By Prof.Lefteris Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) T.E. Institute of Larissa Greece (May 2014 )

**WRONG IDEAS OF DESCARTES LED TO FALSE MAXWELL’S FIELDS AND TO EINSTEIN’S INVALID RELATIVITY **

Descartes begins his* Optics* (1637) by asserting that light is associated with motion in a medium called ether. Thus Descartes definitely rejects the possibility that “something material passes from the objects to our eyes to make us see colors and light.” Although Newton in his *Opticks *( 1704) predicted that his corpuscles of light provide gravitational properties confirmed by soldner in 1801, Maxwell influenced by the Descartes fallacious ideas developed his electromagnetic theory (1865) involving the false fields moving through the fallacious ether rejected by Michelson in 1887. Of course this famous experiment of Michelson confirms Galileo’s principle of relativity (1632) deduced from Newton’s laws (1687). According to the principle of relativity in the Faraday induction (1832) one observes that the EMF is always consistent with the magnetic force of the Ampere law (1820) no matter what is moving. Nevertheless Maxwell in his electromagnetic theory complicated more the problem by asserting that the motion of the magnet with respect to a coil produces not magnetic forces but electric ones. Such a fallacious idea was used by Einstein for the formulation of his special relativity (1905). In other words Einstein influenced by his fallacious quanta of fields based on Maxwell’s theory introduced his invalid relativity by violating the relativity of laws .

Descartes also in his published work *Principles of philosophy* (1644) for avoiding the fundamental concept of *action at a distance* (confirmed by the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement) postulated that space is filled with pieces of matter of the Aristotelian ether that can interact only when they touch. Such fallacious ideas led to Einstein’s WRONG GRAVITATIONAL WAVES of his INVALID GENERAL RELATIVITY (1915) and to the wrong force carriers like virtual massless photons, massless gluons and gravitons. ( See my WRONG STANDARD MODEL in my FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS CONCEPTS ). On the other hand for Descartes, all motion is relative: one piece of matter can be said to be moving with respect to other pieces of matter in its vicinity under the false idea that the systems are equivalent. So this makes possible to assert that the earth is “at rest” without abandoning the Copernican system!

Unfortunately Einstein in the development of his invalid general relativity asserted incorrectly that in relative motions all systems are equivalent. Thus in chapter General Relativity of his book “The Evolution of Physics” (1938) wrote: “Take two bodies, the sun and the earth, for instance. The motion we observe is again relative. It can be described by connecting the c.s. with either the earth or the sun. From this point of view, Copernicus' great achievement lies in transferring the c.s. from the earth to the sun. But as motion is relative and any frame of reference can be used, there seems to be no reason for favoring one c.s. rather than the other”.

In fact, in my Relativity of Laws I showed that according to the well-established third law of Newton in the system Sun-Earth the Earth always is moving with respect to the sun. According to Newton’s third law the force F_{2} of attraction of the sun on the earth with mass m is equal in magnitude to the attraction F_{1 }of the earth to the sun with mass M. In this case since Μ >> m the earth always moves around the sun with an acceleration α_{2} while the acceleration α_{1} of the sun always approaches to zero. That is

F_{1} = Mα_{1} = F_{2} = mα_{2} . Since M >> m one gets α_{1 }<< α_{2}

However under the strong influence of Einstein’s invalid relativity today physicists believe that the Galilean relativity deduced from the well-established laws of Newton must be used not as a relativity of laws but as an old theory. For example writing in Google RELATIITY OF LAWS one sees not the correct relativity of laws but Einstein’s theories of invalid relativity. Einstein in 1905 based on wrong Maxwell’s fields moving through a fallacious ether explained incorrectly the photoelectric effect which led to his invalid relativity by violating not only the two conservation laws of energy and mass but also the principle of relativity. Especially under his massless quanta of wrong Maxwell’s fields he believed that the absorption of light in the photoelectric effect contributes only to the increase of the electron energy.

In fact, after J.J. Thomson’s recognition that electromagnetic energy is associated with a mass called *electromagnetic mass* and after the experiment of the two American physicists French and Tessman (1963) who showed the fallacy of Maxwell’s fields in my paper of 1993 I showed that light consists not of fields but of dipolic photons of mass m = hν/c^{2} which contribute not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ.

Nevertheless in the “Theory of relativity-Wikipedia” one reads the incorrect idea that the Galilean Principle of Relativity is not the Relativity of laws but an old theory:

“The theory of relativity, or simply relativity in physics, usually encompasses two theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity. (The word relativity can also be used in the context of an older theory, that of Galilean invariance.)”.

Note that in my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” I presented at the 12th symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society (NCSR “Demokritos”, 2002 ) my DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE based not on Einstein's invalid relativity (and on wrong nuclear theories) but on electromagnetic laws according to which the mass defect in atoms and nuclei cannot turn into energy.

Whereas in the “Theory of relativity –Wikipedia” one can also read: “Third, special relativity was accepted in the physics community by 1920. This theory rapidly became a significant and necessary tool for theorists and experimentalists in the new fields of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and quantum mechanics. Conversely, general relativity did not appear to be as useful. There appeared to be little applicability for experimentalists as most applications were for astronomical scales. It seemed limited to only making minor corrections to predictions of Newtonian gravitation theory”.

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**CORRECT GALILEAN RELATIVITY OF UNIFORM MOTIONS BASED ON NATURAL LAWS IS DUE TO FORCES OF SHORT TIME **

The Galilean relativity deduced from Newton’s laws is based on the observations of a ship moving uniformly with respect to the earth because the mass M of the earth is much more greater than the mass m of the ship. In such a uniform linear motion, due to a net force of short time, in the absence of an inertial force, the observer moving uniformly with respect to the earth’s surface feels only the vertical gravity due to the earth, like a stationary observer on the surface of the earth, who also feels only the same vertical gravity.

In this inertial frame of earth the time and space are described homogeneously, and in a time- independent manner. For example in the Newtonian mechanics of a falling object with a constant inertial mass m_{o} on the earth of radius R and mass M the potential energy m_{o}gH is equal to the kinetic energy m_{o}u^{2}/2 under the same space and time. Here in the absence of a photon absorption the mass m_{o} is always constant no matter what is the acceleration, while Einstein believed incorrectly that the Newtonian mechanics is a limited case of his invalid special relativity. In this case since the gravitational force is of short time the object can move with the same velocity u along the horizontal axis x with respect to the surface of the earth, because the mass M of the earth is much more greater than the mass m_{o} of the object. Applying Newton’s law of gravity under his third law one writes

F_{2} = m_{o}g = F_{1} = Mα = Gm_{o}M/R^{2}. Since M >> m_{o} one gets g > >α

This situation tells us that in the system (earth – object) the object always moves with respect to the earth because the acceleration α of the earth always approaches to zero.

It is indeed unfortunate that both Galileo and Newton in this simple case of the moving ship did not use the reference frame of the earth having a very large mass M with respect to the mass m of the ship. Instead they used as a reference frame the stationary ship or the moving ship of the shame mass m. Thus, in the absence of such a clarification Einstein in his invalid relativity believed incorrectly that such uniform motions could be relative with respect to a randomly moving observer.

In fact, the increase of the electron mass in the experiment of Kaufmann is due not to the relative motion of the electron with respect to a randomly moving observer but to the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION of the quantum dynamics in the system ( laboratory on the earth and moving electron with respect to the laboratory) occurring under a length contraction and a time dilation.

**CORRECT** **RELATIVITY OF QUANTUM DYNAMICS BASED ON MY DISCOVERY OF THE PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION**

In this case the electromagnetic force of short time of the photon-electron interaction leads to a uniform velocity u in accordance with the following experimental relation

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} = c^{2}/ (c^{2}-u^{2})

Here the absorption of the photon energy hν and the photon mass m = hν/c^{2} under a length contraction and a time dilation leads to the increase of the electron mass from the constant inertial mass M_{o} to the variable mass M at the velocity u after the electromagnetic force of short time of the photon absorption.

In my paper of 1993 I showed the dipole nature of photons which led to my discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION . In fact, when a photon of opposite charges interacts with an electron it gives off both the energy hν and mass m for the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ and the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ as

hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

On this basis under the applications of the well-established laws of Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820) I showed that a photon behaves like a moving dipole with +q and –q. For simplicity when the dipole axis r is perpendicular to the velocity u the dipole operates with electric attractions F_{e }and magnetic repulsions F_{m} occurring at the same time as

F_{e} = Kq^{2}/r^{2} and F_{m }= kq^{2}u^{2}/r^{2}

Since Weber in 1856 showed that K/k = c^{2} one sees that F_{e}/F_{m} = c^{2}/u^{2} .

