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 By Prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS T. E. Institute of Larissa. Greece

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 This article was announced to many universities around the world ( June 2013).

 

Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paper IMPACT OF MAXWELL’S EQUATION OF DISPLACEMENT CURRENT ON ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS AND COMPARISON OF THE MAXWELLIAN WAVES WITH OUR MODEL OF DIPOLIC PARTICLES (Olympia,1993) which invalidates Einstein’s relativity and Maxwell’s moving fields.

One can also see my paper NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM (N.C.S.R. "Demokritos" 2002) which reveals the nuclear structure and invalidates Einstein’s relativity and the theories of the Standard model developed after the abandonment of laws. ( See the above published papers in User Kaliambos . See also my New revolution in physics  ).

 

 

WRONG IDEAS ABOUT THE BIG BANG MATTER

 

Under the strong influence of the invalid Einstein’s relativity (see my WRONG AND CORRECT EINSTEIN  ),  astronomers believe that our universe started off with energy which turned into matter. For example  in the “Big Bang WIKIPEDIA” one reads:

 

 “After the initial expansion, the Universe cooled sufficiently to allow energy to be converted into various subatomic particles, including  protonsneutrons, and electrons”.

 

Also in the  “Big Bang Matter-Imagine the universe!-NASA” (10 July, 2009)  one reads:

“In fact, it was entirely dominated by radiation (no matter!). Now, you may have heard that matter can be converted into energy, but the reverse is also true. Energy can be converted into matter. In the early Universe (we're talking the very first second!), this is exactly what happened. The radiation was converted into the first  protons  (hydrogen)”.

Here we see that the astronomers of NASA influenced by the invalid relativity believe that during the Big Bang there was only energy which turned into mass. So under the invalid “mass-energy equivalence” they violate the two conservation laws of the well-established natural laws.

 

Moreover under the same strong influence the “Origins: CERN: Ideas: The Big Bang Exploratorium” starts:

“The universe began, scientists believe, with every speck of its energy jammed into a very tiny point. This extremely dense point exploded with unimaginable force, creating matter and propelling it outward to make the billions of galaxies of our vast universe”. 

  

 

IN FACT, OUR UNIVERCE STARTED OFF WITH QUARK TRIADS

 

Einstein in his book “The evolution of physics” (1938) for justifying his explanation of the Brownian motion wrote: “If  we regard  the  whole universe as  a closed system,  we can  proudly announce with the physicists of  the nineteenth century that the energy of the universe is invariant,  that no part of  it can ever be created or destroyed. Our  two concepts of  substance are,  then , matter and energy.  Both obey conservation  laws:  An  isolated system cannot change either  in mass or in total energy.  Matter  has weight but energy is weightless. We have therefore two different concepts and two conservation  laws”.

 

Since we discovered that energy cannot turn into mass  I presented my paper OUR EARLY UNIVERSE  in which I emphasize that our universe started off with the primordial quark triads. Especially during the first 0.1 second they created neutrons, protons, electrons, antineutrinos, positrons, and photons.  This situation is supported also by the recent experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. [See in the " Matter that existed right after Big Bang recreated-The Times of India (21 May, 2013)]: 

“WASHINGTON: Scientists using the Large Hadron Collider for research claim to have recreated the world's tiniest droplets of a primordial state of matter that last existed moments after the Big Bang, some 13.8 billion years ago. Evidence of the minuscule droplets was extracted from the results of colliding protons with lead ions at velocities approaching the speed of light”. 

 

FROM QUARKS TO FREE PARTICLES

The chronology of the universe written in WIKIPEDIA provides a confusing evolution of the early universe, because it is based on the wrong "energy-mass conservation" of the invalid Special Relativity and on the false strong and weak interactions developed by the wrong quantum chromodynamics and the false electroweak theory. (See my WRONG AND CORRECT THEORIES IN PHYSICS   ).

Since the experiments showed that photon-photon interactions and neutrino-neutrino interactions cannot occur in vacuum, we conclude that our universe started off with a long-ranged primordial gravity on the neutral (dud) quark triads which exerted short-ranged electric repulsions. The magnetic force could not play any significant role, because the enormous energy  could not lead to oriented spins. Under this condition in the first chaotic epoch (0 -1/1012 sec)  the quark triads under the non oriented spins could not form neutrons.

Then taking into account the modern accelerator experiments,  which have probed sufficient magnitude to provide experimental insight into the behavior of a quark plasma between 1/1012 and 1/106 seconds after the big bang,  we emphasize that during this second epoch the electric and magnetic attractions under partially oriented spins produced the so-called quark plasma.

Then, follows the third epoch of the creation of short-lived neutrons, protons, antineutrinos, electrons, and positrons which created long-lived photons (1/106 to 0.1 sec).  This epoch begins with an energy of about 103 MeV. At such a temperature the quarks should have acquired oriented spins according to which the very strong magnetic attractions formed the neutron (n). In 2002 using the nuclear experiments of the magnetic moments and the deep inelastic scattering we discovered 9 extra charged quarks in proton (p) and 12 ones in neutron which led to the discovery of 288 quarks in nucleon. In that epoch we see that the 288 quarks in nucleons were able to give off the mass of short-lived neutrons, protons, and antineutrinos ( ν ). They gave off also the masses of short-lived electrons (e) and positrons  ( e+) which were transformed into the masses of long-lived photons ( γ ). That is, it is consistent with the fundamental conservation law of mass, since the decrease of particle masses is due to the creation of photon masses.

In such an epoch the formation of the energetic neutron (n ) is given by

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NCSR DEMOKRITOS (2002)

288 quarks = 96(dud) triads . Thus

96 (dud) = [92(dud) + 4u +8d] = n

( See my NEW STRUCTURE OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS   ).  

As a result free neutrons with 92 (dud) quarks are unstable, because we discovered that d - u = 1.29 MeV. Whereas in the neutron-proton bonds, when the binding energy is greater than 1.29 MeV, the neutrons cannot decay to protons.

So,  free neutrons immediately may decay to the protons (p) with 93(dud) stable quark triads  after the emission of electrons (e) and antineutrinos (ν) according to the reaction 

 n = p + e + ν

 or [92(dud) + 4u +8d] = [93(dud) + 4u + 5d] + e + ν

Also in terms of quarks we write d = u + e + ν

Note that at the same time the reverse reaction gives a positron (e+) when an energetic antineutrino has a mass greater than 1.8 MeV. It can be absorbed by p or u as

ν + p = n + e+     or  ν + u = d + e+

Since u = 2.4 MeV and d = 3.69 MeV  we can write the reaction under the conservation laws of mass or energy in terms of MeV as:

1.8 + 2.4 = 3.69 + 0.51

That is, an energetic antineutrino (ν) of mass or energy greater than 1.8 MeV is always absorbed by a proton to transform it into a neutron and a positron.

Then, in the reaction e + e+ = γ + γ two photons are created each with mass equal to the mass of the electron or positron with mass = 0.911/1030 Kg or 511 KeV.  While the energy of 511 KeV as in the case of the Bohr model is due to the charge – charge interaction. However it is indeed unfortunate that in “Electron - positron annihilation WIKIPEDIA” under the influence of invalid Einstein’s “rest energy” one reads: 

two photons are created, each with energy equal to the rest energy of the electron or positron (511 keV) “.

 CONCLUSIONS

 The mass of our universe is invariant, that no part of it can ever be created or destroyed. It is indeed unfortunate that cosmologists such as  Hawking, Kaku, Krauss, Carrol, Stenger, Guth, Vilenking, Matheus, and Wilczek under the influence of Einstein’s invalid “rest mass energy” believe that matter in very early universe could give an invalid  “rest positive energy” which should be equal to the negative energy of gravity. So they speculated that the universe created out from nothing. On the other hand despite our PHOTON - MATTER TRANSFORMATION    which invalidates Einstein’s “Mass - energy equivalence”,  Higgs speculates that the mass is not conserved but  that his invalid boson is able to give off  mass under the invalid “Energy-mass transformation”. (See my INVALIDITY OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY  ). In fact, according to the conservation law of mass the so-called God particles were the neutral quark triads which gave off their mass to free particles when the universe cooled sufficiently to allow the orientation of spins, which was responsible for the creation of free particles.