( DETECTION OF SPACE-TIME RIPPLES REJECTS EINSTEIN'S IDEAS )
By prof. Lefteris Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) T.E. Institute of Larissa Greece
This paper was announced to many universities around the world (April 2014)
According to my discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION which invalidates Einstein’s fallacious theories of relativity, we see that the natural laws of gravity and electromagnetism are indeed responsible of the Big Bang rapid acceleration caused by the very strong electric repulsions of the BIG BANG MATTER . However in the absence of a detailed knowledge and after the abandonment of natural laws in favor of wrong theories today cosmologists believe that OUR EARLY UNIVERSE is based not on natural laws but on fallacious theories. For example according to the inflationary theory of Guth (1980) just before the Big Bang space was filled with an unknown unstable form of energy transformed into the fundamental particles. Although energy cannot turn into mass, in the "Big Bang-WIKIPEDIA" one reads :
Accepting such fallacious ideas on 17 March 2014, astronomers at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center announced the detection of Einstein’s wrong gravitational waves, because they believe that the small fluctuations in the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are the direct consequence of the fallacious primordial gravitational waves proposed incorrectly by Guth who suggested a strange field of inflation called Inflaton.
Although in 1963 the experiment of French and Tessman showed the fallacy of fields, Guth in order to interpret the homogeneity of our universe and the non- existence of the fallacious magnetic monopoles developed his theory of inflation by introducing a fallacious inflationary field. Influenced by Einstein’s WRONG GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS and the INVALID HIGGS FIELD he suggested a strange hypothetical field able to produce hypothetical gravitational waves. Unfortunately Einstein influenced strongly by electromagnetic fields of Maxwell believed that his gravitational fields move at the speed c of light.
It is indeed fortunate that in 1993 in my discovery of dipole photons I showed that a photon as a dipole having its dipole axis r perpendicular to its velocity moves at the speed of light c because the photon charges +q and -q after the applications of the Coulomb and the Ampere laws at the velocity c give equal electric attraction Fe and magnetic repulsion Fm as
Fe = Kq2/r2 and Fm = kq2u2/r2
Since Weber in 1856 showed experimentally that K/k = c2 one gets
Fe/Fm = c2/u2
That is, for u = c we get Fe = Fm
So according to Galileo’s projectile trajectories when the constant velocity c of a photon with a constant inertial mass mo = hν/c2 is perpendicular to gravity acting at a distance there exists an actual velocity υ compounded from the constant velocity c and the acceleration du/dt along the direction of the gravitational force Fg producing the acceleration after the application of the Euler formula (1750) as
Fg = mo(du/dt)
This is the well-known gravitational lensing predicted by Newton and confirmed by the German mathematician in 1801. Detailed experiments showed that this gravitational lensing is responsible for the first type of B-mode polarization in the CMB. It is surprising how Einstein in his INVALID GENERAL RELATIVITY did not mention this simple math of the well-established laws of Newton including the fundamental action at a distance. So he complicated the simple law of gravity by proposing various hypotheses like gravitational fields, gravitational waves, the fallacious “ether structure” and the strange “curvature of vacuum”.
The B-mode polarization can occur in two ways. The first way is due to gravitational lensing. The cosmic microwave background we see today has travelled for more than 13 billion years before reaching us. Along its journey some of it has passed close enough to galaxies and the like to be gravitationally lensed. This gravitational lensing twists the polarization a bit, giving some of it a B-mode polarization. This type was first observed in July of 2013. Note that another mode called the E-mode polarization is caused by temperature fluctuations in the CMB and was first observed in 2002 by the DASI interferometer.
The second type of the B-mode polarization in CMB was first observed by the team of Kovac in south pole in March of 2014. This is due also to gravity when the constant velocity c of photon is parallel to gravitational force.