That is, for u = c we get F_{e }= F_{m} . In other words such a dipole at the velocity c operates with equal electric and magnetic forces occurring at the same time in accordance with Newton’s third law.

For simplicity when the photon charges interact with the charge (-e) of an electron we apply the well-established laws of electromagnetism in terms of E_{y }and B_{z} as

E_{y}(-e) dy =dW

and B_{z}(-e)(dy/dt) = F_{m} or B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m}dt = dp = dmc

Since E_{y}/B_{z} = c we get dW = dmc^{2} or hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

That is, when the photon charges interact with the charge of the electron both the energy hν and the mass m = hν/c^{2} of the photon turn into the energy ΔΕ and the mass ΔΜ of the electron respectively.

However here one sees that the magnetic force F_{m} occurs after the electric force F_{e} =E_{y}(-e) because of the velocity dy/dt which should violate Newton’s third law. To avoid such a situation the velocity dy/dt always approaches to zero under the contraction of the dy and the dilation of the dt. That is, this transformation of energy and mass of the quantum dynamics differs fundamentally from the Newtonian mechanics in which

m_{o}gH = m_{o}u^{2}/2 where m_{o} is always constant under the same space and time.

Whereas in the quantum dynamics the transformation of energy and mass occurs under a length contraction and a time dilation.

An analogous situation is observed in the reverse case when an electron and a positron interact for the formation of two gamma rays. In this case the transformation can be written as

ΔΕ/ΔΜ = hν/m = c^{2}

That is, in the so-called annihilation the energy of the charge-charge interaction turns into the energy hν of the two generated photons, while the mass of both electron and positron turns into the mass of the two photons. In the same way in the Bohr model the energy of the Coulomb law turns into the energy of the generated photon, while the very small mass defect of the electron-proton system turns into the mass of photon. (See my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN ).

Similar conditions occur also in some uniform linear motions as in the case of a box falling through the atmosphere in which some mechanical energy turns into heat due to the air resistance.

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**CORRECT RELATIVITY OF GRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATIONS DUE TO CONTINUOUSLY ACTING FORCES**

For replacing Einstein’s wrong theories of relativity by the well-established laws I analyzed carefully Newton’s local absolute motions of two bodies orbiting around a common barycenter. On this basis one concludes that the gravity acting continuously at a distance proceeds from simple systems to compound ones with favored reference frames . For example in the simplest system [ earth-astronaut ] an astronaut orbits around the barycenter which is at the center of the earth, because his mass is much less than the mass of the earth. Since in the compound system [ sun-(earth, astronaut) ] both the earth and the astronaut behave like a point mass orbiting around the favored sun, then, in the same way the most compound solar system moves around the center of our galaxy, and so forth.

Note that the astronaut feels always weightless, because in the simplest system [ earth-astronaut ] the inertial force (centrifugal force) counterbalances the gravity due to earth. Moreover in the compound system [sun - (earth , astronaut)] the inertial force due to acceleration around the sun is equal to the gravity due to the sun, and so forth. In other words, the astronaut feels weightless under a local motion with respect to the center of the earth like an observer in a falling lift in vacuum, no matter how large is the mass of the sun or the galaxy. For rotating systems taking into account NEWTON’S BUCKET ARGUMENT and the barycenter of a binary star system I revealed the reference points in both uniform motions (collisions) and gravitational accelerations. But for our very simple system [Earth-Observer] the barycenter is at the center of the earth, while in the compound system [Sun-(Earth, Observer)] the barycenter is at the center of the sun which cannot affect the motions of all observers on the earth because the acceleration of earth around the sun cancels the gravity due to the sun.

**DETAILED ANALYSIS OF** **EINSTEIN'S** **WRONG RELATIVITY **

In my paper EINSTEIN by L. Kaliambos I noticed that the Galilean relativity of laws is the result of short time contact forces, as in the case of explosions according to which Newton’s rectangular particles of light move with respect to the source of radiation. Thus in a train moving with respect to the earth’s surface the α , β, and γ particles move with respect to the radioactive material, no matter how large is the linear motion of the train. Note that the ship in Galileo’s relativity of laws moves as a result of short time net contact forces (wind) on our earth. Then, under a net zero force it moves uniformly with respect to the surface of the earth, because the mass of the earth is much more greater than the mass of the ship. These situations based on natural laws invalidate the equivalent reference frames of Einstein’s special relativity (1905) who believed incorrectly that any observer moving with an electron in an accelerator can measure the same increase of mass of stationary bodies in the laboratory.

