By prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) T.E. Institute of Larissa, Greece

This paper was announced to many universities around the world

( February 2014 )

In my papers NEWTON INVALIDATES EINSTEIN and INVALID GENERAL RELATIVITY you can see that the abandonment of Newton’s particles of light led to Einstein’s false massless quanta of fields responsible for the development of the invalid relativity theories which cannot replace the well-established laws of Newton and of electromagnetism. In 1905 Einstein at 26 under his massless quanta of fields explained incorrectly the photoelectric effect which led to his invalid relativity theories. Although Michelson (1887) rejected the Maxwellian ether (1865) Einstein Influenced by the false Maxwell’s fields moving through the fallacious ether repeated the math of the Lorentz ether theory but complicated more the problem because he replaced the ether of Lorentz by a randomly moving observer. For example when the observer moves with an electron in the laboratory he will measure the increase of mass of stationary objects in the laboratory. Later (1924) he reintroduced the ether in his special relativity and in his book “The evolution of physics “ (1938) he replaced the ether by the strange vacuum of Faraday by writing that the properties of vacuum are responsible for transmitting the Maxwellian waves. In fact, in the photoelectric effect I discovered that Newton’s particles of light contribute not only to the increase of the electron energy but also to the increase of the electron mass in accordance with the Kaufmann experiment (1902). Under this physics crisis Einstein in his invalid general relativity (1915) using the real lines of the gravitational forces tried to connect the wrong concept of gravitational field with a fallacious “ether structure” or a strange “curvature of vacuum” like the curved stretched rubber bands of Faraday. It is well-known that Einstein after 1916 radically modified his first ideas of special relativity. For example in 1924 he wrote: “* According to special relativity the ether remains still absolute, because its influence on the inertia of bodies…is independent of every kind of physical influence*”.

Historically under the influence of the Aristotelian geometry of motions and the fifth element the “ether” even after the triumph of Newtonian physics many scientists still shared Descartes’ preference for avoiding the “action at a distance” confirmed by the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement. So at the end of book III of the *Principia*, Newton put his very important remarks:

“**But hitherto I have not been able to discover the cause of those properties of gravity from phenomena [observation and experimentation], and I feign no hypotheses….To us it is enough that gravity does really exist, and act according to the laws which we have explained, and abundantly serves to account for all the motions of the celestial bodies and of our sea**.”

Later the Cavendish experiment (1798) was the first to measure the force of gravity acting at a distance between masses in the laboratory, and the first to yield accurate values for the gravitational constant G.

Note that Einstein’s assumptions about the relative uniform motions with respect to a randomly moving observer or with respect to a wrong immovable ether are fallacious ideas, because the increase of mass is not a kinematic but a dynamical situation. See my “Invalidity of special relativity ”). According to my discovery of dipolic photons which led to the discovery of “Photon- matter transformation ” one sees that in our complete formula

hν/m =ΔΕ/ΔΜ =c^{2 }which modifies Einstein’s equation ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

the increase of mass, ΔΜ, of a moving electron is due to the absorption of energy and mass of photons. Moreover the equivalent “*Matter-photon transformation*” invalidates dramatically the special relativity. For example the mass of a moving electron in the hydrogen atom is less than the rest mass of the same electron of the proton - electron system.

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** EINSTEIN’S “EQUIVALENCEPRINCIPLE” CONTRADICTS HIS REST AND RELATIVISTIC MASS OF HIS SPECIAL RELATIVITY**

After his invalid *special relativity* Einstein tried to study the phenomena as they appear to observers in accelerated systems, because he believed incorrectly that the well-established law of gravity could be modified under his invalid relative motions . So using the two fundamental properties of mass, (the * inertia* and the

*),*

**gravity***expressed in Newton’s laws, Einstein underestimated Newton’s laws and believed that he discovered a fundamental principle called “*

*equivalence principle*”, in which he proposed accelerations of his results of special relativity producing the increase of mass. In other words he believed that his relativistic accelerations are fundamental.

Under such fallacious ideas Einstein In his book “*The Evolution of Physics*” wrote: “ * Is this identity of the two kinds of mass purely accidental, or does it have a deeper significance*?

**” .**Historically, Newton, in the formulation of his fundamental laws, recognized that the inertia is a fundamental attribute of mass. For example the centrifugal force is the reaction force to a centripetal force. It is an inertial force experienced by a rotating object and appears to be the cause of the outward tangential motion. Actually, the outward motion results from the absence of the centripetal force needed to keep the object moving in a circle. So Newton was one of the first to recognize that all these dynamical phenomena are due to the natural tendency-inertia- of any body to keep on moving in the same direction if it is not constrained to do otherwise. So astronauts orbiting the earth, as in free fall, feel weightless because the centrifugal force is equal but opposite to the gravitational one. Especially Newton found that in both sides of his fundamental formula there is a constant inertial mass m_{o} which is equal to the gravitational m. For example for an object with mass m on the earth of radius R and mass M we write

F_{g} = m_{o}(du/dt) = GmM/r^{2}

Therefore Einstein’s the so-called “*equivalence principle*” is valid only under the fundamental Newtonian mechanics, since the accelerations of particles due to gravity contain always constant inertial masses. That is his equivalence principle rejects dramatically his rest mass and relativistic mass of his special relativity because according to fundamental laws of Newton the mass in gravity under acceleration remains constant. Newton also discovered that any kind of force produces acceleration to an object of constant inertial mass, whereas in the quantum dynamics I discovered that the increase of the electron mass is due not to the acceleration or to any relative motion with respect to a hypothetical observer but to the absorption of the photon mas m = hν/c^{2 } in accordance with the conservation law of mass developed by Greek philosophers.** **

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**NEWTON’S BENDING OF LIGHT REJECTS EINSTEIN’S RELATIVISTIC MASS AND THE STRANGE “CURVATURE OF VACUUM”**

. Today physicists believe that Einstein was the first who predicted the bending of light near the sun, because in his general relativity he did not write the prediction of Newton about the gravitational properties of corpuscles confirmed by Soldner in 1801. Though the bending of light is due to the correct interaction between the mass of the particles of light and the mass of the sun, Einstein under his fallacious massless quanta of fields believed that the bending of light is due to a strange "curvature of vacuum". To simplify the problem of the bending of light we study a dipolic photon when it moves in perpendicular direction to the gravitational force. Using Galileo’s projectile motion for a vertical distance H from the surface of the Earth one sees that the horizontal velocity c of photon and the vertical velocity υ = (2gH) ^{0.5 }are always independent.