According to my discovery of PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION there is a deep connection of Newton’s gravity with the dipole photons of the quantum dynamics. It is well-known that in the application of Newton’s second law the gravity Fg produces a rate of change of momentum as
Fg = dp/dt = d(Mu)/dt
Of course on bodies having a constant inertial mass Mo it produces acceleration (du/dt) of the Euler formula
Fg = dp/dt = Mo(du/dt)
However the photon mass under a gravitational force cannot behave like the bodies of constant inertial mass. Surprisingly I discovered that the gravity acting on the photon mass m = hν/c2 produces not the familiar acceleration of the Euler formula but it changes the photon mass under a length contraction and a time dilation in contrast to the Newtonian mechanics of invariant space and time. So when the velocity c is parallel to the gravitational force Fg the application of the well-established second law of Newton leads to
Fg = dp/dt = d(mu)/dt = c(dm/dt)
In other words when the constant velocity c is parallel to the gravitational force it cannot be changed because we discovered that a dipole photon operates always with equal electric and magnetic forces occurred at the velocity c. So the gravity produces a rate of change of mass (dm/dt) because the acceleration always approaches to zero under a length contraction and a time dilation. This is the second type of B-mode polarization discovered in March of 2014.
However under the influence of Einstein’s INVALID GENERAL RELATIVITY today cosmologist believe that it is due to the WRONG GRAVITATIONAL WAVES from the early period of the universe occurred incorrectly under a false inflationary field which was thought to produce gravitational waves on a cosmic scale.
Inflationary field has been proposed as a reason for why the cosmic microwave background is as uniform as it is. So we will never have any evidence of the wrong inflationary field.
In a criticism of such confusing results for detecting the fallacious gravitational waves of a wrong inflationary field David Spergel, professor of astrophysics at Princeton University said: “The measurement is a very difficult one to make and could easily be contaminated. There are, as it stands, some oddities in the results that could be concerning. I am looking forward to seeing these results confirmed or refuted by other experiments in the next year or two."
Also here is the crucial question. How do we know that the B-mode polarization is the result of a process that happened before the fallacious inflationary field and not one that occurred much later after the Big Bang? Note that much of CMB radiation is polarized because it was scattered off of free electrons during decoupling (378,000 years after the Big Bang).
It is well-known that the experiment of Michelson and Morley (1887) and the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) rejected not only the Maxwellian ether but also the fields in favor of the fundamental action at a distance of natural laws. Unfortunately since the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement (1935) confirmed accurately Newton’s action at a distance Einstein under his fallacious “ether structure” or the strange “curvature of space time” including WRONG GRAVITATIONAL WAVES called incorrectly this quantum finding as a “Spooky action at a distance”. Moreover Einstein in his book “The evolution in physics” (1938) emphasized that science is not the collection of laws but of theories. Under this physics crisis I revived the natural laws of gravity and of electromagnetism and in my papers of 1993 and 2002 I presented the DISCOVERY OF DIPOLE PHOTONS and theDISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE which revealed the INVALID GENERAL RELATIVITY and the WRONG STANDARD MODEL and led to the DISCOVERY OF UNIFIED FORCES acting at a distance.
Nevertheless today physicists by analyzing the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background continue to believe that the BIG BANG MATTER started out with the fallacious gravitational waves of the inflationary wrong field. For example in the “First Direct Evidence of Cosmic Inflation” (March 17, 2014) one reads:
“Researchers from the BICEP2 collaboration today announced the first direct evidence for this cosmic inflation. Their data also represent the first images of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time. These waves have been described as the first tremors of the Big Bang. Finally, the data confirm a deep connection between quantum mechanics and general relativity."
Today it is well-known that in OUR EARLY UNIVERSE the primordial gravity with long-ranged forces acting at a distance on neutral quark triads (dud) caused the electric repulsions of short range of the triad-triad interaction or the (dud)-(dud) interactions involving forces of the Coulomb law acting at a distance. Applying the law of Coulomb on the charges of quarks one observes that the triad-triad interactions or (dud)-(dud) interactions at very short distances exert very strong electric repulsions of short range which could overcome the primordial gravity of long range. Note that the magnetic interaction could not exist because the very high energy of very early universe contributed to non-oriented spins of spinning quarks.
