This scientific article was announced to many universities around the world ( August 2013 )

By Prof.LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός T. E. Institute of Larissa. Greece

Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paper IMPACT OF MAXWELL’S EQUATION OF DISPLACEMENT CURRENT ON ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS AND COMPARISON OF THE MAXWELLIAN WAVES WITH OUR MODEL OF DIPOLIC PARTICLES presented at the International conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” (Olympia,1993). The paper invalidates Einstein’s relativity and Maxwell’s moving fields by applying the forces acting at a distance of the well-established laws of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere. One can also see my paper NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM presented at the 12th symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society (N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", 2002). Following the same method of the enormous success of the Bohr model (1913) and the time- independent Schrodinger equations in three dimensions I published the paper in Ind. J. Th. Phys. (2003). The paper reveals the nuclear structure by using the electromagnetic forces of the well-established laws. Surprisingly it invalidates both Einstein’s relativity and the theories of the

Standard model developed after the abandonment of natural laws. (See in User Kaliambos the above papers along with my paper “ Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures” published in Ind.J.Th. Phys. in 2008).** **

** EINSTEIN’S INVALID RELATIVITY AND HIS FALSE CONCEPT OF THE EQUIVALENCE OF MASS AND ENERGY WHICH LED TO THE CRISIS OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS **

Despite the famous experiment of Michelson and Morley (1887) who rejected the Maxwellian ether of wrong fields (1865) in favor of Newton's rectangular particules of light (1704) deduced from the polarization of light, Einstein in 1905 influenced by wrong Maxwell's fields explained incorrectly the photoelectric effect, because he believed that light consists of massless quanta of energy along the wave front of Maxwell's fields. Fortunatelly after the Compton effect (1923) showing that light consists of real particles having momentum p = hν/c Lewis for the particles of light in 1926 gave the name photons. Then, since French and Tessman showed the fallacy of Maxwell's fields, in 1993 we developed the model of dipolic photons having momentum p and mass m = p/c. So the absorption of photons in the photoelectric effect contributes not only to the increase of energy ΔΕ of the electron but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ in accordance with the experiment of Kaufmann (1902) who explained his discovery by using the so-called "electromagnetic mass" recognized by J.J. Thomson in 1881. So Einstein's incorrect explanation of the photoelecric effect led to his invalid relativity by using the Lorentz math of the fallacious Maxwell’s ether. Under this confusion Einstein tried to interpret the Kaufmann experiment by suggesting in his theory of special relativity that the increase of mass of an electron is due to its velocity moving with respect to a randomly moving observer. Such a theory not only violated the two conservation laws of mass and energy but also did much to retard the progress of physics, because it replaced the well-established laws of Newton by incorrect theories. (See my NEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS ). In the same year Einstein also published his wrong hypothesis of the so-called THE EQUIVALENCE OF MASS AND ENERGY according to which the well-known kinetic energy ( KE ) of the fundamental Newtonian mechanics might be redefined incorrectly as

KE = Δmc^{2} = mc^{2} – m_{o}c^{2}

Note that in this incomplete equation Einstein replaced Newton’s discovery of the constant inertial mass (m_{o}) by his fallacious rest mass m_{o} of a particle which should be stationary with respect to a randomly moving observer. However such a hypothesis led to complications, which did much to retard the progress of physics. For example according to Einstein’s relativity any observer moving with an electron should measure an increase of mass of the stationary objects in the laboratory. Under this confusion Einstein also suggested that the mass of a stationary particle has a fallacious rest energy, while the mass Δm can turn into the energy. Einstein himself pointed out:

“Pre-relativity physics contains two conservation laws of fundamental importance, namely, the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation of mass; these two appear there as completely independent of each other. Through relativity theory they melt together into one principle.”

Despite the enormous success of the Bohr Model and the Schrodinger equations which revealed that the energy of the emitted photon is due not to the mass defect of the electron but to the energy of the charge – charge interaction, today physicists under the great influence of Einstein’s invalid relativity believe incorrectly that in the system electron-positron the energy 2hν of the two generated photons in the so-called annihilation is due to the mass 2M of both the electron and positron. In fact, the energy ΔΕ of the charge-charge interaction turns into the energy 2hν of the two generated photons, while the mass 2Μ of electron and positron turns into the mass 2m of the two photons in accordance with our discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION

