1926) have not only mass but also opposite charges +q and –q like a moving dipole which at the speed of light c gives equal electric attractions F_{e } and magnetic repulsions F_{m}

In my discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION the opposite charges of the dipole photon in the photoelectric effect interact with the charge (-e ) of an electron as

E_{y}(-e)dy = dW

and B_{z}(-e) (dy/dt) = F_{m} or B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m}dt = dp = dmc

Since E_{y}/B_{z }= c we get dW/dm = c^{2}

Of course this situation of quantum dynamics differs from the Newtonian mechanics because the increase of the electron mass occurs under a basic length contraction and time dilation. According to the well-established electromagnetic laws I discovered that a dipole photon behaves like an electric dipole moving at u = c with respect to its source of light having equal electric attraction and magnetic repulsion at the same time. However during the interaction of the photon charges with the charge (-e) of the electron the magnetic force F_{m} occurs after the eletric force F_{e } = E_{y}(-e) because of the velocity dy/dt. To avoid this situation which violates Newton’s third law of instantaneous simultaneity the velocity dy/dt always must approach to zero under the contraction of dy and the dilation dt. Under this condition of length contraction and time dilation and using the two conservation laws of energy and mass we write

Δhf /Δm = KΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

Indeed, in the Bohr model (1913) and in the Schrodinger equation (1926) the energy ΔΕ of the charge-charge interaction turns into the energy hf of the generated photon ,while the mass defect ΔΜ turns into the mass m = hf/c^{2 }of photon (matter-photon transformation). This is the reverse process of the Photon-Matter Transformation. (See my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN)

So in 1993 I presented my DISCOVERY OF DIPOLE PHOTON according to which LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS INVALIDATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY . Under this physics crisis I discovered also the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION , according to which the absorption of both the photon energy hf and mass m = hf/c^{2} in both the photoelectric effect and in the Compton scattering contribute to the increase not only to the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ in accordance with the following fundamental equation of my New FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS CONCEPTS :

Δhf/Δm = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

which rejects Einstein’s explanation of the photoelectric effect and his incomplete equation

ΔΕ /ΔΜ = c^{2}

(See my E = mc2 IS CONFUSING ) .

Under this physics crisis in 1993 I showed that the correct Compton Effect is due not only to the conservation law of energy but also to the conservation law of mass, because the photon has mass which contributes to the increase of the electron mass in accordace with my discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION. Working on this basis in my paper of 2003 I showed also the DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE according to which the nuclear binding is due to the electromagnetic interaction of 9 charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron existing among 288 quarks in nucleons. Therefore the energy of charge-charge interaction in Deuteron turns into the energy hf of the generated photon, whileut the mass defect ΔΜ turns into the photon mass m = hf/c^{2 }. In the same way the ionization of the Hydrogen occurs in accordance with the discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION.

Therefore according to the experiments of Kaufmann in both the photoelectric effect and the Compton scattering the absorption of dipole photon contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy but also to the increase of the electron mass. Thus under the absorption of dipolar photons at a velocity u Newton’s inertial mass Mo of the electron becomes a variable mass M as

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} = c^{2}/(c^{2}-u^{2})

Indeed differentiating the above equation under Newton’s second law one gets

Δhf/Δm = KE/ΔM = c^{2}

Leaving out the photon mass Δm and the kinetic energy KE of the electron we may write

Δhf = ΔMc^{2 } = c^{2}(M-M_{o})

This is the simple relation of the Δhf with the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ = (Μ-Μ_{ο}), where M is the variable mass after the photon absorption and M_{o} is the constant inertial mass of the electron before the photon absorption. Note that in Einstein’s invalid relativity M_{o} is the fallacious rest mass of a stationary electron with respect to a hypothetical moving observer, while M is the false relativistic mass with respect to the same hypothetical observer.

Then, since the experiment of Kaufmann showed that M = cM_{o} /(c^{2}-u^{2})^{0.5} we may write

Δhf = c^{2} [cM_{o}/c^{2}-u^{2})^{0.5 }– M_{o}] = M_{o}c^{2}[c/c^{2}-u^{2})^{0.5} – 1] .

Note that Compton using the fallacious rest mass M_{o} of Einstein formulated the same equation as

Δhf = M_{o}c^{2}[ 1/(1-u^{2}/c^{2})^{0.5} -1] .

This situation tells us that both the photoelectric effect and the Compton scattering are based on the two conservation laws of energy and mass because the dipole photons have both energy hf and mass m = hf/c^{2} , while Einstein under his massless quanta of fields developed his invalid relativity, according to which the increase of the electron mass is due not to the absorption of the photon mass m = hf/c^{2} but to the relative motion of the electron with respect to a randomly moving observer. Such fallacious ideas did much to retard the progress of atomic and nuclear physics, because Einstein believed incorrectly that the mass defect in atomic and nuclear structures turns into the energy of photons.