In the absence of such a detailed knowledge Kovac, (who is one of four leaders of Bicep, which has operated a series of increasingly sensitive radio telescopes at the South Pole) believes that the hypothetical gravity waves are the latest and deepest secret yet pried out of the cosmic microwaves, which were discovered accidentally by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson at Bell Labs 50 years ago. Kovac has spent his career trying to read the secrets of Big Bang vibrations. In 2002, he was part of a team that discovered that the microwave radiation was polarized, meaning the light waves had a slight preference to vibrate in one direction rather than another.
Also Kovac believes that this was a step toaward the ultimate goal of detecting the wrong hypothetical gravitational waves. In fact the photon matter interaction produces the second type of B-polarization when the velocity c is parallel to gravity. In this case the mass of the photon changes under a basic length contraction and a time dilation
The group’s telescope, Bicep2, is basically a giant superconducting thermometer. The strength of the signal surprised the researchers, and they spent a year burning up time on a Harvard supercomputer, making sure they had things right and worrying that competitors might beat them to the breakthrough.
Nevertheless one observes contradicting ideas about the analysis of polarization of CMB. In the “How astronomers saw gravitational waves from the Big Bang” one reads that John Kovac especially noticed:
“ Everyone in cosmology knows — but it is not widely appreciated — that the prediction about B modes from inflation relies not just on the phenomenon of gravitational waves but on the quantization of gravity itself. Inflation assumes that everything started out as quantum fluctuations that then got amplified by inflation. So at a very deep level, this finding relies on the connection between quantum mechanics and gravity being right.” In fact he found the space-time ripples derived from the well-established second law of Newton. (See my NEWTON INVALIDATES EINSTEIN ).
The first evidence for the primordial B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) has been detected by astronomers working on the Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization (BICEP2) telescope at the South Pole. The polarization signal has been measured to a statistical certainty of 3σ. But the B-mode polarization is related incorrectly to the wrong gravitational waves that are thought to have abounded in the early universe.
There is also another similar component known as non-primordial B-mode polarization, which is caused by gravitational lensing, and this was detected last year by the South Pole Telescope (SPT). There are also other polarization variations, known as E-mode or gradient variations, that describe how the magnitude of polarization changes over the CMB.
Also, the B-mode polarization is thought to be much weaker than the E-mode, making it even more difficult to detect. However, certain measurements on the polarization angles that can be detected at each point on the sky provide extra information and allow scientists to differentiate between the tensor and scalar components, providing a "tensor-to-scalar" ratio. This ratio has been measured by BICEP2 to be 0.20 with a statistical significance of about 3σ. The possibility that the ratio is zero is ruled out with a statistical certainty of 7σ.
Although I discovered that nuclear forces are governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism which led to our discovery of unified forces of gravity and of electromagnetism today physicists continue to believe that there exist fields with four forces: gravity, electromagnetism, and strong and weak nuclear forces. So to overcome these fallacious ideas I took into account the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement confirming accurately the fundamental action at a distance. Under this condition I describe here the primordial gravity acting on neutral quark triads which caused the enormous electrical repulsions of the triad-triad interactions by using not the strange color forces or the fallacious gluons of the false Quantum Chromodynamics (1973) but the role of the neutral quark triads (dud) on which the gravitational attractions of long range caused the BIG BANG MATTER.