Then , as early as 1907 Einstein was showing dissatisfaction with his strange ideas of special relativity and in his general relativity he reintroduced the fallacious ether in his false “ ether structure” or the strange “curvature of spacetime” based on wrong fields and on philosophical speculations. Since all these confusing ideas led to complications Einstein in 1954 expressed his frustration to his friend Besso.

In the absence of a detailed knowledge about the at a distance electromagnetic forces in nuclear physics which give the contact forces of Galileo’s moving ship, Newton in his first law did not mention the contact forces of short time, which give the uniform linear motions in elastic collisions or in the system [Earth-Observer] under the favored reference frame of our earth. Nevertheless, his rectangular particles of light are moving with respect to the source of radiation. For example when a spectroscope moves with respect to a source of light we measure different frequency. Under this condition I showed that the α and β particles along with the γ particles of mass m = hν/c^{2} move with respect to a radioactive material in a moving train no matter how large is the uniform linear motion of the train. For example all stationary observers on a moving train measure the same frequency of the gamma rays of the radioactive material, while an observer on the earth will measure a different frequency. In this case, in the spectroscope we measure not any greater velocity than c but the increase of the photon mass. In the same way when the velocity c is parallel to gravity F we apply the second law of Newton as F = dp/dt = cdm/dt. That is, any acceleration along the direction of c is always zero under a length contraction and a time dilation. (See my WRONG AND CORRECT EINSTEIN ).

These fundamental situations invalidate Einstein’s equivalent reference frames of his special relativity according to which a hypothetical observer moving with an electron in an accelerator of a laboratory can measure incorrectly the same increase of mass of stationary objects in the laboratory. Under this fallacious idea in his general relativity influenced by his reading of the critiques of Newtonian science by Hume and Mach Einstein believed that the inertial frames are moving with respect to the fallacious “fixed stars” connected with the fallacious “ether structure” or the strange “curvature of vacuum”. In fact, in the Galilean relativity of laws the dropped stone always falls along a tower or along the mast of the moving ship no matter how large is the mass of the sun.

Ironically Einstein in his general relativity used Newton’s constant inertial mass M_{o} (Equivalence principle), which invalidates his concept of relativistic mass. On the other hand the experiments of the increase of mass of accelerated particles, the mass defect in atomic and nuclear physics, the bending of light, the gravitational red shift etc., are due to our discovery of photon-matter interaction occurring under a length contraction and a time dilation. Note that Einstein’s hypotheses of the “ether structure” or the strange “curvature of specetime” based on wrong fields and philosophical speculations cannot replace the well-established laws. (See my NEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS ).

**CONTRADICTING RELATI VITY THEORIES OF EINSTEIN LED TO THE CRISIS OF PHYSICS**

Though the Michelson experiment (1887) rejected the fallacious Maxwell’s ether, Lorentz (1904) in order to explain the increase of the electron mass of Kaufmann’s experiment (1901) under the influence of Maxwell’s wrong moving fields (1865) was based not on laws but on the fallacious ether. Thus he suggested that the null result of the Michelson experiment can be explained not by the rejection of the ether but by the time and mass dilation when the objects move through the ether. Einstein in 1905 used the same mathematics of Lorentz but complicated more the problem by replacing the ether by a randomly moving observer. Lorentz using the fallacious ether formulated his transformation in which the mathematics could be justified under the assumption that the ether affects the length of the moving bodies. Under this confusion and since Newton in his laws did not determine the favored reference frame of the earth, Einstein in his special relativity believed that all inertial frames are equivalent. So he suggested the relative motions between two randomly moving observers. Therefore he concluded incorrectly that the observer moving with an electron can measure the same increase of mass of the stationary bodies in the laboratory.

In his wrong special relativity Einstein used also the fallacious electric field of Maxwell in the induction law. Though Neumann (1845) showed experimentally that the induction law is consistent with the magnetic force of the Ampere law, Maxwell in order to develop his electromagnetic theory violated the principle of relativity in the induction law (1832) by using not the magnetic force but a fallacious electric field. Of course the biggest error in the history of physics is Einstein’s derivation of the incomplete equation E = mc^{2} which violates both conservation laws of mass and energy. In fact, I showed that the increase of the electron mass in accelerators is du not to Einstein’s invalid theory of relativity but to the law of the absorption of the photon energy and mass in accordance with my discovery of the Photon-matter interaction.