Here the vertical velocity υ is a real velocity, responsible for the bending of light, which invalidates the postulation of Einstein that the speed of light is the same for all observers . Since the force F_{g} is perpendicular to the velocity c the mass m of the photon behaves like the constant inertial mass of a particle which can be accelerated under Newton’s gravitational interaction. Under this condition applications of Newton’s laws give :

dw = F_{g}dH = mgdH = mυdυ or mgH = mυ^{2}/2

In other words when a photon moves along a direction perpendicular to the vector F_{g }the at a distance gravitational interaction produces a gravitational acceleration like Galileo’s projectiles, which is responsible for the bending of light. This fact invalidates not only the concepts of rest and relativistic mass of special relativity but also the strange "curved vacuum" of his general relativity

**THE GRAVITATIONAL RED SHIFT REJECTS EINSTEIN’S “EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE” AND THE FALLACIOUS “ETHER STRUCTURE”**

Einstein believed that the most direct and transparent prediction of his *equivalence principle* is the gravitational red shift. In fact, I discovered that in quantum dynamics when the constant velocity c of the dipolic photon is parallel to gravity F_{g} then according to Newton’s second law F_{g} = dp/dt the photon cannot accelerate along the direction of c but changes its mass under a basic length contraction and a time dilation. In my paper Impact of Maxwell's equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles (Olympia, 1993) I showed that the dipolic photon at the speed of light c has equal electric attraction and magnetic repulsion. Thus it cannot move faster than the speed of light because the increase of the magnetic force will violate Newton’s third law. That is the acceleration always approaches to zero under a length contraction and a time dilation. Under this condition a photon cannot accelerate along the direction of its velocity c. In other words the equivalence principle which says that gravity is equivalent to acceleration, in fact, in the quantum dynamics leads to complications. Here according to Newton’s second laws we write

F_{g} ds = dw = hdν = (dmc/dt)ds = dmc^{2}

In this case the decrease of energy dw implies a decrease of the frequency which means that the gravitational red shift is a very different situation than that of the bending of light near the sun. Note that Einstein for the explanation of this phenomenon did not use the relativistic Doppler effect but the simple Doppler effect of the Newtonian mechanic

δν/ν = υ/c

which occurs in accordance with the principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s laws. For example when a spectroscope moves away from the source of light the frequency decreases. In the same way the frequency decreases when the light source moves away from the spectroscope. That is, according to the principle of relativity deduced from laws only the relative motion of one with respect to the other matters. This result is really not surprising. If it made a difference which is moved and which is at rest we should be forced to conclude that there is a fallacious “ether structure” or a strange “curvature of vacuum”. Note that Einstein I his development of special relativity violated also this principle of relativity because he believed that when a magnet moves with respect to a coil a fallacious Maxwellian electric field is generated. Though Neumann in 1845 discovered that the induction laws is consistent with the force of the Ampere law (1820) Maxwell in 1865 for developing his electromagnetic theory introduced the fallacious electric field by violating the principle of relativity.

**CONCLUSIONS**

The laws of Newton Coulomb and Ampere involving forces acting at a distance give the formula hν/m = c^{2} since the dipolic photons have mass of opposite charges. The unification of the Coulomb and Ampere laws is responsible for the operation of photons because photons operate always at the constant speed c under the discovery of Weber (1856) that K/k = c^{2 }which unifies electromagnetic forces . Thus the interaction of photon charges with the charges of particles lead to my formula of the photon -matter interaction according to which the absorption of photons contributs not only to the increase of the electron energy but also to the increase of the electron mass in accordance with the Kaufmann experiment, while Einstein under his massless quanta of fields believed incorrectly that the increase of the electron mass is due to its velocity with respect to a hypothetical observer. Moreover I discovered that under the constant velocity c when the gravitational force F_{g} is parallel to the vector of the velocity c it cannot affect the constant speed of photon, because it operates only at c with equal elsctric attractions and magnetic repulsions. So along the direction of c it affects only the mass leading to the same fundamental formula. However when the velocity c is perpendicular to the F_{g} the photon mass behaves completely like a particle of constant inertial mass and accelerates giving an acceleration perpendicular to c. Finally, when the mass of a particle absorbs a photon mass or gives its mass to the photon, we must apply my discovery of the *Photon-Matter Transformation * or the equivalent discovery of * Matter-Photon Transformation . *Under* * such transformations the mass defect in atoms and in nuclei turns into the mass of photons, while the energies of the charg-charge interactions turns into the energy of photons in accordance with the two conservation laws of mass and energy. Note that in atomic nuclear and quark physics electromagnetic forces acting at a distance lead correctly to the structure and binding like the forces of atoms and molecules. On the other hand since the neutrinos and antineutrinos have opposite charges interact electromagnetically with charged quarks and like photons they are absorbed. Of course such interactions are equivalent to our discovery of *Photon-Matter Transformation *which invalidates the so- called weak interactions mediated incorrectly by very heavy bosons.