Here I describe not only the primordial gravity of Newton’s law but also the electric repulsion of the triad-triad interaction or the (dud)-(dud) interactions involving forces of the Coulomb law acting at a distance. However the triad-triad interactions or (dud)-(dud) interactions at very short distances exert very strong electric repulsions of short range which could overcome the primordial gravity of long range. Note that the magnetic interaction could not exist because the very high energy of very early universe contributed to non-oriented spins of spinning quarks. In fact, the primordial gravitational attraction of long range acting at a distance on the neutral quark triads caused the electric repulsions of short range between the quark triads. So using the triad-triad interaction of two triads of the following scheme
one may conclude approximately that when the r = D1D2 between the two quark triads D1U1D1 and D2U2D2 is much more greater than the quark size a = D1U1 that is, when r >> a the two quark triads behave like neutral particles. Thus the primordial gravitational attraction of long range acting at a distance reduces the distance r. However when r = a the two quark triads exert a very strong electric repulsion of short range in the triad-triad interaction of the Coulomb law which caused the primordial fluctuations. Here for r = a the electric repulsions as D1D2, U1U2 and D1D2 are stronger than the electric attractions acting along the diagonals like D1U2 of quarks having fractional charges of (-e/3) and (+2e/3) respectively.
In general for r/a = x applying the Coulomb law we can find the three dominant electric repulsions (+3F) of charges of (D1D2) , (U1U2), and (D1D2) as
+3F = 2K(-e/3)(-e/3)/a2x2 + K (+2e/3)(+2e/3)/a2x2 = (6/9x2)(Ke2/a2)
Also the two electric repulsions ( +2f ) of charges along the diagonals are given by
+2f = [2K(-e/3)(-e/3)][ax/(a2x2+4a2)0.5][1/(a2x2+4a2)]
Or +2f = (2Ke2/9)[x/(x2+4)0.5][1/a2(x2+4)] = [2x/9(x2 +4)1.5](Ke2/a2)
However the four electric attractions (-4f ) of charges along the diagonals can be written as
-4f = 4K(-e/3)(+2e/3) [ax/(a2x2 + a2)0.5][1/(a2x2 + a2)]
Or -4f = ( -8Ke2/9)[x/(x2+1)0.5][1/a2(x2+1)] = [-8x/9(x2+1)1.5](Ke2/a2)
Thus the net electric repulsion Fe = +3F +2f -4f is given by
Fe = [6/9x2 + 2x/9(x2+4)1.5 - 8x/9(x2 + 1)1.5](ke2/a2)
Since the total repulsive force is of short range here for x >> 1 the value in brackets is zero and the two quark triads behave like neutral particles. Under this condition the primordial gravitational attraction between the quark triads could overcome the very small electric repulsions and contributed to the reduction of the distance r. Note that according to my DISCOVERY OF QUARKS IN PROTON AND NEUTRON the mass of the quark triad is
(d + u + d) = 3.69 +2.4 +3.69 = 9.78 MeV
which is 19.14 times greater than the electron mass ( m = 0.511 MeV)
However when r = a or x = 1 we can find the very strong electric repulsion Fe as
Fe = [(6/9 +2/9(5)1.5 -8/9(2)1.5]( Ke2/a2 ) = 0.37Ke2/a2
Since here a < 1 fm one concludes that the triad-triad repulsion is much more stronger than the proton-proton repulsions in the enormous nuclear fission.
Moreover during the first 0.1 second of OUR UNIVERSE one can see how the quark triads under the following simple reactions led to the creation of neutrons, protons, electrons, antineutrinos, positrons, and photons:
96(dud) = [92(dud) + 4u +8d]
This is the unstable neutron n = [92(dud) +4u +8d] which decays into the proton
p = [(93(dud) + 4u + 5d], with the emission of the electron (e) and the antineutrino (ν) as
n = p +e +ν or [92(dud) +4u +8d] = [ 92(dud) +(dud) +4u +5d] +e +ν
Then an energetic antineutrino interacts with the u of the one (dud) triad to give the neutron (n) and a positron ( e+) as
ν + p = n +e+ or ν + [92(dud) +(dud) +4u +5d] = [92(dud) +4u + 8d ] + e+ or ν +u = d +e+
Finally the energy of the charge-charge interaction of electron and positron becomes the energy hν of two photons (2γ) while the mass defect of the electron and positron becomes the mass m =hν/c2 of the two photons in accordance with the conservation laws of energy and mass. Note that Einstein under his fallacious massless quanta of fields believed that the mass defect transforms into the energy of photons. Of course such a fallacious idea of the invalid relativity violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass developed by the Greek philosophers (See my GREEK PHILOSOPHERS REJECT EINSTEIN ).
Under this condition which invalidates relativity and explains the Big Bang repulsions of short range one observes that the electric repulsions of short range were able to overcome the gravitational attractions of long range. Since the invalid relativity led to complications I present here a brief history of physics crisis which led to the abandonment of natural laws in favor of wrong theories.
EXPERIMENTS OF THE QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT REJECT THE WAVES OF DESCARTES AND EINSTEIN’S VARIOUS HYPOTHESES OF GRAVITY, LIKE FIELDS, WAVES, GRAVITONS, THE ETHER STRUCTURE, AND THE STRANGE CURVATURE OF VACUUM
Historically prior to the discovery of the well-established laws of Newton (1687), the Platonists explained the motions of planets by relating planets to certain “necessary” attributes of divine beings. Ptolemy and Copernicus explained it by relating the planetary paths to the mathematical combination of certain more or less geometrical figures. In 1637 and 1644 Descartes published his works the Optics and the Principles of philosophy by using the fallacious Aristotelian ether. Both were wrong and left an indelible impact on subsequent thinking about the nature of light and gravity respectively. Even after the triumph of Newtonian physics, many scientists still shared Descartes’ preference for avoiding the fundamental “action at a distance” and for postulating instead that space is filled with pieces of matter that can interact only when they touch. What appeared in Newton’s well-established law of universal gravitation to be long-range forces acting across empty space, such as gravity, would on Descartes’ hypothesis be explained by the propagation of waves through an invisible ethereal matter that was imagined to fill the intervening space. For Descartes, all motion was relative: one piece of matter could be said to be moving only with respect to other pieces of matter in its vicinity. This hypothesis led to the wrong idea that the earth is “at rest” without abandoning the Copernican system! Moreover such fallacious ideas led to the abandonment of natural laws in favor of the wrong Maxwellian fields the invalid theories of special and general relativity and the fallacious theories of strong and weak interactions based on wrong force carriers, like gravitons, virtual photons, the mesons of Yukawa (1935) the W and Z bosons of Weinberg (1968) and the gluons with color forces of Gell-Mann (1973).
The well-established law of gravitational forces acting at a distance explains Kepler’s empirical laws and a wealth of other phenomena. But there remained one feature which gravely bothered Newton. How could one account for gravity itself ? What is that causes the attraction of one body for another ? Rather than accept the fundamental action at a distance most scientists preferred Descartes’ waves moving through a fallacious ether. ( It is indeed fortunate that in 1887 the famous experiment of the two American physicists Michelson and Morley , the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement (1935) and the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) rejected the fallacious ether and the wrong fields in favor of the fundamental action at a distance ). At the end of the Book III of the Principia Newton put his remarks:
“ But hitherto I have not been able to discover the cause of those properties of gravity from phenomena [ observation and experimentation], and I feign no hypotheses…. To us it is enough that gravity does really exist, and act according to the laws which we have explained, and abundantly serves to account for all the motions of the celestial bodies and of our sea.”
Newton’s law of gravity involving forces acting at a distance led to the discoveries of the electric and magnetic forces of the two laws of Coulomb and Ampere. Moreover the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement confirming accurately the fundamental action at a distance led to my DISCOVERY OF UNIFIED FORCES and the DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE. Whereas the CONTRADICTING RELATIVITY THEORIES led to complications including various hypotheses like the false gravitational fields or gravitational waves along with the wrong gravitons and a fallacious ether structure with a strange curvature of vacuum. On the other hand the B-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (378.000 years after the Big Bang) give results not of the wrong gravitational waves but of the space-time ripples occurred when the velocity c was parallel to gravity. So, although the discovery of the space-time ripples is very important, astronomers never will be able to detect the fallacious gravitational waves of primordial gravity which cannot exist.