ΔΕ/2Μ = 2hν/2m = c^{2 }

**THE BOHR MODEL REJECTS EINSTEIN’S RELATIVITY**

Like Newton who discovered the universal law of gravity by using the third empirical law of Kepler , Bohr in 1913 based on the empirical law of Balmer (1885) applied the well-established laws of Newton and Coulomb and developed his model of the hydrogen atom which led to the independent-time Schrodinger equations in three dimensions. Especially Bohr under the applications of the well-established laws and the discovery of the energy hν by Planck and Einstein, revealed that during the transition between energy levels of the charge-charge interaction between the positive charge (+e) of the nucleus and the negative charge (-e) of the electron, the energy ΔΕ of the electron, in a way that was called "qantum Jump" turns into the energy hν of an emitted photon. In other words in the binding energy of the hydrogen atom the energy of the generated photon is due not to the mass defect but to the energy of the charge-charge interaction. Evidently a photon if absorbed, its energy hν produces complete ionization of the hydrogen atom and when a photon with more energy than needed to free the electron is absorbed, part of the energy is used to ionize the atom, and the rest is given to the electron as kinetic energy. Bohr says, “Obviously, we get in this way the same expression for the kinetic energy of an electron ejected from an atom by photoelectric effect as that deduced by Einstein, that is KE = hν – W…” Here we see that the interpretation of the photoelectric effect by Einstein invalidates his hypothesis of the mass- energy equivalence of special relativity. In other words Einstein in his explanation of the photoelectric effect rejects himself in his theory of special relativity. Nevertheless under the influence of Einstein’s incorrect relativity physicist today believe that the nuclear binding energy is due to the mass defect.

Under this confusion I published my paper “NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE

FUNDAMENTA LAWS OF ELECTROMGNETISM” in Ind. J. Th. Phys (2003) in which I showed that the nuclear binding energy is due to the electromagnetic interaction of 9 extra charged quarks in protons and 12 ones in neutrons existing among 288 quarks in nucleons. (See my Nuclear structure and force and NEW STRUCTURE OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS ). In the same way in the Bohr model the binding energy ΔΕ turns into the energy hν of the emitted photon , while the mass defect ΔΜ of the electron turns into the mass m of photon in accordance with our discovery of thePHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION . ΔE/ΔΜ = hν/m = c^{2}** **

This situation invalidates dramatically the theory of special relativity according to which the electron moving with respect to the nucleus should have greater mass than the free electron. In fact, the orbiting electron around the nucleus has smaller mass because a part of the electron mass, called mass defect, is needed for the generation of the photon mass. (See my EINSTEIN'S WRONG ASSUMPTIONS IN SPECIAL RELATIVITY ).

**SCHRODINGER’S EQUATIONS AND HIS QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT REJECT EINSTEIN’S RELATIVITY**

For the wave nature of matter in 1924 de Broglie proposed a sweeping symmetry for physics: Just as photons behave like particles as well as like waves, so electrons should behave like waves as well as like particles. Another year past before this clue was followed by Schrodinger. His independent-time equations in three dimensions, known as “wave mechanics” were published early in 1926. It was soon recognized to be a satisfactory generalization of Bohr’s model. In the simple cases in which Schrodinger’s equations could be solved exactly, it was found to predict the correct values of spectral frequencies and the intensities of spectral lines.

However despite the enormous success of the independent-time Schrodinger equations in three dimensions, Einstein influenced by mathematical tricks of the mathematician Minkowski (introducing a strange spacetime of four dimensions) in his book the evolution of physics (1938) emphasizes that the system of the proton- electron is characterized by a six-dimensional space.

Moreover it is well-known that in 1935 Schrodinger introduced the so-called Quantum Entanglement. He believed that the Quantum Entanglement was one of the most important aspects of the quantum world, describing it as “the characteristic trait of quantum.” It is of interest to note that detailed experiments of the Quantum Entanglement confirmed accurately Newton’s action at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity. By the early 1980s science had evolved to the point that Einstein’s thought experiment could actually be done in a laboratory setting. French physicist Alain Aspeet conducted a series of experiments which tested the nature of the entangled photon pairs and how they might share information, what he found was amazing! In fact the measurement of one photon did affect the state of its entangled partner, instantaneously. Note that Einstein had formerly called it “spooky action at a distance” because it rejects his wrong gravitational fields or gravitational waves moving in his fallacious “ether structure’ under a strange curvature of spacetime with four dimensions. It invalidates also the hypothetical gravitons of the so-called Standard Model.

To conclude one sees that new ideas based on the well-established laws like the Bohr Model and the Schrodinger equations are able to reject all various hypotheses like the relativity theories of Einstein which led to the physics crisis. (See my article NEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS ).